Advanced Studies of the International Building Code. Presented by Steve Thomas, Colorado Code Consulting, LLC

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1 Advanced Studies of the International Building Code Presented by Steve Thomas, Colorado Code Consulting, LLC

2 Advanced Studies of the International Building Code Instructor Steve Thomas, CBO President, Colorado Code Consulting, LLC 30 years experience in code administration ICBO Committees Small Jurisdictions Fire & Life Safety Code Development Means of Egress Review ICC Means of Egress Code Committee Author of Building Code Basics, based on 2009 IBC 2 Class Summary Advanced review of the International Building Code Occupancies, unlimited area buildings, FRR Construction, Fire Suppression, Egress Address unusual projects Effective use of the code OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION CHAPTER 3 3 1

3 Occupancy Classification Structures or portions of structures shall be classified with respect to occupancy in one or more of the groups listed Use and Occupancy Classification The objective of the assignment of use and occupancy classification is to identify the primary uses of buildings and facilities, and portions of buildings and facilities, and to identify risk factors associated with these uses, in order to facilitate design and construction in accordance with other provisions of this code. 5 6 Determination of Use The principal purpose or function of the building or facility The hazard related risk(s) to the users of the building or facility. Nature of the hazard The nature of the hazard, whether it is likely to originate internal or external to the building or facility, and how it may impact the occupants, the building or facility, and the contents

4 Number of occupants The number of persons normally occupying, visiting, employed in or otherwise using the building, facility or portion of the building or facility. Length of occupancy The length of time the building or facility is normally occupied by people Sleeping characteristics Whether people normally sleep in the building Whether the building or facility occupants and other users are expected to be familiar with the building or facility layout and means of egress. Familiarity

5 Vulnerability Whether a significant percentage of the building or facility occupants are, or are expected to be, members of vulnerable population groups such as infants, young children, elderly persons, persons with physical disabilities, persons with mental disabilities, or persons with other conditions or impairments that could affect their ability to make decisions, egress without the physical assistance of others or tolerate adverse conditions. Relationships Whether a significant percentage of building or facility occupants and other users have family or dependent relationships Occupancy Classifications Review Name that Occupancy A B E F H I M R S U Assembly Business Educational Factory/Industrial Hazardous Institutional Mercantile Residential Storage Utility/Misc. Crime Laboratory FedEx Distribution Center Vans park inside building for overnight loading via conveyors Photovoltaic Panel Manufacturer

6 Platform/Podium Buildings A building shall be considered as separate and distinct buildings for the purpose of determining area limitations, continuity of fire walls, limitation of number of stories and type of construction where all of the following following conditions are met: Horizontal Building Separation Allowance The buildings are separated with a horizontal assembly having a minimum 3 hour fire resistance rating. 2. The building below the horizontal assembly is no more than one story above grade plane. 3. The building below the horizontal assembly is of Type IA construction. Horizontal Building Separation Allowance Shaft, stairway, ramp and escalator enclosures through the horizontal assembly shall have not less than a 2 hour fire resistance rating with opening protectives in accordance with Section Exception: Where the enclosure walls below the horizontal assembly have not less than a 3 hour fire resistance rating with opening protectives in accordance with Section 715.4, the enclosure walls extending above the horizontal assembly shall be permitted to have a 1 hour fire resistance rating, provided: 1. The building above the horizontal assembly is not required to be of Type I construction; 2. The enclosure connects less than four stories ; and 3. The enclosure opening protectives above the horizontal assembly have a minimum 1 hour fire protection rating

7 Horizontal Building Separation Allowance Horizontal Building Separation Allowance The building or buildings above the horizontal assembly shall be permitted to have multiple Group A occupancy uses, each with an occupant load of less than 300, or Group B, M, R or S occupancies. R-2 R-2 R-2 A-3 <300, B & M S-2 6. The building below the horizontal assembly shall be protected throughout by an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section , and shall be permitted to be any of the following occupancies: Group S 2 parking garage used for the parking and storage of private motor vehicles; Multiple Group A, each with an occupant load of less than 300; Group B; Group M; Group R; and Uses incidental to the operation of the building (including entry lobbies, mechanical rooms, storage areas and similar uses) Horizontal Building Separation Allowance The maximum building height in feet shall not exceed the limits set forth in Section 503 for the building having the smaller allowable height as measured from the grade plane. R-2 R-2 R-2 A-3 <300, B & M S-2 Unlimited Area Buildings Sprinklered, one story The area of a Group B, F, M or S building no more than one story above grade plane, or a Group A 4 building no more than one story above grade plane of other than Type V construction, shall not be limited when the building is provided with an automatic sprinkler system throughout in accordance with Section and is surrounded and adjoined by public ways or yards not less than 60 feet in width. Exceptions: Type I & II construction w/rack storage not limited in height, with no public access and must conform to 507.3, & Chapter 23 of IFC Sprinklers not required in indoor participant sports w/exit doors directly to outside and fire alarm system

8 Unlimited Area Buildings Unlimited Area Buildings Group A 1 and A 2 Occupancies of other than Type V Construction Assembly occupancies separated from other spaces as required in without sprinkler reduction Assembly area cannot exceed allowable area All exit doors shall discharge directly to the exterior Sprinklered, two story The area of a Group B, F, M or S building no more than two stories above grade plane shall not be limited when the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section , and is surrounded and adjoined by public ways or yards not less than 60 feet in width Group E buildings The area of a Group E building no more than one story above grade plane, of Type II, IIIA or IV construction, shall not be limited when all of the following criteria are met: 1. Each classroom shall have not less than two means of egress, with one of the means of egress being a direct exit to the outside of the building complying with Section The building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section The building is surrounded and adjoined by public ways or yards not less than 60 feet in width. Unlimited Area Buildings Challenges Super Large Buildings Exit Access Travel Distance Fire Department Access Standpipe locations 60 Yards 1,000,000 sq. ft. Distribution Center Fully Sprinklered

9 Unlimited Area Buildings Challenges Shopping Centers Multiple Properties 60 Streets on all sides All buildings Sprinklered Unlimited Area Buildings Challenges Mixed Unlimited Area Buildings? Charter School A 2 Wal Mart Shopping Moving And Storage Company Fully Sprinklered 60 Yards on all sides Shopping Bank Fire Walls 706 Structural Stability Each portion of a building separated by one or more fire walls that comply with the provisions of this section shall be considered a separate building Fire Wall Bldg 1 Bldg 2 Fire walls shall have sufficient structural stability under fire conditions to allow collapse of construction on either side without collapse of the wall for the duration of time indicated by the required fire-resistance rating

10 Materials Fire Resistance Rating Table Noncombustible materials except Type V Horizontal Continuity Horizontal Continuity 706.5, Exception 1 18 inches Fire walls shall be continuous from exterior wall to exterior wall and shall extend at least 18 inches beyond the exterior surface of exterior walls. Shall be permitted to terminate at the interior surface of combustible exterior sheathing or siding provided the exterior wall has a fireresistance rating of at least 1 hour for a horizontal distance of at least 4 feet on both sides of the fire wall. Openings within such exterior walls shall be protected by fire assemblies having a fire protection rating of not less than 3/4 hour. Min. 4 Ft. Min. 4 Ft

11 Horizontal Continuity 706.5, Exception 2 Horizontal Continuity 706.5, Exception 3 Min. 4 Ft. Min. 4 Ft. Shall be permitted to terminate at the interior surface of noncombustible exterior sheathing, exterior siding or other noncombustible exterior finishes provided the sheathing, siding, or other exterior noncombustible finish extends a horizontal distance of at least 4 feet on both sides of the fire wall. Fire walls shall be permitted to terminate at the interior surface of noncombustible exterior sheathing where the building on each side of the fire wall is protected by an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section or Exterior Walls Horizontal Continuity Where the fire wall intersects exterior walls, the fire resistance rating and opening protection of the exterior walls shall comply with one of the following: Fire Wall 1 hr. wall ¾ hr. openings 4 ft. each way No Protection 1. The exterior walls on both sides of the fire wall shall have a 1 hour fire resistance rating with 3/4 hour protection where opening protection is required by Section The fireresistance rating of the exterior wall shall extend a minimum of 4 feet on each side of the intersection of the fire wall to exterior wall. Exterior wall intersections at fire walls that form an angle equal to or greater than 180 degrees do not need exterior wall protection

12 Horizontal Continuity Buildings or spaces on both sides of the intersecting fire wall shall assume to have an imaginary lot line at the fire wall and extending beyond the exterior of the fire wall. The location of the assumed line in relation to the exterior walls and the fire wall shall be such that the exterior wall and opening protection meet the requirements set forth in Sections and Such protection is not required for exterior walls terminating at fire walls that form an angle equal to or greater than 180 degrees Horizontal Projecting Elements Fire walls shall extend to the outer edge of horizontal projecting elements such as balconies, roof overhangs, canopies, marquees and similar projections that are within 4 feet of the fire wall Horizontal Projecting Elements Exceptions 1. Horizontal projecting elements without concealed spaces provided the exterior wall behind and below the projecting element has not less than 1 hour fire resistance rated construction for a distance not less than the depth of the projecting element on both sides of the fire wall. Openings within such exterior walls shall be protected by fire assemblies having a fire protection rating of not less than ¾ hour. X X X 1 Hr. Wall Horizontal Projecting Elements Exceptions Fire Wall 2. Noncombustible horizontal projecting elements with concealed spaces, provided a minimum 1 hour fire resistance rated wall extends through the concealed space. The projecting element shall be separated from the building by a minimum of 1 hour fire resistance rated construction for a distance on each side of the firewall equal to the depth of the projecting element. The wall is not required to extend under the projecting element where the building exterior wall is not less than 1 hour fire resistance rated for a distance on each side of the firewall equal to the depth of the projecting element. Openings within such exterior walls shall be protected by fire assemblies having a fire protection rating of not less than 3/4 hour. 1 Hr. Wall ¾ Hr. Door

13 Horizontal Projecting Elements Exceptions Vertical continuity Fire Wall 1 Hr. Wall ¾ Hr. Openings Fire Wall 3. For combustible horizontal projecting elements with concealed spaces, the fire wall need only extend through the concealed space to the outer edges of the projecting elements. The exterior wall behind and below the projecting element shall be of not less than 1 hour fire resistance rated construction for a distance not less than the depth of the projecting elements on both sides of the fire wall. Openings within such exterior walls shall be protected by fire assemblies having a fireprotection rating of not less than 3/4 hour. Fire walls shall extend from the foundation to a termination point at least 30 inches above both adjacent roofs Vertically Continuity 706.6, Exception 2 Vertically Continuity 706.6, Exception 3 10 (4) feet 1hr. Const. 10 (4) feet no openings No openings Class B Roofing 1 hr. construction Framing supported by one hour construction 2 hr. fire wall only Noncombustible Roof Construction No openings within 4 feet of fire wall Class B Roofing on entire roof

14 Vertically Continuity 706.6, Exception 4 Type III, IV and V Construction No openings within 4 feet of fire wall Roof is covered with a minimum class B roof covering Roof sheathing or deck is constructed of fire-retardant-treated wood for a distance of 4 feet on each side of the wall or walls, or 5 /8 -inch Type X gypsum board is installed directly beneath the roof sheathing supported by 2 ledgers attached to sides of framing members for a distance of 4 feet on each side of the fire walls. Vertically Continuity 706.6, Exception 5 In buildings designed in accordance with Section 509.2, fire walls located above the 3 hour horizontal assembly required by Section 509.2, Item 1 shall be permitted to extend from the top of this horizontal assembly hr. const. ¾ Hr. Openings Fire Wall 30 Stepped Buildings Where a fire wall serves as an exterior wall for a building and separates buildings having different roof levels, such wall shall terminate at a point not less than 30 inches above the lower roof level, provided the exterior wall for a height of 15 feet above the lower roof is not less than 1 hour fire resistancerated construction from both sides with openings protected by assemblies having a 3/4 hour fire protection rating. Stepped Buildings , Exceptions

15 Fire Wall Openings Ducts and Air Transfer Openings Section Each opening limited to 156 square feet Aggregate width at any floor limited to 25 % of length of wall Ducts and air transfer openings shall not penetrate fire walls. Exception: walls not located on a lot line complying with 716 Limited 25% of length of wall Case Study Fire Barriers Story R 2 Condominium Shaft Enclosures Exit enclosures Exit passageways Horizontal exits Atrium Separations Incidental use areas Control Areas Separation of mixed occupancies Single occupancy fire areas Retail Center, A 1,A 2, A 3, B, M, S

16 Single Occupancy Fire Areas The fire barrier separating a single occupancy into different fire areas shall have a fire resistance rating of not less than that indicated in Table Where exterior walls serve as a part of a required fire resistancerated enclosure, such walls shall comply with the requirements of Section 705 for exterior walls and the fireresistance rated enclosure requirements shall not apply. Exceptions Egress components Exterior Walls FSD Fire Barrier Continuity Fire barriers shall extend from the top of the floor/ceiling assembly below to the underside of the floor sheathing, slab or deck above Continuous through concealed spaces such as suspended ceilings Same rating as fire barrier Supporting construction The supporting construction for a fire barrier shall be protected to afford the required fire resistance rating of the fire barrier supported. Hollow vertical spaces within a fire barrier shall be fireblocked in accordance with Section at every floor level. Exceptions: 1. Fire barriers separating tank storage as provided for in Section shall be a maximum of 2 hours, but not less than required by Table Shaft enclosures permitted to terminate at a top enclosure per Section Supporting construction for 1 hour fire barriers required by Table in buildings of Type IIB, IIIB and VB construction are not required to be fireresistance rated unless required by other sections of this code

17 Shaft enclosure required Openings through a floor/ceiling assembly shall be protected by a shaft enclosure complying with this section. Fire Resistance Rating Four stories or more two hour Less than four stories one hour Includes basements, but not mezzanines Not less than the floor assembly penetrated, but need not exceed 2 hours Elevator/Stair Openings 708.2, Exception 2 2. A shaft enclosure is not required in a building equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section for an escalator opening or stairway which is not a portion of the means of egress protected according to Item 2.1 or 2.2: Elevator/Stair Openings 708.2, Exception Where the area of the floor opening between stories does not exceed twice the horizontal projected area of the escalator or stairway and the opening is protected by a draft curtain and closely spaced sprinklers in accordance with NFPA 13. In other than Groups B and M, this application is limited to openings that do not connect more than four stories

18 Elevator/Stair Openings 708.2, Exception Where the opening is protected by approved power operated automatic shutters at every floor penetrated. The shutters shall be of noncombustible construction and not less than 1 ½ hours rated. Must close immediately upon the actuation of a smoke detector installed in accordance with Section and shall completely shut off the well opening. Escalators shall cease operation when the shutter begins to close. The shutter shall operate at a speed of not more than 30 feet per minute and shall be equipped with a sensitive leading edge to arrest its progress. Shaft Enclosure Exceptions In other than Groups I 2 and I 3, a shaft enclosure is not required for a floor opening or an air transfer opening that complies with the following: 7.1. Does not connect more than two stories Is not part of the required means of egress system Is not concealed within the construction of a wall or a floor/ceiling assembly Is not open to a corridor in Group I and R 7.5. Is not open to a corridor on nonsprinklered floors in any occupancy Is separated from floor openings and air transfer openings serving other floors by construction conforming to required shaft enclosures Is limited to the same smoke compartment Shaft Enclosure Exceptions Atriums In other than Group H occupancies, a shaft enclosure is not required for floor openings complying with the provisions for atriums in Section 404. In other than Group H occupancies, and where permitted by Exception 5 in Section 708.2, the provisions of this section shall apply to buildings or structures containing vertical openings defined herein as Atriums

19 Atriums 404 An opening connecting two or more stories other than enclosed stairways, elevators, hoistways, escalators, plumbing, electrical, airconditioning or other equipment, which is closed at the top and not defined as a mall. Stories, as used in this definition, do not include balconies within assembly groups or mezzanines that comply with Section 505. Use The floor of the atrium shall not be used for other than low fire hazard uses and only approved materials and decorations in accordance with the IFC shall be used in the atrium space. Unless sprinklered Automatic Sprinklers Fire alarm system Sprinklers required throughout building except: Area adjacent to or above the atrium, provided area is separated from the atrium by a 2 hour fire barrier wall or horizontal assembly or both. Sprinklers not required in atrium if ceiling of the atrium is more than 55 feet above the floor A fire alarm system shall be provided in accordance with Section

20 Smoke Control Enclosure of Atriums Smoke Control System Required except atriums that connect only two stories Atrium spaces shall be separated from adjacent spaces by a 1 hour fire barrier wall except: A glass smoke partition Sprinklers spaced 6 feet or less along both sides of the separation wall, or on the room side only if there is not a walkway on the atrium side Sprinklers 4 12 away from the glass Wet the entire glass Glass installed in a gasketed frame ¾ hour glass block wall assembly The adjacent spaces of any three floors of the atrium shall not be required to be separated from the atrium where such spaces are accounted for in the design of the smoke control system Standby Power Interior Finish Equipment required to provide smoke control shall be connected to a standby power system in accordance with Section The interior finish of walls and ceilings of the atrium shall not be less than Class B with no reduction in class for sprinkler protection

21 Travel Distance Which exception can be used? In other than the lowest level of the atrium, where the required means of egress is through the atrium space, the portion of exit access travel distance within the atrium space shall not exceed 200 feet. EL Lobby B Occupancy 2 Story Lobby Non Sprinklered Building Is this an atrium? Section through building

22 Smoke Barriers 710 Materials permitted by the building type of construction. 1 hour fire resistance rating required. Smoke Barrier Continuity Must form an effective membrane continuous from outside wall to outside wall and from the top of the foundation or floor/ceiling assembly below to the underside of the floor or roof sheathing, deck or slab above, including continuity through concealed spaces, such as those found above suspended ceilings, and interstitial structural and mechanical spaces Smoke Barrier Continuity The supporting construction shall be protected to afford the required fire resistance rating of the wall or floor supported in buildings of other than Type IIB, IIIB or VB construction. Openings in a smoke barrier shall be protected in accordance with Section /3 hour doors Openings

23 1. Where doors are installed across corridors, a pair of opposite swinging doors without a center mullion shall be installed having vision panels with fireprotection rated glazing materials in fire protectionrated frames, the area of which shall not exceed that tested. 2. The doors shall be close fitting within operational tolerances, and shall not have undercuts in excess of 3/4 inch, louvers or grilles. Openings Exceptions The doors shall have head and jamb stops, astragals or rabbets at meeting edges and shall be automatic closing by smoke detection in accordance with Section Where permitted by the door manufacturer's listing, positive latching devices are not required. 2. In Group I 2, horizontal sliding doors installed in accordance with Section and protected in accordance with Section 715. Openings Exceptions In accordance with Section 713 Through penetration firestop systems Penetrations in smoke barriers shall be tested in accordance with the requirements of UL 1479 for air leakage. Penetrations The air leakage rate of the penetration assemblies measured at 0.30 inch of water in both the ambient temperature and elevated temperature tests, shall not exceed: cfm per square foot of penetration opening for each through penetration firestop system ; or 2. A total cumulative leakage of 50 cfm for any 100 square feet of wall area, or floor area Fire resistant joint systems in smoke barriers Fire resistant joint systems in smoke barriers, and joints at the intersection of a horizontal smoke barrier and an exterior curtain wall, shall be tested in accordance with the requirements of UL 2079 for air leakage. The air leakage rate of the joint shall not exceed 5 cfm per lineal foot of joint at 0.30 inch of water for both the ambient temperature and elevated temperature tests. Joints

24 Ducts and Air Transfer Openings Smoke barriers. A listed smoke damper designed to resist the passage of smoke shall be provided at each point a duct or air transfer opening penetrates a smoke barrier. Smoke dampers and smoke damper actuation methods shall comply with Section Exception: Smoke dampers are not required where the openings in ducts are limited to a single smoke compartment and the ducts are constructed of steel. 89 SECTION 903 AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEMS Automatic sprinkler systems shall comply with this section. [F] Alternative protection. Alternative automatic fireextinguishing systems complying with Section 904 shall be permitted in lieu of automatic sprinkler protection where recognized by the applicable standard and approved by the fire code official Where required Approved automatic sprinkler systems in new buildings and structures shall be provided in the locations described in Sections through The aggregate floor area enclosed and bounded by fire walls, fire barriers, exterior walls or horizontal assemblies of a building. Areas of the building not provided with surrounding walls shall be included in the fire area if such areas are included within the horizontal projection of the roof or floor next above. FIRE AREA 902 Fire Area A Fire Barrier Fire Area A Fire Area C Fire Area B Fire Wall

25 Group A Group B Ambulatory Health Care Facilities One of the following Fire area exceeds 5,000 sq. ft. Fire area with occupant load 100 or more Fire area on floor other than exit discharge An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout all fire areas containing a Group B ambulatory health care facility occupancy when either of the following conditions exists at any time: 1. Four or more care recipients are incapable of self preservation. 2. One or more care recipients who are incapable of self preservation are located at other than the level of exit discharge serving such an occupancy Group E Sprinkler Automatic Sprinklers Required: 1. Throughout all Group E fire areas greater than 12,000 square feet in area. 2. Throughout every portion of educational buildings below the lowest level of exit discharge serving that portion of the building. Exception: An automatic sprinkler system is not required in any area below the lowest level of exit discharge serving that area where every classroom throughout the building has at least one exterior exit door at ground level. Group M Furniture An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings containing a Group M occupancy where one of the following conditions exists: 4.Used for the display and sale of upholstered furniture

26 Group R All buildings containing a Group R fire area. SECTION 905 STANDPIPE SYSTEMS Standpipe systems shall be provided in new buildings and structures in accordance with this section. Fire hose threads used in connection with standpipe systems shall be approved and shall be compatible with fire department hose threads. The location of fire department hose connections shall be approved Height Class III standpipe systems shall be installed throughout buildings where the floor level of the highest story is located more than 30 feet (9144 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access, or where the floor level of the lowest story is located more than 30 feet (9144 mm) below the highest level of fire department vehicle access Where required new buildings and structures An approved fire alarm system installed in accordance with the provisions of this code and NFPA 72 shall be provided in new buildings and structures in accordance with Sections through and provide occupant notification in accordance with Section 907.5, unless other requirements are provided by another section of this code

27 Group B A manual fire alarm system shall be installed in Group B occupancies where one of the following conditions exists: 1. The combined Group B occupant load of all floors is 500 or more. 2. The Group B occupant load is more than 100 persons above or below the lowest level of exit discharge. 3. The Group B fire area contains a Group B ambulatory health care facility. Exception: Sprinkler Flow Ambulatory Health Care Manual Fire Alarm required when Group B fire area contains ambulatory health care facility. Electronically supervised automatic smoke detection system in Fire areas containing Group B ambulatory health care facilities installed within the ambulatory health care facility and in public use areas outside of tenant spaces, including public corridors and elevator lobbies. Both Manual Fire Alarm and Smoke Detection EXCEPTED with sprinkler flow alarm activation. 102 Means of Egress Chapter 10 Means of Egress Philosophy A safe means to allow the occupant of a building to egress the building in a safe, timely and orderly manner

28 Means of Egress Philosophy Give the occupants alternative paths of travel to a place of safety to avoid fire Shelter occupants from fire and smoke Accommodate all occupants of the structure Provide a clear, unobstructed, well marked and illuminated path under the control of the user without special tools, effort, knowledge or keys A Quick Review Means of Egress Definition From any occupied portion of building to the public way Three Parts of the Means of Egress Exit Access From any occupied point to the exit Exit Protected portion of Means of Egress Exit Discharge From the exit to the public way Means of Egress Design Means of Egress Design Determine Occupant Load Floor Area/Occupant Load Factor (Table ) Determine number of exit access doorways or exits Occupant load Common path of egress exceeds 75 feet

29 Means of Egress Design Determine Egress Widths Occupant Load/Egress Width Factor Access Controlled Egress Doors The entrance doors in a means of egress in buildings with an occupancy in Group A, B, E, I 2, M, R 1 or R 2 and entrance doors to tenant spaces in occupancies in Groups A, B, E, I 2, M, R 1 and R 2 are permitted to be equipped with an approved entrance and egress access control system which shall be installed in accordance with all of the following criteria: Access Controlled Egress Doors A sensor shall be provided on the egress side arranged to detect an occupant approaching the doors. The doors shall be arranged to unlock by a signal from or loss of power to the sensor. 2. Loss of power to that part of the access control system which locks the doors shall automatically unlock the doors. Access Controlled Egress Doors The doors shall be arranged to unlock from a manual unlocking device located 40 inches to 48 inches vertically above the floor and within 5 feet of the secured doors. Ready access shall be provided to the manual unlocking device and the device shall be clearly identified by a sign that reads "PUSH TO EXIT." When operated, the manual unlocking device shall result in direct interruption of power to the lock independent of the access control system electronics and the doors shall remain unlocked for a minimum of 30 seconds

30 Access Controlled Egress Doors Access Controlled Egress Doors Activation of the building fire alarm system, if provided, shall automatically unlock the doors, and the doors shall remain unlocked until the fire alarm system has been reset. 5. Activation of the building automatic sprinkler or fire detection system, if provided, shall automatically unlock the doors. The doors shall remain unlocked until the fire alarm system has been reset. 4. Entrance doors in buildings with an occupancy in Group A, B, E or M shall not be secured from the egress side during periods that the building is open to the general public Exit Components Exit Passageways Exterior Exit Doors Exit Enclosures Exit Passageways Horizontal Exits Exterior Exit Stair/Ramps An exit component that is separated from all other interior spaces of a building or structure by fireresistance rated construction and opening protectives, and provides for a protected path of egress travel in a horizontal direction to the exit discharge or the public way

31 Exit Passageway > 250 < 250 The width of exit passageways shall be determined as specified in Section but such width shall not be less than 44 inches, except that exit passageways serving an occupant load of less than 50 shall not be less than 36 inches in width. The required width of exit passageways shall be unobstructed. Width Group M Occupancy 117 Exception: Doors complying with Construction Exit passageway enclosures shall have walls, floors and ceilings of not less than 1 hour fire resistance rating, and not less than that required for any connecting exit enclosure. Exit passageways shall be constructed as fire barriers or horizontal assemblies, or both. US Gypsum Co. Exit passageways shall terminate at an exit discharge or a public way. Termination

32 Openings And Penetrations Exit passageway opening protectives shall be in accordance with the requirements of Section 715. Except as permitted in Section , openings in exit passageways other than unexposed exterior openings shall be limited to those necessary for exit access to the exit passageway from normally occupied spaces and for egress from the exit passageway. Openings And Penetrations Where an exit enclosure is extended to an exit discharge or a public way by an exit passageway, the exit passageway shall also comply with Section Elevators shall not open into an exit passageway Exit Enclosure Extension The exit enclosure shall be separated from the exit passageway by a fire barrier or a horizontal assembly, or both. The fire resistance rating shall be at least equal to that required for the exit enclosure. A fire door assembly complying with Section shall be installed in the fire barrier to provide a means of egress from the exit enclosure to the exit passageway. Openings in the fire barrier other than the fire door assembly are prohibited. Penetrations of the fire barrier are prohibited. Exception: Penetrations of the fire barrier in accordance with Section shall be permitted. 123 Penetrations Penetrations into and openings through an exit passageway are prohibited except for required exit doors, equipment and ductwork necessary for independent pressurization, sprinkler piping, standpipes, electrical raceway for fire department communication and electrical raceway serving the exit passageway and terminating at a steel box not exceeding 16 square inches. Such penetrations shall be protected in accordance with Section 712. There shall be no penetrations or communicating openings, whether protected or not, between adjacent exit passageways

33 Horizontal Exits 1025 Horizontal exits serving as an exit in a means of egress system shall comply with the requirements of this section. A horizontal exit shall not serve as the only exit from a portion of a building, and where two or more exits are required, not more than one half of the total number of exits or total exit width shall be horizontal exits. Horizontal Exits (Exceptions) Horizontal exits are permitted to comprise two thirds of the required exits from any building or floor area for occupancies in Group I Horizontal exits are permitted to comprise 100 percent of the exits required for occupancies in Group I 3. At least 6 square feet of accessible space per occupant shall be provided on each side of the horizontal exit for the total number of people in adjoining compartments Occ. 600 Occ. 600 Occ. 300 Occ. 300 Occ. 2 hr. fire barrier & horizontal assembly Separation The separation between buildings or areas of refuge connected by a horizontal exit shall be provided by a fire wall or a fire barrier having a fireresistance rating of not less than 2 hours. Opening protectives in horizontal exit walls shall also comply with Section 715. Duct and air transfer openings in a fire wall or fire barrier that serves as a horizontal exit shall also comply with Section 716. The horizontal exit separation shall extend vertically through all levels of the building unless floor assemblies have a fire resistence rating of not less than 2 hours with no unprotected openings. 127 Opening Protectives Fire doors in horizontal exits shall be self closing or automatic closing when activated by a smoke detector installed in accordance with Section Opening protectives in horizontal exits shall be consistent with the fire resistance rating of the wall. Such doors where located in a crosscorridor condition shall be automatic closing by activation of a smoke detector installed in accordance with Section

34 Capacity Of Refuge Area The refuge area of a horizontal exit shall be a space occupied by the same tenant or a public area and each such area of refuge shall be adequate to house the original occupant load of the refuge space plus the occupant load anticipated from the adjoining compartment. The anticipated occupant load from the adjoining compartment shall be based on the capacity of the horizontal exit doors entering the area of refuge. 450 Occ. 450 Occ. Capacity Of Refuge Area The capacity of the refuge area shall be computed based on a net floor area allowance of 3 square feet for each occupant to be accommodated therein. 450 Occ. 1, ,025 s.f. 450 Occ Capacity Of Refuge Area Exception: The net floor area allowable per occupant shall be as follows for the indicated occupancies: 1. Six square feet per occupant for occupancies in Group I Fifteen square feet per occupant for ambulatory occupancies in Group I Thirty square feet per occupant for nonambulatory occupancies in Group I 2. Capacity of Refuge Area The refuge area into which a horizontal exit leads shall be provided with exits adequate to meet the occupant requirements of this chapter, but not including the added occupant load imposed by persons entering it through horizontal exits from other areas. At least one refuge area exit shall lead directly to the exterior or to an exit enclosure

35 Capacity of Refuge Area Exception Exception: The adjoining compartment shall not be required to have a stairway or door leading directly outside, provided the refuge area into which a horizontal exit leads has stairways or doors leading directly outside and are so arranged that egress shall not require the occupants to return through the compartment from which egress originates Steve Thomas Tom Meyers Colorado Code Consulting, LLC 4610 S Ulster, Suite 150 Denver, CO Ph Fax