Response of Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus microtheca and Eucalyptus intertexta Seedlings to Irrigation with Saline Water

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1 World Journl of Agriculturl Sciences 4 (S): , 2008 ISSN IDOSI Pulictions, 2008 Response of Euclyptus cmldulensis, Euclyptus microthec nd Euclyptus intertext Seedlings to Irrigtion with Sline Wter 2 2 Loutfy I. El-Juhny, I.M. Aref nd A.I.M. Ahmed Prince Sultn Reserch Centre for Environment, Wter nd Desert, 2 Plnt Production Deprtment, Fculty of Food Sciences nd Agriculture, King Sud University, Riydh, Sudi Ari Astrct: A pot experiment ws crried out in green house t the Reserch nd Experiments Sttion of the Fculty of Agriculture nd Food Sciences, King Sud University, Riydh, Sudi Ari. Seedlings of Euclyptus cmldulensis Dehn, Euclyptus intertext R. T. Bker nd Euclyptus microthec F. Muell were irrigted with sline wter y dding sodium chloride to tp wter. Four tretments represented four grdul levels of slinity were pplied s control nd low, medium nd high sline wter represented y sodium chloride solutions with EC =, 4, 8 nd 6 dsm, respectively. Incresing N concentrtions in irrigtion wter decresed the dimeter, height, root length, numer of leves, verge lef size nd totl lef re of the seedlings. These resulted in decreses in Lef, stem, roots nd consequently totl plnt dry weight indicting reverse trend etween these trits nd slinity levels. Incresing slinity decresed LWR nd incresed SWR, while RWR did not chnge. RGR, LWR, SLA nd LAR of Euclyptus species ll decresed with incresing the concentrtion of sodium chloride in irrigtion wter, while NAR ws not ffected. Reltive wter content of the - leves decresed with incresing slinity. Concentrtions of N, K, Cl nd N : k rtio incresed with incresing slinity. Key words: Euclyptus cmldulensis Euclyptus intertext Euclyptus microthec Slinity Growth INTRODUCTION plnt responses to different soil slinity rnges. They consider tht soil slinity of 0-2 ds m is mostly Sline or slt-ffected soils re common in rid nd negligile, while t 2-4 ds m growth of sensitive plnts semirid regions []. Slinity in rid nd semirid res my e restricted, t 4-8 growth of mny plnts is could e cused y poor irrigtion wter which contins restricted, t 8-6 only tolernt plnts grow stisfctorily considerle mounts of slts. Also, low rinfll, high nd ove 6 only few very tolernt plnts grow evportion rte nd poor wter mngement could cuse stisfctorily. slinity relted prolems in these res [2]. In wrm nd In Sudi Ari, sline wter is one of the most dry res, slt concentrtions increse in the upper soil frequent environmentl stresses tht fce growing lyer due to evpotrnspirtion exceeding precipittion plnts [9]. This ecuse groundwter represents more [3]. Sline conditions dversely ffect the growth nd thn 90% of wter used in griculturl irrigtion nd it survivl of glycophytes [4]. Plnt growth is generlly clssified s very sline wter [0]. Al-Mtroud [] inhiited y slt stress [5]. Mny investigtors hve reported tht slinity of groundwter from Riydh reported retrdtion of germintion nd growth of Region (Centrl prt of Sudi Ari) hs electricl seedlings t high slinity[6]. Munns [7] explins tht conductivities (EC) rnged etween.34 nd 7.84 ds m plnt growth is ffected ecuse high uild-up of slt nd dominted y sodium chloride ctions. Therefore, kills the photosyntheticlly ctive leves, which in turn fforesttion efforts in rid re usully fil duo to ffects the supply of crohydrtes or hormones to the non-vilility of fresh wters nd hesitncy for ctively growing prts. Amcher et l. [8] descrie generl utilizing sline ground wter resources [2]. Corresponding Author: Dr. Loutfy I. El-Juhny, Professor of Forestry, Prince Sultn Reserch Centre for Environment, Wter nd Desert, King Sud University, P.O. Box 2454 Riydh 45, Sudi Ari 825

2 The growth of some Euclyptus species is Tretments: Becuse of it is eser in ppliction nd negtively ffected y slt stress [3]. However, the control [5], sodium chloride ws used to prepre response differs t different slinity levels nd solutions vried in their slinity level. Four etween species [4]. Euclyptus cmldulensis nd tretments represented four grdul levels of slinity E. microthec grow in different res in Sudi Ari. were pplied to the seedlings through dding sodium E. cmldulensis ws the first species introduced chloride to tp wter in order to hve solution with since over forty yers nd plned in mny fforesttion specific electricl conductivity (EC) [6]. The tretments projects over the country. Nevertheless, the lst were irrigtion with tp wter s control nd low, very hot summers tht previled in the centrl prt of medium nd high sline wter represented y sodium Sudi Ari, prticulrly in yers 998 nd 2002 showed chloride solutions with EC =, 4, 8 nd 6 dsm, tht E. microthec surpssed E. cmldulensis in respectively. tolerting these hrsh conditions. On the other hnd, To insure good distriution of slts nd to void the existence of E. intertext is limited to few sites within their ccumultion in one side of the pot, wtering ws the country. dding to the pots using rose. The pots were plced on The present study ims t compring the snd to llow dringe of the surplus wter. The mount morphologicl nd physiologicl response of of wter dded to ech pot every week ws determined E. cmldulensis, E. microthec nd E. intertext to ccording to the verge mount of wter lost y irrigtion with sline wter t seedlings stge. evpotrnspirtion of the weight of the pot [6]. This mount ws 2 L for ech pot every week during the MATERIALS AND METHODS period from Decemer to Mrch, 2.5 L during the period from My to Septemer nd 2.25 during the period from Plnt Mteril nd Culturl Technique: One month- Octoer to Novemer. old seedlings of Euclyptus cmldulensis Dehn, Euclyptus intertext R.T. Bker nd Euclyptus Mesurements: Before pplying the tretments, height, microthec F. Muell produced from seeds were collected dimeter nd totl lef re of five seedlings from ech from helthy trees grown in the Reserch Sttion of species were mesured to e used in clculting other Prince Sultn Reserch Centre for Environment, Wter growth vriles. After pplying the tretments, fourth nd Desert ner Riydh, Sudi Ari. of the numer of the seedlings of ech species were Seeds were clened nd tested for their germintion hrvested monthly. Heights, dimeters, totl lef res, percentge, then sown in cm trys contining numer of leves, root lengths of the hrvested seedlings mixture of snd nd pet moss (: v/v). The sown seeds were mesured. Totl lef re ws scled using were left to germinte without ny pretretment under Automtic re meter (Model AAC-400, Hyshi Denkoh green house conditions included 32 nd 7 C t dy Co., LTD. Tokyo, Jpn). Lef, stem nd root fresh nd night, respectively with 2 h dy light nd were weights of ech seedling were determined. These prts well-wtered every other dy. After occurrence of the were oven dried in n oven t 60 C for 48 h nd their dry first seven true leves on the seedlings, they were weights were determined then their totl plnt dry weights trnsferred to 30 cm rim dimeter nd 40 cm deep plstic were clculted. pots contining wshed snd (Tle ). Before nd Alloction of dry weight to leves, stem nd roots of during imposing the tretments, the seedlings were ech seedling ws clculted s proportion of totl plnt wtered with Hoglnd's nutrient solution once week in dry weight. Reltive growth rte (RGR), lef re rtio ddition to regulr wtering regime every other dy. (LAR), specific lef re (SLA) nd net ssimiltion rte Tle : Chemicl nlysis of the sturted est of snd used for growing seedlings C Mg N K - Cl -2 CO3 2 SO4-3 HCO SAR ph EC(dsm ) meq L

3 (NAR) ll were clculted ccording to Evns [7]. This Sttisticl Design nd Anlysis: The Sttisticl design ws crried out using the following equtions: used in crrying out the present experiment ws complete rndomized design (CRD) in fctoril RGR = (LogeW2 -Log ew) /t2-t rrngement [2] included slinity fctor with four LAR = TLA/TWt levels, three euclyptus species nd four monthly SLA = TLA/LWt sequentil hrvests. There were seven replictions of NAR = (W2-W / L2-L ) (log el2-log el / t2-t ) these 28 tretment comintions. Dt ws nlyzed through nlysis of vrince Where: Log e= nturl logrithm, W2 nd W = totl plnt procedure (ANOVA) using SAS computer progrmm dry weight t the eginning nd the end of ech hrvest [22]. The differences etween fctors mens were (g), t2-t = the length of the period efore ech hrvest distinguished using L. S. D. test. 2 (month), TLA = totl lef re (cm ), TWt = totl plnt dry weight, LWt = lef dry weight nd Lnd L 2 re the totl RESULTS lef res. Growth of the Stem nd Roots: Anlysis of vrince Quntifying Reltive Wter Content (RWC): Fresh showed significnt effects of incresing the concentrtion weights of lef smples from ech hrvest were of sodium chloride on the stem height of the seedlings determined immeditely fter hrvesting nd sumerged (P<0.000). The seedlings grown under irrigtion with in distilled wter for 24 h, then, the sturted weight of high sline solution (6 dsm ) hd verge stem height the leves ws determined nd plced into n oven t were 52.3 cm followed y tht of those grown under 70 C for 48 h until weight constncy. Reltive wter 8 dsm (62.3 cm) then tht of those grown under 4 dsm content (RWC) ws clculted [8] using the following (69.9 cm) nd finlly tht of the seedlings irrigted eqution: with tp wter ( ds m ) (78. cm) (Tle 2). This result indictes the existence of reverse reltionship etween RWC = (FW-DW)/(SW-DW) 00 slinity level nd the height of plnt. Stem height differed significntly etween species Where: FW, SW nd DW re fresh, sturted nd dry cross tretments nd hrvests (P=0.0003), where the weight of the smple (g), respectively. men height of E. microthec seedlings ws greter thn those of the other two species; which were not Determintion of Chlorine: Chlorine concentrtion in significntly different (Tle 2). Stem heights of the the leves of the seedlings ws determined only t the lst seedlings incresed significntly from hrvest to the hrvest using dry urning [9]. Chlorine ws extrcted next (P<0.000). The verge stem heights cross from one grm of lef smple using 00 ml of N nitric cid tretments nd species were 54.3, 62.9, 70.8 nd 79.5 in H, (HNO 3) for two hours then the mixture ws filtered nd its H2, H3 nd H4, respectively (Tle 2). ph ws djusted using Silver nitrte solution [20]. There were interctions etween species nd Chlorine concentrtion ws clculted s the following: hrvests (P=0.007 (indicted incresing the mgnitude of Cl(ppm) = 3 (volume normlity extrct volume )/ species effects from hrvest to hrvest. There ws lso tretments hrvests interction volume of the solution used in determintion (P>0.000) indicted chnging the effects of tretments from hrvest to the next (Tle 2). Determintion of Sodium nd Potssium: Sodium nd Incresing slinity in irrigtion wter significntly potssium concentrtion in the leves of the seedlings decresed the dimeter of the seedlings (P>0.000) ws determined only t the lst hrvest using Flme indicting reverse trend etween dimeter growth photometer. Leves were oven-dried to constnt weight nd slinity levels. Averge stem dimeter incresed t 70 C, ground nd digested in solution of 98% progressively from hrvest to the next (P<0.000) sulphuric cid (H2SO 4) supplemented with Hydrogen cross tretments nd species, with tretments hrvest peroxide (H2O 2) (30%, v/v). Concentrtions of sodium interction (P=0.0034) indicted incresing the mgnitude nd potssium in plnt leves were clculted s of tretment effects from hrvest to the next. Incresing 4 the following: N (ppm) = (R Swt) 0, where slinity in irrigtion wter significntly decresed the R = pprtus reding, Swt = smple weight. verge root length of the seedlings (P<0.000) (Tle 2). 827

4 Tle 2: Growth of the stem nd roots of E. microthec, E. cmldulensis nd E. intertext seedlings under different levels of slinity in irrigtion wter Trit EC (ds m ) E. microthec E. cmldulensis E. intertext Tretment men Stem height (cm seedling ) c d men * Stem dimeter (cm seedling ) c c men Root length (cm seedling ) c men *Mens followed y different superscript letters re significntly different ccording to L.S.D. test t P=0.05 Tle 3: Growth of the leves of E. microthec, E. cmldulensis nd E. intertext seedlings under different levels of slinity in irrigtion wter Trit EC(dS m ) E. microthec E. cmldulensis E. intertext Tretment men No. of leves (lef seedling ) c d men * Totl lef re (cm seedling ) c d men Averge lef size (cm lef ) c d men *Mens followed y different superscript letters re significntly different ccording to L.S.D. test t P=0.05 Growth of the Leves: Incresing the concentrtion of less dry weight nd vise vers (Tle 4). E. microthec NCl in the irrigtion wter decresed the numer of hd significntly lower lef, stem nd totl dry weight leves (P>0.000), verge lef size (P>0.000) nd compring with either E. cmldulensis or E. intertext consequently totl lef re (P>0.000) of the seedlings which hd similr vlues (P<0.000). There were no (Tle 3). These trits were reduced stedily with significnt differences etween species in root dry incresing the slinity level of the irrigtion wter, while weight. Dry weight of the seedlings incresed from they incresed from hrvest to the next (P>0.000) cross hrvest to the next (P<0.000). There were tretment oth species nd tretments. E. microthec hd men hrvest interctions indicting tht the mgnitude of numer of leves cross tretments ccounted for 4.85 tretments effects on dry weight chnged from hrvest to lef seedling which ws significntly greter thn those hrvest (P<0.000); except for root dry weight (P<0.005). of the other two species (Tle 3). There were tretment species interctions for lef However, the verge lef size of E. microthec ws (P=0.0009), stem (P=0.0) nd totl dry weight (P=0.005) significntly lower thn those of the other two species. indicting chnging the mgnitude of tretment effects etween species (Tle 4). Dry Weight Production: Anlysis of vrince procedure reveled significnt effects of tretments (P<0.000) on Dry Weight Prtitioning: Incresing sodium chloride lef, stem roots nd consequently totl plnt dry weight. concentrtion in irrigtion wter decresed the proportion Under high sline irrigtion wter the seedlings produced of dry weight prtitioned to leves (lef weight rtio, 828

5 Tle 4: Dry weight production of E. microthec, E. cmldulensis nd E. intertext seedlings under different levels of slinity in irrigtion wter Trit EC(dS m ) E. microthec E. cmldulensis E. intertext Tretment men Lef dry weigh (g seedling ) c d men * Stem dry weight (g seedling ) c men Root dry weight (g seedling ) c d men Totl dry weight (g seedling ) c d men *Mens followed y different superscript letters re significntly different ccording to L.S.D. test t P=0.05 Tle 5: Prtitioning of dry weight of E. microthec, E. cmldulensis nd E. intertext seedlings into leves, stem nd roots under different levels of slinity in irrigtion wter Trit EC(dS m ) E. microthec E. cmldulensis E. intertext Tretment men Lef weigh rtio c c men * Stem weigh rtio d c men Root weigh rtio men *Mens followed y different superscript letters re significntly different ccording to L.S.D. test t P=0.05 LWR) (P<0.000) nd incresed tht prtitioned to stem (stem weight rtio, SWR) (P<0.000), while RWR did not chnge (Tle 5). E. microthec hd significntly lower LWR (P<0.000) nd greter root weight rtio (RWR) (P= ) compring with the other two species which hd closed vlues (Tle 5). From hrvest to the next oth SWR nd RWR incresed stedily (P<0.000) while LWR decresed onwrds (P<0.000). 829

6 Tle 6: Effects of irrigtion with sline wter on specific lef re, lef re rtio nd reltive growth rte of E. microthec, E. cmldulensis nd E. intertext seedlings Trit EC (ds m ) E. microthec E. cmldulensis E. intertext Tretment men 2 Specific lef re (SLA) (cm g lef dry weight) c d men * Lef re rtio (LAR) (cm g totl plnt dry weight) c d men Net ssimiltion rte (NAR) men Reltive growth rte (g g m ) c men Tle 7: Effects of irrigtion with sline wter on Reltive lef wter content (RWC) of E. microthec, E. cmldulensis nd E. intertext seedlings Trit EC(dS m ) E. microthec E. cmldulensis E. intertext Tretment men Reltive lef wter content (RWC) c d men * Tle 8: - Effects of irrigtion with sline wter on the concentrtion (ppm) of sodium (N ), potssium (K ), chlorine (Cl ) nd N : K rtio in the leves of E. microthec, E. cmldulensis nd E. intertext seedlings under irrigtion with sline wter Trit EC (ds m ) E. microthec E. cmldulensis E. intertext Tretment men N concentrtion (ppm) d c men * K concentrtion (ppm) c men N : k rtio c men Cl concentrtion (ppm) d c men c *Mens followed y different superscript letters re significntly different ccording to L.S.D. test t P=

7 Growth Anlysis: Reltive growth rte (RGR), lef slinity levels [25]. However, high sustrte slinity my weight rtio (LWR), specific lef re (SLA) nd lef re e more detrimentl to plnts in their erly growth stges rtio (LAR) of Euclyptus species ll decresed with thn to seeds [26]. incresing the concentrtion of sodium chloride in All the growth vriles mesured in the present irrigtion wter (P<0.000, P<0.000 nd P<0.000, study decresed with incresing the level of slinity respectively) (Tle 6). Both E. microthec nd E. except stem dry weight which incresed stedily. intertext seedlings hd significntly greter RGR Decresing the growth of stem height of woody species (0.37 nd 0.3 g g month, respectively) thn tht of due to incresing the level of slinity ws extensively E. cmldulensis (0.28 g g month ) s n verge of reported [2, 4, 27-32] ll slinity tretments. This trend ws lso more or less Decresing stem dimeter of the Euclyptus true for SLA nd lef re rtio. Net ssimiltion rt seedlings with incresing slinity level concurs with (NAR) ws not ffected y slinity ut, incresed from other findings [30, 32]. Contrdictory, Ctchpoole et l. hrvest to the next (P<0.05) (Tle 6). [33] reported no significnt effect of slt tretment on the men growth in tree height or dimeter of Reltive Wter Content: Reltive lef wter content Euclyptus gloulus spp. gloulus. El-Juhny nd (RWC) decresed with incresing slinity (P<0.000). Aref [3] lso, found unffected stem dimeter of E. cmldulensis hd RWC ws greter thn tht of Conocrpus erectus L. seedlings in high slt tretment. E. intertext ut did not vry from tht of E. microthec Often, growth nd survivl following emergence re not (P<0.05) (Tle 7). There were species x hrvests ffected y low nd moderte slinity levels [25]. interctions indicted chnging the mgnitude of RWR However, high sustrte slinity my e more detrimentl for species from hrvest to hrvest (P<0.000). RWC of E. to plnts in their erly growth stges [26]. microthec ws the gretest in oth the first nd lst Incresing the concentrtion of NCl in irrigtion hrvest, while E. cmldulensis hd the lest RWC in the wter reduced root length of Euclyptus seedlings. third nd fourth hrvest. RWC of E. intertext decresed This result is in conformity with the finding of y the second hrvest then incresed (Tle 7). Rmoliy nd Pndey [4, 29] for Slvdor oleoides nd Cordi rothii, respectively. Also, reducing root - Concentrtion of N, K,Cl nd N : K Rtio: With length due to slinity ws reported y Gm et l. [2]. - incresing slinity the concentrtions of N, K, Cl As n verge of the four slinity tretments, E. nd N : K rtio incresed in the leves of the seedlings microthec hd stem height ws greter thn tht of (P<0.000) (Tle 8). There were no differences etween E. cmldulensis or E. intertext. But, the responses euclyptus species in the concentrtion of N nd K in of stem dimeter nd root length to the increse in the their leves. However, E. intertext hd N : K rtio concentrtion of NCl were not significntly different ws greter thn either tht of the other two species etween the three Euclyptus species. - (P=0.025). Cl concentrtion in the leves rnged from Reduction in oth the numer of leves nd verge to to ppm for E. intertext, lef size in this study resulted in reducing totl lef E. cmldulensis nd E. microthec, respectively re. Reducing totl lef re due to slinity ws otined (P<0.000) (Tle 8). y Geuer et l. [34] Rmoliy nd Pndey [4, 29] Chen et l. [35]. El-Juhny nd Aref [3] reported DISCUSSION significnt decreses in the numer of leves nd verge lef size resulted in reducing totl lef re of C. erectus Growth of Euclyptus species investigted in this seedlings in high slt tretment. Although E. microthec study decresed significntly due to incresing sodium seedlings hd greter numer of leves however, their chloride concentrtion in irrigtion wter. leves were smller in size so tht they hd lower lef In most of the vriles mesured there ws n re compring with E. cmldulensis or E. intertext, increse from hrvest to the next which is logic, s the which did not vry significntly in these trits. plnts were in n erly stge of growth. This is considered The reductions in lef, stem, roots nd totl dry the most vitl developmentl stge for seedlings until weight of Euclyptus seedlings with incresing slinity they estlish s fully grown individuls [23]. The level re in consistence with mny other previous detrimentl effects of slinity on plnts my lso vry results on the effect of slinity in dry mtter with developmentl stge [24]. Often, growth nd survivl production [29, 3, 34]. However, the species in this following emergence re not ffected y low nd moderte study hd trend for lef, stem nd totl dry weight 83

8 production ws similr to tht of totl lef re By the lst hrvest, the seedlings tht were mentioned ove. Root dry weight did not differ irrigted with sline wter hd significnt increse etween species. This concurs with the finding of the of N nd Cl- ions levels in their leves, while K reserch work crried out y Mehri et l. [32] who ions decresed. Similr results were otined y found Acci nilotic nd A. tortilis responding Geuer et l. [34] Rodríguez et l. [44] nd Peric similrly to slinity. nd Goret [39]. Incresing sodium chloride concentrtion in irrigtion N: K rtio incresed with incresing the wter incresed dry weight prtitioned to stem (SWR) t concentrtion of sodium chloride in the irrigtion the expense of tht proportioned to leves (LWR), while wter. This result is in consistence with the findings RWR did not chnge. However, Houle et l. [36] found of previous studies [34]. Both E. microthec nd stem mss rtio decresed in slinity tretment. E. cmldulensis hd lower N: K rtio thn tht of E. microthec hd significntly lower LWR nd greter E. intertext. Mintining reltively low K: N rtios root weight rtio (RWR) compring with the other two in the leves of these two species is likely to e one of species which hd closed vlues. The ove ground prt the key determinnts of plnt slt tolernce. of the plnt is more ffected thn tht of root t high Our study showed tht E. microthec nd slinity [37]. El-Juhny nd Aref [3] found oth SWR E. cmldulensis tolerted the levels of slinity (EC) nd RWR of C. erectus seedlings incresed t high pplied up to 4 dsm. We et l. [46] clssified oth slinity t the expense of LWR. Also, the proportion of Euclyptus cmldulensis nd E. microthec within dry weight llocted to roots of Prosopis l incresed the species tolernt to sline soils. Moreover, the with incresing NCl levels [38]. More recently, Peric nd Deprtment of Nturl Resources of New South Wles Goret [39] found liner increse of root to plnt rtio government (NSW) [47] plced oth Euclyptus nd consequently decrese of shoot to plnt rtio s cmldulensis nd Euclyptus microthec within slinity incresed for Olive Cultivrs. clss 3 in which the plnts tolerte very sline conditions Decresing reltive growth rte (RGR) of Euclyptus (8 ds/m). However, Sun nd Dickinson [48] found species with incresing the concentrtion of sodium tht E. cmldulensis ws slt-tolernt nd it is chloride in irrigtion wter in the present study concurs preferle for reclmtion of slt-ffected lnd, with other results [40-43]. Decresed SLA my e prticulrly when the slinity is moderte or low. In contriuted to this decrese in RGR. Rmoliy nd the Ecocorp Dt Sheets [48], FAO reported tht Pndey [4] found SLA of Cordi rothii decresed in Euclyptus intertext tolertes low (<4 ds/m) to medium high slinity tretment. In contrst, Houle et l. [36] (4-0 ds/m). reported tht slinity tretment hd no effect on SLA. While decresing RGR of plnts due to slinity is well REFERENCES documented, ttriuting this decrese to decresing NAR (including SLA nd LWR) or LAR vries ccording. Blylock, A.D., 994. Soil slinity, slt tolernce nd to plnt species or ge of plnt or growing conditions growth potentil of horticulturl nd lndscpe nd my e to other fctors. In the present study plnts. Coopertive Extension Service (B-988), decresing RGR ws result of decresing LAR including Deprtment of Plnt, Soil nd Insect Sciences, decreses in oth LWR nd SLA s NAR ws unffected. College of Agriculture, University of Wyoming, Rodríguez et l. [44] found the reltive growth rte (RGR) USA. nd net ssimiltion rte (NAR) decresed in slinity 2. Gme, P.B.S., S. Inng, K. Tnk nd R. Nkzw, tretments, while lef re rtio (LAR) remined Physiologicl response of common en unchnged. However, Dodd nd Donovn [45] stted tht (Phseolus vulgris L.) seedlings to slinity stress. vrition in RGR ws correlted with NAR nd not LAR. Africn J. Biotechnol., 6(2): Decresed Reltive wter content (RWC) with 3. Arol, I.P., J.S.P. Ydv nd F.I. Mssoud, 988. incresing the concentrtion of sodium chloride in Slt-ffected soils nd their mngement, FAO irrigtion wter in the present study concurs with the Soils Bulletin, Vol. 39. Itly, Rome, pp: 93. result reported y Meloni et l. [38] nd Rodríguez et l. 4. Rmoliy, P.J. nd A.N. Pndey, Effect of [44]. In contrst, Geuer et l. [34] sserted tht wter sliniztion of soil on emergence, growth nd content of lef tissue of Tmrindus indic incresed s survivl of seedlings of Cordi rothii. Forest Ecol. slinity concentrtion incresed. & Mng., 76:

9 5. Moghie, R.E.A., H. Sneok nd K. Fujit, 6. Ctlin, P.B., G.J. Hoffmn, R.M. Med nd Effect of slinity on osmotic djustment, R.S. Johnson, 993. Long-term response of mture glycineetine ccumultion nd the etine plum trees to slinity. Irrigtion Sci., 3: ldehyde dehydrogense gene expression in two 7. Evns, G.C., 972. The Quntittive Anlysis of hlophytic plnts, Slicorni europe nd Sued Plnt Growth. Bck Well. Scientific Puliction. mritime. Plnt Sci., 66: Oxford, London, Melourne. 6. Grg, B.K. nd I.C. Gupt, 997. Physiology of slt 8. Brrs, H.D., 968. Determintion of wter deficits tolernce of rid crops. III. Mung en nd moth in plnt tissues. In: T. T. Kozlowski (Ed), Wter en. Current Agriculture, Food nd Resource, deficits nd plnt growth. Acdemic Press, New 2: York, USA., pp: Munns, R., 993. R. Munns, Physiologicl processes 9. Storey, R., 995. Slt tolernce, ion reltion nd limiting plnt growth in sline soils: some dogms the effects of root zone medium on the nd hypotheses. Plnt Cell nd Environ., 6: response of citrus to slinity Austrlin J. Plnt 8. Amcher, J., R. Koenig nd B. Kitchen Slinity Physiol., 22: 0-4. nd Plnt Tolernce. Electronic pulishing No. 20. Chen, S., J. Li, S. Wng, A. Hüttermnn nd AG-SO-03, Uth University Extension, Uth, USA. A. Altmn, 200. Slt, nutrient uptke nd trnsport 9. Aref, I.M., L.I. El-Juhny nd K.F. Elkhlif, nd ABA of Populus euphrtic; hyrid in Effects of sodium chloride concentrtions on seed response to incresing soil NCl. Trees, 5: germintion of Acci nilotic ssp. tomentos 2. Steel, R.G.D. nd J.H. Torrie, 986. Principle nd nd Acci gerrrdii vr. njdensis. J. Adv. Agric. Procedure of sttistics. A Biometricl Approch Res., 9(): nd 2 ed Mc. Grw Hill Books co New York. 0. Flth, A.M., A. Al-Omrn, M.E. Ndeem nd 22. SAS Institute, 200. SAS User s Guide Sttistics M.M. Mursi, 999. Chemicl composition of 2ed. SAS Inst. Cry, NC. USA. irrigtion groundwter used in irrigtion in some 23. Hunt, R., 990. Plnt Growth Curves: The Functionl Agriculturl regions of Sudi Ari. Emirtes J. Approch to Plnt Growth Anlysis, Edwrd Arnold, Agric. Sci., : -23. London.. Al-Mtroud, S.S., Evlution of Irrigtion 24. Adm, P., 990. Slt mrsh ecology. Cmridge Wter Qulity nd its Effect on Soil Infiltrtion University Press, Cmridge, UK. Rte in Riydh Region. M.Sc. thesis. College of 25. Bldwin, A.H. nd I.A. Mendelssohn, 998. Effects Agriculture, King Sud University, Sudi Ari. of slinity nd wter level on costl mrshes: n 2. Tomr, O.S., P.S. Minhs, V.K. Shrm, Y.P. Sing nd experimentl test of disturnce s ctlyst for Rj K. Gupt, Performnce of 3 tree species vegettion chnge. Aqutic Bot., 6: nd soil conditions in plnttion estlished 26. Ungr, I.A., 996. Effect of slinity on seed with sline irrigtion. Forest Ecol. & Mng., 77: germintion, growth nd ion ccumultion of Atriplex ptul (Chenopodicee). Am. J. Bot., 3. Mrcr, N.E., D.F. Crwford, A. Snunders 83: A.C. Mtheson nd R.A. Anold, Genetic 27. Ctlán, L.M. Blzrini E. Tleisnik R. Sereno nd vrition mong nd within provennces nd fmilies U. Krlin, 994. Effects of slinity on germintion of Euclyptus grndis W.Hill nd E. gloulus Lill. nd seedling growth of Prosopis flexuos (D.C.). Susp. gloulus seedling in response to slinity Forest Ecol. & Mng., 63(2-3): nd wterlogging. Forest Ecolo. nd Mng., 62: 28. Sun, D. nd G.R. Dickinson, 995. Slinity effects on tree growth, root distriution nd trnspirtion 4. Sun, D. nd G.R. Dickinson, 993. Responses to slt of Csurin cunninghmin nd Euclyptus stress of 6 Euclyptus, Greville roust, cmldulensis plnted on sline site in tropicl Lophostemon confertus nd Pinus crie vr. north Austrli. Forest Ecol. & Mng., 77(-3): hondurensis. Forest Ecol. & Mng., 60: Grieve, C.M. nd M.C. Shnnon, 999. Ion 29. Rmoliy, P.J. nd A.N. Pndey, Effect of ccumultion nd distriution in shoot components incresing slt concentrtion on emergence, growth of slt-stressed Euclyptus clones. J. Am. Soci. nd survivl of seedlings of Slvdor oleoides Horticul. Sci., 24: (Slvdorcee). J. Arid Environ., 5:

10 30. Miymoto, S., T. Riley, G. Gorn nd J. Petticrew, 40. Glenn, E., R. Pfister, J.J. Brown, T.L. Thompson nd Effects of sline wter irrigtion on soil slinity, J. O'Lery, 996. N nd K Accumultion nd Slt Pecn tree growth nd nut production. Irrigtion Sci., Tolernce of Atriplex cnescens (Chenopodicee) 7(2): Genotypes. Am. J. Bot., 83(8): El-Juhny, L.I. nd I.M. Aref, Interctive 4. Brown, J.J., E.P. Glenn K.M. Fitzsimmons nd effects of low wter supply nd high slt S.E. Smith, 999. Hlophytes for the tretment of concentrtion on the growth nd dry mtter sline quculture effluent. Aquculture 75(3-4): prtitioning of Conocrpus erectus seedlings Sudi J. Biol. Sci., 2(2): Aid, M., A. Altf, A. Dsti nd R. Adul Wjid, 32. Mehri, A., T. Ericsson nd M. Weih, Effects 200. Effects of slinity nd SAR of irrigtion wter of NCl on seedling growth, iomss production on yield, physiologyicl growth prmeters of mize nd wter sttus of Acci nilotic nd A. tortilis. (Ze mys L.) nd properties of the soil. J. Res. Sci., J. Arid Environ., 62(2): Bhuddin Zkriy University, Multn, Pkistn 33. Ctchpoole, S.J., G. Downes nd S.M. Red, (): The effect of Slt on wood nd fire formtion in 43. Slter, J., K. Morris, P.C.E. Biley nd P.I. Boon, euclypts. Rurl Industries Reserch nd Interctive effects of slinity nd wter Development Corportion, RIRDC Puliction No depth on the growth of Melleuc ericifoli Sm. 00/62, RIRDC Project No UM- 8A. (Swmp pperrk) seedlings. Aqutic Bot., 86: 34. Geuer, J., K. El-Siddig, A.A. Slih nd G. Eert, Tmrindus indic L. seedlings re modertely 44. Rodríguez, P., A. Torrecills, M.A. Morles, slt tolernt when exposed to NCl-induced slinity. M.F. Ortuño nd M.J. Sánchez-Blnco, Scienti Horticulture, 03: -8. Effects of NCl slinity nd wter stress on growth 35. Chen, S.K., J. Li, E. Fritz, S. Wng nd A. nd lef wter reltions of Asteriscus mritimus Hüttermnn, Sodium nd chloride distriution plnts. Environ. & Experim. Bot., 53: in roots nd trnsport in three poplr genotypes 45. Dodd, G.L. nd L.A. Donovn, 999. Wter potentil under incresing NCl stress. Forest Ecology nd nd ionic effects on germintion nd seedling growth Mngement, 68: of two cold desert shrus. Am. J. Bot., 86(8): Houle, G.L., C.E. Morel Reynolds nd J. Siégel, We, D.B., P.J. Wood, J.P. Smith nd G. Sin The effect of slinity on different developmentl Henmn, 984. Tropicl Forestry Ppers No. 5, stges of n endemic nnul plnt-aster ed 2 Edition, Revised A Guide to Selection lurentinus Fernld (Astercee). Am. J. Bot., for Tropicl nd Su-Tropicl Plnttions. Unit of 88: Tropicl Silviculture Commonwelth Forestry 37. Chrtzoulkis, K.S., Slinity nd olive: Growth, Institute, University of Oxford. Printed in Gret slt tolernce, photosynthesis nd yield. Agric. Britin y Express Litho Service (Oxford), pp: 263. Wter Mng., 78(-2): New South Wles government, Book 4: 38. Meloni, D.A., M.R. Gulott C.A. Mrtinez nd Drylnd Slinity: Productive Use of Sline Lnd M.A. Oliv, The effects of slt stress on nd Wter, Deprtment of Nturl Resources, growth, nitrte reduction nd proline nd Slinity Solutions. glycineetine ccumultion in Prosopis l. slinity/solutions/solutions_ook04.htm Brzilin J. Plnt Physiol., 6(): FAO-Food nd Agriculture Orgniztion of UN, 39. Peric, S. nd S. Goret, Lef Ion Concentrtion Ecocorp, Dt sheet: Euclyptus intertext. nd Biomss Alloction of Domestic nd Introduced rd Olive Cultivrs s Affected y NCl Stress. 43 =5872 rd Crotin nd 3 Interntionl Symposium on Agriculture, Ferury 8-2,

Annex 5: Henrik Haugaard-Nielsen, Senior Researcher. Dorette Müller-Stöver, Post Doc.

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