Effect of combine working speed and seed moisture content on berseem clover losses in khouzestan

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1 International Journal of Agriculture and Crop Sciences. Available online at IJACS/2013/5-4/ ISSN X 2013 IJACS Journal Effect of combine working speed and seed moisture content on berseem clover losses in khouzestan N. Mosadegh Rod 1, M. A. Asoodar 2 and M. Rahnema 3 1, 2, 3. MS, Associate Professor and Assistant Professor Department of Agricultural machinery Engineering, Khouzestan Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resources University Corresponding author ABSTRACT: Berseem clover is shown a good potential for forage production and needs significant care at harvest time to reduce seed losses. Recognition of effective factors and using suitable mechanism of crop harvesting can reduce seed losses to an acceptable amount. To investigate berseem clover seed losses due to seed moisture content and the speed of combine harvester at seed harvest time, research was carried out in khouzestan province in This study included three seed moisture contents (10, 15 and 20%) and three combine working speeds (1, 2 and 2.5 km.h -1 ) based on split plot by using a randomized block design with 3 replications. Results were shown that the interaction between speed and seed moisture content on platform and thresher was significant (p 0.01). Reduction of seed moisture content from 20% to 10%, seed losses on platform increased from 4.61% to 8.11%. Interaction between combine working speed and seed moisture content showed 4.53% (65.98 kg.ha -1 ) losses where combine working speed was 1 km.h -1 with 20% seed moisture content and the highest was 11.66% (169.2 kg.ha -1 ) using 2.5 km.h -1 speed and 10% moisture content. Finally combine working speed of 2 km.h -1 and 15% seed moisture content were suitable for harvesting berseem clover seed. Key words: Berseem clover seed, harvesting, losses INTRODUCTION Egyptian or berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) one of the most important winter forage legumes. Berseem clover is used for pasture or hay production and its forage is of high quality. Since animal production rate is in highly correlation with providing sufficient fodder for livestock, it is necessary to invest more activities in forage production inside the country. Choosing the method and equipment for harvesting depend on the type of product, planting and the climatic condition (Srivastava et al., 1990). Extensive range of crops from oilseeds, grass and clover seeds through to large faba beans are mechanically harvested with combines (Hanna and Quick, 2007). There are five losses relating to the combining of the grain: a) shatter loss: grain laying on the ground or out of reach of the cutter bar, b) cutter bar loss: grain lost due to rough handling by the cutter bar, c) threshing loss: grain Lost out the rear of the combine in the from of unthreshed heads, d) separating loss: grain lost out the rear of the combine in the from of threshed grain and. e) cleaning loss: loss in value of the crop due to the presence of foreign matter in the grain tank (Hunt, 2001). Small grains and Oilseed rape harvesting losses, which occur during cutting, separation, cleaning and shaking, reach 5 10%; cutting and separation processes account for 80 90% of the total harvesting losses. (Domeika et al 2008). Measured losses for one crop of winter rape ranged from 11 to 25% (Price et al., 1996) and higher losses have been reported (Child and Evans, 1989). The platform losses increased with increasing operational speed and decreasing moisture content. Increasing in speed from 1.13 to 1.68 kmh -1 caused the total loss in oil seeds harvest to reach from to 17.08, from to 15.48, and to 10.16, respectively in moisture content of 12, 15 and 19% (Kholief et al., 2009). In proper field conditions, more than 90 percent of the total harvest losses happen at combine platform (Fazel Niyari et al., 2008). Lotfy et al. (2002) found that by using combine harvester (case-international 1620), increasing forward speed from 1.8 to 4.8 increased platform losses from 3.7 to 9.9, 4.10 to 10.2, 4.40 to and 9.8 to 14.9% at seed moisture content of 22.6, 18.4, 15.3 and 11.2% respectively. Hassani et al (2011) reduced the losses due to control combine platform to the rate of %1.29.

2 Threshing efficiency, seed damage percentage and threshing capacity decreased by increasing moisture content, also the best of moisture content of 15% gave the lowest seed damage and seed losses (El- Beba 2001). The highest threshing losses rate within 10 mm cylinder and concave at a thresher speeding of 750 rpm is 0.45% and the lowest rate is 0.147% with a distance of 7 mm between thresher and anti thresher at the thresher speeding of 850 rpm (Sheikh Davoodi et al., 2010). Simonyan and Oni (2001) reported an increased in threshing efficiency and with decreased in moisture content. Threshing effectiveness was also found to be affected by the cylinder speed The performance of a wheat plot combine harvester was evaluated at three levels of moisture content and operational speed, on the basis of total losses, grain breakage, performance and threshing efficiency, the speed of 1.5 gave better results at 9.16 % moisture content than the other two speeds (1 and 2 ) (Patel and varshney, 2007). Asghari Meydani et al (2003) investigated two types of combines (Class and John Deere) on two kinds of dryland wheat in two times of harvesting, 15 days for each time. The results indicated that harvesting with delay in the second time has more loss compared to the first time while it was increased about 9 kg/h for each day of delay. The lowest and highest average losses in different parts of the combine with regarding to the working speed of platform in threshing was 0.77 to 2.08% and in separation 0.51 to 1.64% and the total loss was 3.55%. (Khorram et al., 2009) Technical and economic comparison on the combines to reduce harvest losses has shown that the main cause of losses is caused by two main factors: One of them is the cutter blade yield on plant stalk causing severe stem shaking and dropping pods, and the other is the inferiority and weakness of the materials used in cutter blades which over time will be pulverized (Riethmuller, 2001). Since seed moisture content at harvest time and working speed are the affective factors on the amount of clover seed losses with combine-harvester, it is necessary to investigate the technical and economical studies on the effect of seed moisture content at harvest time, working speed in losses amount and losses at harvest, so the reduction of the seed losses at harvest time can encourage the farmers to increase the production. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study was carried out in at Shahid Beheshti agro-industrial located in Khouzestan province. The experiment was conducted using split strip plots in completely randomized block design with 3 replications. In this study two factors were considered: Working speed (three levels: 1, 2 and 2.5 kmh -1 ) and moisture content (10, 15 and 20%). Seed moisture content was achieved by measuring in percentage with sampling available wheat in combine storage by using grain moisture content meter. Platform Losses To measure the loss of seeds at combine platform some containers have been designed. Each container has a semicircular point with a diameter of 9 cm and a length of 5/1 meter. Each container has been made by a longitudinal incision in Plica tube with a diameter of 9 cm. There are some holes at the end of each containers fitted with bolts for longitudinal connectivity between the containers. 4 container longitudinal connectivity made a new container with a width of 9 cm and a length of 6 meters which took the whole width of the combine-working. After connecting 4 containers of 1.5 meter that made a 6 meter container, the new made one was placed on the ground between the clover stalks on the perpendicular direction way of combine. The semicircular shape of the containers point made it possible to being put between the clover stalks. To measure the seed losses on the platform the 6 meter container was put on perpendicular direction way of combine between the clover stalks. While the combine platform was crossing the container and before reaching the containers front wheel, the combine stopped working and the container was removed from under the combine then the seeds were collected. To increase the accuracy in each plot, 3 samplings were done. Rare combine losses (separation losses + cleaning losses) In order to measure the losses, on the length of 4 meters from the end of each plot was marked and the combine output in this gap was collected in a 4 4 meters fabric holding by 4 men. By getting the combine on the end of each plot, the fabric was pulled from the back of the combine. Straw, pods and the whole fabric content 350

3 were collected and dumped into a sack. Suppressed and half- suppressed seeds in the pods were weighed as threshing losses and also the free seeds as separation and cleaning losses. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Analysis of variance indicates that combine working speed and seed moisture content were shown a significant effect on platform losses (p 0.01). The platform losses increased with increasing combine working speed. The platform losses was the highest (7.46 %) where 2.5 kmh -1 and the platform losses was lowest (5.37%) at 1 kmh -1. The platform losses was highest (7.46 %) at 2.5 kmh -1 for 10% seed moisture content and platform losses was lowest (5.37%) at 1 kmh -1 for 20% seed moisture content. Studies on interaction effects showed that the maximum and minimum platform losses at a speed of 2.5 kmh -1 for 10% seed moisture content was 10.49% and at a speed of 1 kmh -1 for 20% seed moisture content 4.13%. It seems that when the working speed increased the plants also shaked severly due to the increasing of the cutter bar hitting and this leads to releasing the seeds from the pod. The later the harvest and the less seed moisture content, there will be the more releasing seeds. This is in agreement with Hassani et al (2011), Patel et al (2007) and Sheikh Davoodi et al (2010) Figure 1. Effect of combine working speed on platform losses seed moisture %20 seed moisture %15 seed moisture % Figure 2. Interaction of working speed and seed moisture content on platform losses 351

4 Threshing Losses Analysis of variance indicates that combine working speed and seed moisture content created a significant effect on thresher losses (p 0.01). The threshing losses increased with increasing combine working speed. The threshing losses was highest (0.517% =7.5 kg.ha -1 ) at 2.5 kmh -1 and the threshing losses was lowest (0.404% =5.8 kg.ha -1 ) at 1 kmh -1. The threshing losses increased with decreasing seed moisture content. The greatest losses related to moisture content of 20% was 0.59% (8.6 kg..ha -1 ) and the lowest was 0.33% (4.8 kg.ha -1 ) related to moisture content of 10%. Studies on interaction effects showed that the maximum and minimum platform losses at a speed of 2.5 kmh -1 for 20% seed moisture content was 0.66% and at a speed of 1 kmh -1 for 10% seed moisture conten 0.29%. It seems that combines extremely high speed working caused the feed rate to increase and as a result thresher cylinder got over time and the clover pods weren t well suppressed. And the seeds were out of the thresher reach and thrown out half-suppressed pods. This conclusion was consistent with the findings Patel (2007), Khoram et al. (2009) and Kholeif et al (2009). Figure 3. Effect of working speed on threshing losses 10% seed moisture 15% seed moisture 20% seed moisture Figure 4. Effect of seed moisture content on threshing losses 352

5 Rear Lossess (Separation Losses + Cleaning Losses) Analysis of variance indicates that Combine working speed and seed moisture content created a significant effect on rear losses (p 0..01). The rear losses increased with increasing combine working speed. The threshing losses was highest (0.36%) at 2.5 kmh -1 and the threshing losses was lowest (0.28%) at 1 kmh -1. rear losses increased with decreasing seed moisture content. The rear lossess was highest (0.46%) for 10% seed moisture content and the rear losses was lowest (0.15%) for 20% seed moisture content. Study on interactionn effects showed that the rear lossess was highest (0.512 %) at 2.5 kmh -1 for 10% seed moisture content and rear losses was lowest (0.118%) at 1 kmh -1 for 20% seed moisture content. It seems that increasing in speed working also caused the feed rate and the load on straw whisk to increase, so there wasn t enough time for seeds to pass thorough the pile of straw and were being thrown out from the back of the combine. This is in agreement results published by Hassani et al (2011) and Srivastava (1995). Figure 5. Effect of working speed on rearr losses seed moisture % seed moisture % seed moisture % Figure 6. Interaction between working speed and seed moisture content on rear losses 353

6 CONCLUSION This study was performed to evaluate berseem clover seed losses using combine JD 955 in Iran condition. The results revealed that the effect of working speed on the platform, thresher and the rear losses was significant. The losses rate were increased with increasing speed. Also, the effect of seed moisture on the platform, thresher and the rear losses was significant. And the losses rate was increased with decreasing of the moisture. The minimum losses rate was 4.53% at speed of 1 kmh -1 for 20% seed moisture and the maximum losses rate was 11.66%. at speed of 2.5 kmh -1 and for 10%seed moisture.also the highest rear losses rate was 0.512% at working speed of 2.5 kmh -1 for 10% moisture content and the lowest losses rate was 0.118% at speed of 1 kmh -1 for 20% moisture content. The highest rear losses rate on the platform was 10.49% at the speed working of 2.5 kmh -1 for 10%moisture content and the lowest losses rate was 4.13% at speed of 1 kmh -1 for 20% moisture content. Most of the losses were related to the platform which on average was 87% of total losses. Timing of harvesting has been shown to be important.combine JD 955 won t be an efficient choice since it will cause a high loss on platform (about 8%) and also economical losses for the producer. According to the results a total losses was about 6% at a speed of 2 kmh -1 for 15% moisture content the harvesting will be suitable. REFERENCES Ashtari Larki M, Asoodar MA, Saadatfar M The Effect of Different Seeding Methods and Using Platform Extension on Yield and Harvesting Losses of Canola. 5th Agricultural Mechanization and Machinery Engineering Conf., Mashhad Univ. Child RD, Evans DE Improvements of recoverable yields in oilseed rape (Brassica napus with growth retardants. Aspects of Applied Biology. 23: Domeika R, Jasinskas A, Steponaviius D, Vaiciukeviius E, Butkus V The estimation methods of oilseed rape harvesting losses. J. Agron. Res. 6: El-Beba AA A study on a modified local machine for threshing sunflower. Fazel Niyari Z, Mostofi Sarkari MR, Adelzade R, Gharib Eshghi A Assessment and Comparison of Combine Harvesting Losses of Soybean. 5th Agricultural Mechanization and Machinery Engineering Conf., Mashhad Univ. Hassani HS, Jafari AS, Mohtasebi S, Setayesh AM Investigation on grain losses of the JD 1165 combine harvester equipped with variable pully and belt for forward travel. American Journal of Food Technology. 6(4): Hunt D Farm power and machinery management, tenth Edition, Iowa State Univ Kholief RM, Sayed-Ahmed IF, El-Haddad WZ Quantification of mechanical losses on oilseed rape harvesting. Journal Agriculture Science Mansoura University. 34(4): Khorram GH, Minae S, Mostofi Sarkari MR Coperative study of Grain Loss Harvested with Imported Combine (Johndeere1450 class Medion 310 NewHolland TC56H )and johnde th Assessing Agricultural Crops Waists Conf. of Tehran. Lotfy A, Amer AH, Gamea GR A comparative study between two different methods for harvesting and threshing of winter rape-seed crop. Misr J. Agric. Eng. 21(10): M.Sc. Thesis, Agric. Mech. Dept., Fac. of Agric., Mansoura Univ. Patel SK, Varshney BP Effect of Operational Speed and Moisture Content of Wheat Crop on Plot Combine Harvest. Agricultural mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America. 38 (4): Price JS, Neale MA, Hobson RN, Bruce DM Seed losses in commercial harvesting of oilseed rape. Journal of agricultural engineering research. 65: Riethmuller Q Lupin harvesting modifications. Department of Agriculture western Australia. Farmnote 19/95. Sheikh Davoodi MJ, Houshyar E Evaluation of Wheat Losses Using New Holland Combine Harvester in Iran. American Eurasian J. Agric. & Environ. Sci. 8 (1): Simonyan KJ, Oni KC Performance evaluation of a motorized locust bean decorticator. Journal of Agricultural Technology. 9(1): Srivastava A K, Mahony WT, West NI The Effect of Crop Properties on Combine Performance. Trans. of ASAE, 33(1). P

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