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1 Preface... xv PART A FUNDAMENTALS OF STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS Section A1 Elasticity... 3 CHAPTER 1 Basic elasticity Stress Notation for forces and stresses Equations of equilibrium Plane stress Boundary conditions Determination of stresses on inclined planes Principal stresses Mohr s circle of stress Strain Compatibility equations Plane strain Determination of strains on inclined planes Principal strains Mohr s circle of strain Stress strain relationships Experimental measurement of surface strains References Problems CHAPTER 2 Two-dimensional problems in elasticity Two-dimensional problems Stress functions Inverse and semi-inverse methods St. Venant s principle Displacements Bending of an end-loaded cantilever Reference Problems CHAPTER 3 Torsion of solid sections Prandtl stress function solution St. Venant warping function solution vii

2 viii Contents 3.3 The membrane analogy Torsion of a narrow rectangular strip References Problems Section A2 Virtual work, energy, and matrix methods CHAPTER 4 Virtual work and energy methods Work Principle of virtual work Applications of the principle of virtual work Reference Problems CHAPTER 5 Energy methods Strain energy and complementary energy Principle of the stationary value of the total complementary energy Application to deflection problems Application to the solution of statically indeterminate systems Unit load method Flexibility method Total potential energy Principle of the stationary value of the total potential energy Principle of superposition Reciprocal theorem Temperature effects References Problems CHAPTER 6 Matrix methods Notation Stiffness matrix for an elastic spring Stiffness matrix for two elastic springs in line Matrix analysis of pin-jointed frameworks Application to statically indeterminate frameworks Matrix analysis of space frames Stiffness matrix for a uniform beam Finite element method for continuum structures References Further reading Problems

3 ix Section A3 Thin plate theory CHAPTER 7 Bending of thin plates Pure bending of thin plates Plates subjected to bending and twisting Plates subjected to a distributed transverse load Combined bending and in-plane loading of a thin rectangular plate Bending of thin plates having a small initial curvature Energy method for the bending of thin plates Further reading Problems Section A4 Structural instability CHAPTER 8 Columns Euler buckling of columns Inelastic buckling Effect of initial imperfections Stability of beams under transverse and axial loads Energy method for the calculation of buckling loads in columns Flexural torsional buckling of thin-walled columns References Problems CHAPTER 9 Thin plates Buckling of thin plates Inelastic buckling of plates Experimental determination of the critical load for a flat plate Local instability Instability of stiffened panels Failure stress in plates and stiffened panels Tension field beams References Problems Section A5 Vibration of structures CHAPTER 10 Structural vibration Oscillation of mass spring systems Oscillation of beams Approximate methods for determining natural frequencies Problems

4 x Contents PART B ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES Section B1 Principles of stressed skin construction CHAPTER 11 Materials Aluminum alloys Steel Titanium Plastics Glass Composite materials Properties of materials Problems CHAPTER 12 Structural components of aircraft Loads on structural components Function of structural components Fabrication of structural components Connections Reference Problems Section B2 Airworthiness and airframe loads CHAPTER 13 Airworthiness Factors of the safety-flight envelope Load factor determination Reference CHAPTER 14 Airframe loads Aircraft inertia loads Symmetric maneuver loads Normal accelerations associated with various types of maneuver Gust loads References Problems CHAPTER 15 Fatigue Safe life and fail-safe structures Designing against fatigue Fatigue strength of components Prediction of aircraft fatigue life

5 xi 15.5 Crack propagation References Further reading Problems Section B3 Bending, shear and torsion of thin-walled beams CHAPTER 16 Bending of open and closed, thin-walled beams Symmetrical bending Unsymmetrical bending Deflections due to bending Calculation of section properties Applicability of bending theory Temperature effects Reference Problems CHAPTER 17 Shear of beams General stress, strain, and displacement relationships for open and single-cell closed section thin-walled beams Shear of open section beams Shear of closed section beams Reference Problems CHAPTER 18 Torsion of beams Torsion of closed section beams Torsion of open section beams Problems CHAPTER 19 Combined open and closed section beams Bending Shear Torsion Problems CHAPTER 20 Structural idealization Principle Idealization of a panel Effect of idealization on the analysis of open and closed section beams Deflection of open and closed section beams Problems

6 xii Contents Section B4 Stress analysis of aircraft components CHAPTER 21 Wing spars and box beams Tapered wing spar Open and closed section beams Beams having variable stringer areas Problems CHAPTER 22 Fuselages Bending Shear Torsion Cut-outs in fuselages Problems CHAPTER 23 Wings Three-boom shell Bending Torsion Shear Shear center Tapered wings Deflections Cut-outs in wings Problems CHAPTER 24 Fuselage frames and wing ribs Principles of stiffener/web construction Fuselage frames Wing ribs Problems CHAPTER 25 Laminated composite structures Elastic constants of a simple lamina Stress strain relationships for an orthotropic ply (macro approach) Thin-walled composite beams References Problems Section B5 Structural and loading discontinuities CHAPTER 26 Closed section beams General aspects

7 xiii 26.2 Shear stress distribution at a built-in end of a closed section beam Thin-walled rectangular section beam subjected to torsion Shear lag Reference Problems CHAPTER 27 Open section beams I-section beam subjected to torsion Torsion of an arbitrary section beam Distributed torque loading Extension of the theory to allow for general systems of loading Moment couple (bimoment) References Problems Section B6 Introduction to aeroelasticity CHAPTER 28 Wing problems Types of problem Load distribution and divergence Control effectiveness and reversal Introduction to flutter References Problems Appendix: Design of a rear fuselage Index

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