1 J. Adv. Zool. 2017: 38(2): ISSN THE USE OF A BIRD SPECIES AS A BIOINDICATOR: THE CASE OF EURASIAN JAY (GARRULUS GLANDARIUS) IN THE EDOUGH REGION (NORTHEASTERN OF ALGERIA) Adnène Ibrahim Belabed 1,2*, Sofiane Lebnaoui 1,2, Mohamed Chafik Bouden 1,2, Chems Eddine Brahmi 1,2 and Hassiba Belabed-Zediri 1,2 1 EcoSTAq - Ecology of Terrestrial and Aquatic Systems Laboratory, Faculty of Sciences, University of Badji MOKHTAR, Annaba. ALGERIA. 2 UrbEco Team Urban Ecology Team at EcoSTAq Laboratory, Faculty of Sciences, University of Badji MOKHTAR, Annaba. ALGERIA. ; adnene. Received Accepted Published ABSTRACT: The Edough region is one of the richest ecosystems in the northeastern Algeria. The urban demographic dynamics causes strong pressure on these ecosystems. To be able to study the state of the ecosystems of these Mountains, the use of the birds as indicators is necessary. The Eurasian jay (Garrulus glandarius) was used as an indicator of ecosystem state of the Edough region, Northeastern of Algeria. Two separate sites were monitored, which are: the first site was an Algerian oak forest (Quercus canariensis) and the second one was and a cork oak forest (Quercussuber). Indeed, 49ha at each site were checked and I.P.A. technic was used early in the morning. Each survey lasted 10 minutes and was to record all jays seen or heard. Their position and status were observed: in flight, on trees or on built. T-test and correlations were used to clarify the existing differences between sites and between the different biotopes and compare the spatial distributions, numbers and densities. Ninety-eight (98) points were monitored. Forest habitats are the most prevalent in this study in both sites at a rate of 30 quadrats (61.224%) in the first site and 37 quadrats (75.510%) in the second one, followed by the pseudoforest habitats with 09 quadrats (18.367%) in the first site and 6 quadrats ( %) in the second one and finally the clear habitats with only 10 quadrats (20.408%) in the first site and 06 quadrats (12.244%) in the second one. The density of the Eurasian Jay encountered during this work is 3.26±4.74 ind/10ha in the first site and 3.88±5.33 ind/10ha in the second site. Therefore, there are 32.6 ind/km 2 in the first site and 38.8 ind/km 2 in the second site. No differences were found between the different study sites. The absence of harmful effect (Normal density in the two sites studied), tells us that this species is generalist and that the colonized sites are in good condition. Keywords: Garrulus glandarius; Edough; Urbanization; Bioindicator; Distribution. INTRODUCTION The concept of "biodiversity" remains a Biodiversity has been a term widely used theoretical concept of specialists. However, since the end of the twentieth century and the success of policies for the protection and has been the subject of many definitions that enhancement of biodiversity requires a good can be summarized as the representation of appropriation by the entire population, by the the variety that exists between the different socio-economic actors, of the issues linked to categories (or even within categories) of the degradation of biodiversity and therefore living organisms, communities, or biotic a better understanding of what it is processes present on a given surface 1. biodiversity at the global, national, regional and municipal levels. Knowing biodiversity means being able to act to protect it and 140 J. Adv. Zool : 38 (2)
2 value it, based on a precise diagnosis of the issues 2. At the same time, in order to evaluate this biodiversity, other ecological aspects of the problem should be tackled, that is, as an example: population dynamics. Indeed, the latter is concerned with the numerical development of all populations of living beings, and more particularly those of sexed animals. Weight distributions, age composition of individuals, environment, group biology, and the processes that influence these changes are also part of the study's scope. In addition to predicting increases or decreases in populations, these studies aim to understand the environmental influences on populations. Studies on these subjects are essential for, for example, fisheries management, hunting management, management of protected areas, control of populations of so-called harmful animals and monitoring of general and breeding species. These species, which have the capacity to occupy a wide niche, are more apt to successfully invade new environments than species that are highly specialized 3-7.In Mayr 3, the diagnosis of successful avian invaders, for example, revealed three of the six characteristics of niche generalism: ecological flexibility, a tendency to discover unoccupied habitats and an ability to change preference habitat. Birds which are the most intensively studied group 8, comparative analysis have failed to find a link between opportunistic generalism and the success of the invasion 9,10,7. The Eurasian jay belongs to this category of species. The spatial distribution of organisms is one of the most important axis in ecology, encompassing different forms of population dynamics, inter and intra-specific interactions, and individual behaviors. The occupation of space is a vast field of ecology from which it does not emerge from general or synthetic theory. A territory can be occupied throughout the year or just during the breeding season. The notion of space is highly variable, the surface area of a large raptor for example reaches several square kilometers, while that of the reserved area of a couple of terns is limited to the nest and its immediate edges 11. Man is one of the agents involved in the transformation and fragmentation of habitats, notably through the process of urbanization. From a landscape perspective, urbanization has three major consequences: fragmentation and loss of habitat, and the emergence of a new ecosystem: The Urban Ecosystem 12. The vertebrates of the air, today represent the first group of vertebrates in terms of adaptation to these environments which are generally characterized by a major disturbance. Landscapes change structure and function in response to disturbance events 13. These events and changes can be minor as catastrophic, of natural or anthropogenic origin, and of short or long term. Thus, disturbances are a natural component of all types of landscapes. Man is one agent among others of this transformation by modifying the present landscapes, notably by the process of urbanization 14. Increased food availability is the main factor among those promoting species abundance. Improved climatic conditions and reduced predation (including persecution by humans) would be less decisive 15. On the 141 J. Adv. Zool : 38 (2)
3 other hand, the loss of quality habitats (linked to plant complexity, for example), reduction in green space size, increased habitat interfaces, exotic vegetation and predation risk are commonly associated with decline of bird species in response to urbanization. Notteghem 16, shows that the volume of woody vegetation is one of the determining parameters in the total avifauna abundance, and Coquillart 17 that the height of the vegetation structures the avifaunistic settlements. Vegetation therefore plays a "key" role for bird populations. Forest biodiversity is declining in most forest regions of Algeria. Indeed, in addition to the natural vulnerability that characterizes the Mediterranean forest and the sub forestry formations, the Algerian forest continues to undergo various and repeated pressures considerably reducing its vegetable, water and soil potential 18. In northeast of Algeria, stands an ecological jewel that is loved and coveted by the Annabi population, rich in both natural and cultural biodiversity: the Edough Mountains 19,20. The forest wealth of the Edough is immense. Large forests of cork oak (Quercus suber) and Algerian oak (Quercus canariensis) have been exploited for centuries, and the products exported in large quantities to France and all Europe. These forests also supplied timber for ships and also ties for railroad created in Algeria at the beginning of French colonization 21. In recent years, the city of Annaba has developed strongly and extensions gradually nibble on the slopes towards the Edough Mountains. This urban demographic dynamics thus causes strong pressure on 142 J. Adv. Zool : 38 (2) natural, semi-natural and agricultural territories and impacts on their resources: land use, water, wood, gravel, sand, fauna, plants, etc. As a result, the avinaunistic studies carried out in the Edough Mountains are of very high importance. Indeed, this place is extremely rich in both natural and cultural biodiversity 19. To be able to study the state of the ecosystems of these Mountains, the use of the birds as indicators is necessary. Indeed, in birds, the territory is often defended by visual demonstrations including parking in strategic positions from which to see and be seen, evolutions and air patrols 11. The objective of several ornithological studies is to identify the requirements and factors that determine reproductive success 22. The choice of nesting site reflects the quality of the habitat (with the exception of late breeders and inexperienced couples or individuals). Ornithologists and naturalists are much more involved in the study and conservation of rare and endangered species 23,24. However, work on common species is less important, as is the case with the Eurasian Jay (Garrulus glandarius), which is the subject of this study. This bird, which is very adaptable in terms of habitat and food, has not been the subject of much study by these. This could be explained by the fact that it is commonly encountered in forest habitats and therefore considered to be a species of little interest for study and research. Thus, this species can be an ecosystem bioindicator. Indeed, the study of the abundance and distribution of the Eurasian Jay (Garrulus glandarius) in the region of
4 the Edough Mountain in the northeastern of Algeria can indicates the state of the ecosystem. MATERIALS AND METHODS Study area The study area is the wilaya of Annaba, in the extreme north-east of Algeria (36 53'60.00''N-7 46'0.00''E) 25. A coastal city bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the North, to the South by the Medjerda Mountains, to the East by the Algerian- Tunisian borders, and to the West and South- West by the Edough Mountains 26. Study Sites The study was carried out from January 2015 until the end of May 2015 in two separate sites, which are: A- 1 st site: The Algerian Oakwood The first study site is an Algerian oak forest (Quercus canariensis), located at the following coordinates: 36 55'19.89"N '09.83"E, with an average altitude of 553 meters ranging from 469 m to 671 m and with an area of 49 ha, oriented North- Northeast, towards the sea (Figure 01). The vegetation has a highly-developed tree stratum, dominated by the Algerian oak, with some cork oaks (very few) along the way. The herbaceous stratum is poorly developed. The third of the site surface has a very poorly developed shrub stratum, and the remainder two-thirds has an extremely developed shrub stratum. B- 2 nd site: The cork Oakwood The second study site is a cork oak forest (Quercus suber), located at the following coordinates: 36 55'19.89"N '09.83"E, with an average altitude of 704 meters ranging from 644 meters to 729 meters and with an area of 49 ha, oriented East- 143 J. Adv. Zool : 38 (2) Northeast, towards the city (Fig. 1). The vegetation has a very developed tree stratum, totally dominated by the cork oak. The herbaceous stratum is poorly developed. The third of the site surface has a shrub stratum almost absent, and the remainder two-thirds (Separated by road) has a highly-developed shrub stratum. Biological model: The Eurasian Jay (Garrulus glandarius) Linnaeus, 1758 The Eurasian Jay (Garrulus glandarius) is a passerine species form the Corvidae family.the Eurasian Jay is distinguished from the common blackbird by its size and its contrasting plumage. It can weigh from 200g to 300g. The female and the male are distinguished only by the size, 30 to 36 cm, smaller in females. With a wingspan of cm. Deployed, its wings reveal white and blue marks. Its flight is direct but irregular. Slightly larger than the Eurasian jackdaw Corvus monedula, with a longer body and wider wings. Rather small for a corvid, and the most colorful one in the western Palaearctic, with short beak, dome-shaped head, broad wings, frail body, and rather a long tail 27. Monitoring of birds The observation of the Eurasian Jay is fairly easy, all year round, but easier in urban areas than in forest. In town, it seems the most active, early morning. They are only a few kilometers away from their nocturnal lodging, so it is, in principle, easy to follow them and thus discover their activities and behaviors throughout the day. Simply observing with field glasses, is sufficient to account for these activities.
5 Assessment of bird Abundance The method used is the Point Indices of Abundance (I.P.A.) adapted here to the particular case of forest birds. This method is mainly geared towards sampling the target species. It consists of an observer staying immobile for a specified period of time (5 to 20 minutes) and recording all contact with the birds (sound and visual). The listening points are arranged in such a way that the followed surfaces do not overlap. Therefore, it is necessary to maintain a minimum distance of 100m between the listening points. Indeed, the detectable distance of the song of the species varies according to the species: it can be for example about a hundred meters for most passerines. The I.P.A. can be converted to density "D" (number of individuals per unit area, conventionally set at 10 ha). The work was done early in the morning (6:00 AM+1 GMT at 8:00 AM+1 GMT). Ninety-eight (98) inventory points were completed. Each survey lasts 10 minutes and consists of recording all individuals of Eurasian jay seen or heard. Their position and situation were recorded, in flight, on vegetation and built. Statistical analysis The effectives encountered were treated on Microsoft Excel 2016, all data are presented mean ± standard deviation (SD) for each site. T-test and correlations were used to clarify the existing differences between sites and between the different biotopes and compare the spatial distributions, numbers and densities using Statistica software ( ; 2014) (The significance level was set at p=0.05). RESULT AND DISCUSSION Distribution of biotopes Of the ninety-eight (98) points sampled, three major groups of biotopes were identified, namely: Dense biotopes characterized by a dominant tree stratum, which we have called: Forest Spots. The clear biotopes (clear) characterized by a dominant herbaceous stratum, which we have called: Clear Spots. And finally the clear biotopes (clear) but with the presence of buildings (road, human construction), which we have called: Pseudo-forest Spots (Fig. 2). The distribution of the inventoried environments is shown in the (Fig. 2), it is noted that the forest portion is the most dominant and the rest is equally distributed between the pseudo-forest and the clear environments. Figure 1. Location of study sites 144 J. Adv. Zool : 38 (2)
6 Figure2.A) 1 st site: The Algerian Oakwood ; B) 2 nd site: The cork Oakwood. Landscape characterization of study sites- The study and the surveys carried out at the two sites enabled us to draw up a list of the different plant species encountered and their abundance (Table 1). Forest biotopes are the most widespread in this study in the different study sites, 30quadrats (61.224%) in the first site and 37quadrats ( %) in the second one, followed by pseudo-forest biotopes with in the first site 09quadrats ( %) and 06 quadrats ( %) in the second one and finally clear biotopes with only 10quadrats (20.408%) in the first site and 06 quadrats (12.244%) in the second one (Fig.3). 145 J. Adv. Zool : 38 (2)
7 Table 1. List and abundance of plants in study sites (+++:Abundant; ++:Frequent,+;Rare) Treespecies Shrubspecies Grass species Binomial nomenclature Common name Family 1 st site: The 2 nd site: The cork Algerian Oakwood Oakwood Quercus suber Cork oak Fagaceae Quercus canariensis Algerian oak Fagaceae Laurusnobilis Bay laure Lauraceae + + OlEaeuropaea European olive Oleaceae + ++ Alnusglutinosa Common alder Betulaceae + + Pinus halepensis Aleppo pine Pinaceae + ++ Cupressus sempervirens Mediterraneancypress Cupressaceae ++ + Ulexparviflorus Gorse-heaths Fabaceae + ++ Cytisushirsutus Clusteredbroom Cistaceae Pistacialentiscus Mastic Anacardiaceae + + Myrtuscommunis Common myrtle Myrtaceae + + Erica arborea Treeheath Ericaceae Arbutusunedo Strawberrytree Ericaceae Phillyreaangustifolia Narrow-leavedmock privet Oleaceae Neriumoleander Nerium Apocynaceae + + Prunus avium Wild cherry Rosaceae ++ + Hedera helix Common ivy Araliaceae Rosmarinusofficinalis Rosemary Lamiaceae Rubus ulmifolius Wild blackberry Rosaceae Galactites tomentosa Purplemilkthistle Asteraceae Astragalus monspossulanus Montpellier Milk-Vetch Fabaceae ++ + Oxalis pes-caprae Africanwood-sorrel Oxalidaceae ++ + Linum narbonense Perennialflax Linaceae ++ + Malva sylvestris Common mallow Malvoideae ++ + Lavatera maritima Treemallow Malvaceae + - Cistus salviifolius Sage-leaved rock-rose Cistaceae + ++ Convolvulus althacoides Mallow bindweed Convolvulaceae Trifolium vulgare Clover Fabaceae Lavandula stoechas French lavender Lamiaceae ++ + Osmunda regalis Royal fern Osmundaceae + ++ Thymus vulgaris Common thyme Lamiaceae Vicia sativa Common vetch Fabaceae + + Asplenium adiantumnigrum Black spleenwort Aspleniaceae Avena sterilis Animatedoat Poaceae Mentha longifolia Horse Mint Lamiaceae ++ + Anthemis nobilis Chamomile Asteraceae J. Adv. Zool : 38 (2)
8 Figure 3. The distribution map of the different biotopes. A) 1 st Site: The Algerian Oakwood (Forest spots: 30; Clear spots: 10; Pseudo-forest spots: 09); B) 2 nd Site: The cork Oakwood(Forest spots: 37; Clear spots: 06; Pseudo-forest spots: 06). Table 2. Eurasian Jay density by Substrate in the two sites [A) 1 st Site; B) 2 nd Site] A) Ind./ha 1 st Site Heard Seen In Flight OnTrees OnBuilt Total Total Mean±SD/Spot 0.184± ± ± ± ±0.474 B) Ind./ha 2 nd Site Heard Seen In Flight OnTrees OnBuilt Total Total Mean±SD/Spot 0.204± ± ± ± ±0.533 Table 3. Distribution of the Eurasian Jay by spots [A) 1 st Site; B) 2 nd Site] A) Biotopes (Spots) Forest Spots (30) Clear Spots (10) Pseudo-Forest Spots (09) Total (49) Surveys Seen Heard Seen Heard Seen Heard Seen Heard Records Percentage (%) B) Biotopes (Spots) Forest Spots (37) Clear Spots (06) Pseudo-Forest Spots (06) Total (49) Surveys Seen Heard Seen Heard Seen Heard Seen Heard Records Percentage (%) J. Adv. Zool : 38 (2)
9 Distribution of the Eurasian Jay The total number detected is sixteen (16) individuals in the 1 st site: nine (09) seen (0.184±0.391; %), and seven (07) heard (0.142±0.353; %); and nineteen (19) individuals in the 2 nd site: ten (10) seen (0.204±0.455; %), and nine (09) heard (0.184±0.391; %). Therefore, we have 54% visual detection and 46% hearing detection. Distribution of the Eurasian Jay by substrate in the different study sites The jays encountered per point (seen or heard) and per site were identified and recorded by position (in flight, on vegetation or on the built. Only sixteen (16) individuals were observed. Three (03) were recorded directly in flight in the first site (0.061±0.242; 18.75%) and six (06) in the second site (0.122±0.331; 37.50%), four (04) on trees in the first site (0.082±0.277; 25.00%) and three (03) on trees in the second site(0.061±0.242; 18.75%). No individual was recorded on the built of the two sites % in flight, 43.75% on trees and finally 0% on built. Figure 4. Map of presence and absence of the Eurasian Jay in the study sites. Eurasian Jay density by Site The density of the Eurasian Jay encountered during this work is 0.326±0.474 ind/ha in the first site and 0.388±0.533ind/ha in the second one. As a result, 32.6ind/km 2 was found in the first site and 38.8ind/km 2 in the second site (Table 2). 148 J. Adv. Zool : 38 (2)
10 Distribution of the Eurasian Jay by spots The Eurasian Jay was seen in sixteen (16) spots, and was heard in eighteen (18) spots of the 98. It was seen in 14 points and heard in 13 others of the forest environment. In clear environments, it was visually recorded 2 times and heard 5 times. For pseudo-forest environments, it was never recorded seen or heard (Table 3). The Eurasian Jay is found in two out of three environments. Indeed, it has never been encountered near roads (pseudo-forestry environments). These frequencies of apparitions are different and in the order of: 50% seen in forest environments and 50% heard; 40% seen in clear environments and 60 heard and finally 00% seen against 00% heard in pseudo-forestry environments (Fig. 4). The Eurasian Jay is found in almost half of the surveys, and its distribution and density are fairly homogeneous. Encountered especially in forest environments, and some clear environments but in no pseudo-forest spots, this confirms its status as a forestry species and very fierce. Adding to this, that no spot allowed visual and auditory detection at the same time. Effect of habitat difference on Eurasian Jay distribution The only correlations found in each site are autocorrelations. Indeed, those that are significant are the number of jays seen with those in flight or on trees, respectively: r=0.7875; p=0.000; *** and r=0.5384; p=0.000; *** for the first site; r=0.6255; p=0.000; *** and r=0.7303; p=0.000; *** for the second site. Using the "t" test, there was no difference between the distribution and densities of the Jay in the two study sites. Consequently, the effect of the complexity of the environment is neither visible nor calculable. Most landscapes are very heterogeneous at several spatial scales 31, and plant/animal interaction studies must take into account the roles of heterogeneity and spatial scale in the interaction results. Thus, not only the dynamics of local populations, but also the regional distribution of some species may be limited by dispersal in heterogeneous environments In this study, 32.6 ind/km 2 were found in the first site (the Algerian Oakwood) and 38.8 ind/km 2 in the second site (the cork Oakwood). These data agree with the literature because the study was conducted during the breeding season of the species and therefore the high density reflects the gathering, the search for sexual partner and then the defense of the territory 37. The near absence of individuals from clear environments and their absence from pseudo-forest environments are necessarily due to the nature of this species. The Eurasian Jay is generally solitary and territorial, although a study in Buckinghamshire (England) gave evidence of group nesting, with active nests distant from each other not even 35m away. In Wytham (England), assuming that the territories do not overlap, the maximum average size of the breeding territory is 6 to 7 ha 38, in southern Sweden 14 ha (n=24), without any significant differences with winter territory; although the size of the land may change markedly from year to year 149 J. Adv. Zool : 38 (2)
11 (depending on the density of breeding adults). It is a species that is highly loyal to its nesting sites and no individual (according to the studies) is known to change more than a few hundred meters for consecutive years 39. Its territory is used for contact with other individuals (of the opposite sex), breeding and food, but birds may also leave the territory to join spring grouping (gathering several individuals for mating), or to collect food (although all foods needed for adults are harvested within their own territory) Resident (reproductive) couples built a new nest every year, and survival of old nests from year to year 43 underlines the caution that characterizes this species, in order to establish a true density of couples. Kolbe 44 carried out an estimation of the density of this species, based on a synthesis of 71 european studies where the studied areas exceeded 9 ha (the smaller zones biased the results): and the result is a density mean of 9.4 pairs per km 2 (min=0.4, max=27.7), with little variation between habitats. Other densities are given by Cramp & Perrins 37 : in Great Britain, 4.2 pairs per km 2 on agricultural land in Suffolk 45, and 15 pairs per km 2 in mixed hardwood forests. In Åland (Finland) and central Sweden, no more than 3 pairs per km 246. In Voronezh (southern European Russia), 8-12 pairs per Km 2, occupied nests are 200 to 250 m apart 43. In Bulgaria, a maximum of 50 pairs per km 2 in stands dominated by Tilia sp. and 10 to 20 pairs in other wooded land In the Northern Vosges in France, 2 pairs per km 2 in the pine forests P. sylvestris, 4 pairs in the common beech forests Fagus 150 J. Adv. Zool : 38 (2) sylvatica 50 ; in Burgundy, between 0.5 and 8 pairs per km 2 of artificial forests (maintained by localities), and 8 to 11 in coppicing (below standards) 51. In Provence (France), 6 pairs per km 2 and in Corsica 10 pairs per km 252. In mixed forest in Tuscany, 5 pairs per km 253.In the northwest of Spain, 3 pairs per km 254. In Morocco, 6 pairs per km 2 in softwood forests in semi-arid environments (Tetraclinis sp.), But slightly less in maquisshrubland and other forests 55. Indeed, the Eurasian jay is a timid species, suspicious and fearful to the man when it is persecuted, but becomes easily tamed or even indifferent in the places where it is not very disturbed; less suspicious than other Corvidae as to foreign objects or new and therefore easily catchable by traps. In open sites, and with somewhat reduced vegetation, individuals always fly one by one at regular intervals, so as not to attract attention 41. Against humans, during the brooding period, active measures are undertaken and the responses varies between passive flight and more demonstrative actions, especially if the chicks are growing. Often parents get out of their hiding places quickly with screams or small calls and mimetic calls from various predatory birds. This species only ventures very close to intruders and more rarely (especially if the chicksemit cries of alarm) by harassing them with violent cries and usually with alarm calls borrowed from other species; sometimes adults can also break branches and throw them down 41. In Ireland, birds drop twigs on the heads of intruders and use mimicry when offspring are not yet out of nest.
12 No significant differences were found between the abundance and distribution of the species in the different study sites. This is mainly due to the ubiquitous nature of this bird. Indeed, its adaptability is high when it comes to forest ecosystems composed mainly of Quercus sp. In order to generalize this monitoring, widen the scope of research should be expected, by multiplying the study sites and especially by diversifying them. Work over a longer period in order to have an overall view of the evolution of the abundance of this species outside reproduction period. Another species is recommended for further study. Indeed, the Eurasian jay can be limited as a bioindicator and therefore another species more specialist must be used. This work will help the researchers to study the Edough Mountains for a future classification as a national park. CONCLUSION This study discovers that the Eurasian Jays (Garrulus glandarius) is very abundant in the different monitored sites of the Edough Mountains. Knowing that this species is a bioindicator of the ecosystems health, finding it in these sites with significant abundances means that the Edough Mountains is in good condition despite the anthropogenic pressures exerted on the region. These results can be confusing because the sites used for this study are protected areas with a dense and abundant vegetation cover (indeed, the choice of sites was targeted). This does not in any way reflect the general situation of the mountains. Because the region is in perpetual risk of habitat defragmentation, vegetation destruction and local extinction risks. REFERENCES 1. Gosselin, M., B. Fady & F. Lefèvre, La biodiversité: définitions, enjeux et débats scientifiques. In: Gestion forestière et biodiversité : connaître pour préserver. Cemagref Editions, Anthony, France, pp Abbadie, L. & E. Lateltin, Biodiversité, fonctionnement des écosystèmes et changements globaux. In : Biodiversité et changements globaux. Enjeux de société et défis pour la Recherche, Association pour la Diffusion de la Pensée Française, Ministère des Affaires Étrangères, Paris, Chap. IV, pp Mayr, E The nature of colonising birds. In: The Genetics of Colonizing Species. New York: Academic Press, pp Myers, K Introduced vertebrates in Australia, with emphasis on the mammals. In: Ecology of Biological Invasions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp Ehrlich, P Attributes of invaders and the invading processes: vertebrates. In: Biological Invasions: a Global Perspective.Chichester: J. Wiley, pp Williamson, M Biological Invasions. London: Chapman & Hall. 7. Sol, D., S. Timmermans & L. Lefebvre, 2000.Behavioural flexibility and invasion success in birds. Animal Behaviour, 63: Kolar, C.K. &D.M. Lodge, Progress in invasion biology: predicting invaders. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 16: Newsome, A.E.&I.R. Noble, Ecological and physiological characters of Invading species. In: Biological Invasions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp Veltman, C.J., S. Nee & M.J. Crawley, 1996.Correlates of introduction success in exotic New Zealand birds. American Naturalist, 147: Lesaffre, G Oiseau de France: le Pigeon colombin Coloumbaoenas. Ornithos, 7(2): Alberti, M The Effects of Urban Patterns on Ecosystem Function. International Regional Science Review, 28: Forman, R.T.T Land Mosaics: The Ecology of Landscapes and Regions. Cambridge University Press. 151 J. Adv. Zool : 38 (2)
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