AGROFORESTRY. Editors P.S. Pathak Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute, Jhansi. Ram Newaj National Research Centre for Agroforestry, Jhansi

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2 AGROFORESTRY: POTENTIALS AND OPPORTUNITIES Editors P.S. Pathak Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute, Jhansi Ram Newaj, Jhansi INDIAN SOCIETY OF AGROFORESTRY Agrobios (India)

3 Published by: AGROBIOS (INDIA) Behind Nasrani Cinema Chopasani Road, Jodhpur Phone: , Fax: E. Mail: Agrobios (India) & Indian Society of First Published, 2003, 2010 Reprinted: 2012 All rights reserved. No part of the book or part thereof, including the title of the book, be reprinted in any form or language without the written permission of the author and the publishers. The copyists shall be prosecuted ISBN (10): ISBN (13): Price Rs / US$ Published by: Dr Updesh Purohit for Agrobios (India) Lasertypeset at: Yashee Computers, Jodhpur Cover Design by: Shyam Printed at: Krishna Offset, Jodhpur.

4 LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS 1. AJIT Gwalior Road, Jhansi (U.P.) 2. ARUNACHALAM, A. Deaprtment of Forestry North Eastern Regional Institute of Science and Technology Nirjuli (Arunachal Pradesh) 3. BHATT, R.K. Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute Jhansi (U.P.) 4. CHANDRA, J.P 306, Avas Vikas Rudrapur (Uttaranchal) 5. CHATURVEDI, O.P. 6. CHITWADGI, S.S. (IFS) Retd. 156/A/ Indrapuri, Bhopal ( Madhya Pradesh) 7. DADHWAL, K.S. Central Soil and Water Conservation Research and Training Institute Dehradun (Uttaranchal) 8. DAGAR, J.C. Central Soil Salinity Research Institute Karnal (Haryana) 9. DHYANI, S.K. Central Soil and Water Conservation Research and Training Institute Dehradun (Uttaranchal) 10. GUPTA, V.K. 11. HAQUE, M.S. National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) Bandra-Kurla Complex, Bandra (East), Mumbai (Maharasthra) 12. HARSH, L.N. Central Arid Zone Research Institute Jodhpur (Rajasthan) 13. HEGDE, N.G. BAIF Development Research Foundation Pune (Mharashtra) 14. JOSHI, N.K. The West Coast Paper Mills Ltd. Dandali (Karnataka) 15. KERKHAFF, E.E. International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development GPO Box 3226, Kathmandu, Nepal. 16. KHAN, M.L. Department of Forestry North Eastern Regional Institute of Science and Technology Nirjuli (Arunachal Pradesh) 17. KHAN, T.A. PAR Division, Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute 18. KORIKANTHIMATH, V.S. ICAR Research Complex for Goa ELA, Old Goa, Goa KUMAR, R.V.

5 20. MISHRA, A.K. Central Research Institute for Dryland Agrilculture, Santoshnagar Hyderabad (Andhra Pradesh) 21. MOHAN KUMAR, B. College of Forestry, Kerala Agricultural University KAU, PO Thrissur OSMAN, M. Central Research Institute for Dryland Agril., Santoshnagar, Hyderabad (Andhra Pradesh) 23. PANDEY, C.B. Central Agricultural Research Institute Port Blair , Andman and Nicobar, Island 24. PATHAK, P.S. Director Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute Jhansi (U.P.) 25. RAI, P. 26. RAM NEWAJ 27. SHARDA, V.N. Central Soil and Water Conservation Research and Training Institute Dehradun (Uttaranchal) 28. SHARMA, A.R. Central Soil and Water Conservation Research and Training Institute Dehradun (Uttaranchal) 29. SINGH, R.P. 61 Sardar Club Scheme Jodhpur (Rajasthan) 30. SOLANKI, K.R. Indian Council of Agril. Research Krishi Bhavan, New Delhi 31. SREEMANNARAYANA B. AICRP on, ANGR Agricultural University Rajendra Nagar, Hyderabad (Andhra Pradesh) 32. SURESH, G. Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute Jhansi (U.P.) 33. SWARUP, ANAND Central Soil Salinity Research Institute Karnal (Haryana) 34. TEWARI, J.C. Central Arid Zone Research Institute Jodhpur , Rajasthan

6 CONTENTS Foreword Preface 1. for Conservation of Water Resources... 1 R. P. Singh 2. for Water Resources Conservation: Issues, Challenges and Strategies...9 S. K. Dhyani, V. N. Sharda and A. R. Sharma 3. Interventions for Soil and Water Conservation in Himalayan Region K. S. Dadhwal 4. Potential of Afforestation and in Carbon Sequestration for Mitigating Climate Changes...43 J. C. Dagar and Anand Swarup 5. Role of in Soil Fertility...65 B. Sreemannarayana 6. Potential of in India...79 K. R. Solanki 7. Traditional as a Viable Choice to Conserve Agro-Biodiversity in the Northeast India...95 M. L. Khan and A. Arunachalam 8. in the Middle and Upper Himalayas E. E. Kerkhoff 9. Homegardens as a Livelihood Security System in the Humid Tropics With Special Reference to Kerala B. Mohan Kumar 10. Homegardens of Tropics: A Diversified Sustainable Cropping System C. B. Pandey and O. P. Chaturvedi

7 11. Systems in Hot Arid Regions with Special Reference to Value Addition L. N. Harsh and J. C. Tewari 12. Alternate Land Use Systems for Sustainable Production in Rainfed Areas Mohammed Osman 13. Based Coffee and Spices Cropping Systems V. S. Korikanthimath 14. Breeding Species in India: Status and Strategy V. K. Gupta, K.R. Solanki and R. V. Kumar 15. Techniques and Methodologies of Tree Growth Modelling for Systems T. A. Khan, Ajit and P. S. Pathak 16. Complementary and Competitive Effect of Trees in Ram Newaj 17. Biophysical Aspects of Tree-Crop Interactions in Silvipastoral System R. K. Bhatt, G. Suresh and Ram Newaj 18. Forage Based Systems for Conservation of Land Resources M. M. Roy 19. Systems for Sustainable Livestock Production in India P. Rai and A. K. Misra 20. Role of Forest Based Industries/Plantation Companies in Development of J. P. Chandra 21. Emergence of Subabul (Leucaena leucocephala) as an Industrial Tree M. S. Haque

8 22. Agri-Horti-Forestry for Rehabilitation of Tribals and Small Farmers: BAIF s Approach N. G. Hegde 23. Lokavaniki for Bhoomi-Swami, Revenue/Gram Panchayat, Municipal Degraded Lands and such other Lands Lying Outside Government Forests S. S. Chitwadgi (IFS) Retd. 24. Socio-Economic Considerations and Issues of N. K. Joshi Subject Index...333

9 FOREWORD has been a way of life in India ever since the evolution of human beings through the forests. Uses of trees for different purposes for their daily living including wood, shelter and medicine have been the common feature. It is only with the evolution and emphasis of modern agriculture that the trees started getting low priority to emphasize upon food production. The fatigue of green revolution and resource degradation leading to non-sustainable production systems has demanded our attention for sustainable practices to assure the continued production. In order to achieve this, scientific systems of agroforestry were advocated and emphasized during 70s and an initiative was made by Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) in 1979 to sensitize the planners and scientists to these aspects of tree based farming systems. During the past 25 years there have been continuous attempts to inventorize, experiment and synthesize scientific information on agroforestry as evidenced by publications and seminars being organized This book entitled : Potentials and Opportunities is an attempt to bring these issues to the forefront and identify opportunities that it has to offer to the Society. I find that Dr. P.S. Pathak and Dr. Ram Newaj have invited papers from variety of agroforestry workers in different agroclimatic regions of the country, addressing not only the problems of resources and their management but also issues related to wood based industries and environment. I am sure, this attempt will encourage further research and emphasis in these areas of agroforestry. MANGALA RAI Secretary to Govt. of India & Director General, ICAR Department of Agricultural Research & Education. Govt. of India, Krishi Bhawan, New Delhi

10 PREFACE Dr. M.S. Swaminathan an eminent agricultural scientist while addressing the first agroforestry seminar organized by ICAR at Imphal during May 16-18, 1979 stated that in agroforestry lies the key to the solution of some of the problems of forestry also considering agroforestry as a new area he remarked that what is now important is to give a Scientific context and better planning like a good architect who can plan the use of space more effectively. It was stated considering the agroforestry in a three dimensional production system. In his keynote address to the same symposium Dr King, Director General of ICRAF made two final points with respect to the application of the basic principles of plant science to agroforestry. First, much of the time now spent on agroforestry research could be effectively reduced if we were to adopt existing predictive models of potential dry matter production to the new agroforestry systems, which we are testing. Secondly, and this is perhaps extension of the first point, in order to optimize the management, environmental resources and plant responses in agroforestry it should be necessary to adopt a system and approach to agroforestry. It seems to me that this is essential if we are to begin to encompass and appreciate all the variables which exist in a system which attempts to combine the concurrent production of annuals and perennials, of herbaceous and woody plants; a system in which the problems of utilizing space effectively are compounded by the problems of changes in size, shape and responses over time. In the earliest definitions of agroforestry by Bene et al. (1977) and King and Chandler (1978), it was considered a sustainable management system which increases the yields of land, combines the production of crops (including tree crops) and forest plants and / or animals simultaneously or sequentially, on the same unit of land, and applies management practices that are compatible with the cultural practices of the local population. Ever since then, many modifications of the definition have been proposed but the fact remains that sustainability and diversity are the key issues for management. During these years agroforestry research in India has precisely grown to its youth and has established itself in many institutes and universities of the country. We wish to remind the pioneer work on arid zone agroforestry using shelterbelts and Khejri based agrisilviculture system, coastal homegardens, Taungya cultivation of northern plains, and Jhum cultivation of northeastern region and silvipastoral system on the semi-arid dry land. These studies received fresh impetus after the establishment of AICRP on and NRC for during 1983 and 1988, respectively. In order to disseminate the information/research results two Journals were also born, viz., Range Management and (1990) and Indian Journal of (1998). The results of the D &D exercise carried out in the country have also been compiled as a book System in India: A Diagnosis and Design Approach. The agroforestry technologies have also been reviewed Transferable Technologies and Technologies for Different Agro-climatic Regions of India. In order to assess the potentials and opportunities leading to sustainable production, a National Symposium was planned and in order to review the situation, book chapters were invited from leading agroforesters from the country.

11 : Potentials and Opportunities Publisher : Agrobios Publishers ISBN : Author : P S Pathak And R Niwaj Type the URL : Get this ebook