The Fernow Watershed Acidification Study

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1 The Fernow Watershed Acidification Study

2 ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION VOLUME 11 Editors Brian J. Alloway, Department of Soil Science, The University of Reading, U.K. Jack T. Trevors, Department of Environmental Biology, University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada Editorial Board T. Anderson, The Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, U.S.A. T.H. Christensen, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Danish Technical University, Lyngby, Denmark I. Colbeck, Institute for Environmental Research, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Essex, Colchester, U.K. K.C. Jones, Institute of Environmental and Natural Sciences, Lancaster University, U.K. W. Salomons, GKSS Research Center, Geesthacht, Germany The titles published in this series are listed at the end of this volume.

3 The Fernow Watershed Acidification Study Edited by Mary Beth Adams USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station, Parsons, West Virginia, U.S.A. David R. DeWalle Pennsylvania State University, School of Forest Resources and Institutes of the Environment, University Park, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. and John L. Hom USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station, Newtown Square, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.

4 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data ISBN (HB) ISBN (HB) ISBN (e-book) ISBN (e-book) Published by Springer, P.O. Box 17, 3300 AA Dordrecht, The Netherlands. Printed on acid-free paper All Rights Reserved 2006 Springer No part of this work may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, microfilming, recording or otherwise, without written permission from the Publisher, with the exception of any material supplied specifically for the purpose of being entered and executed on a computer system, for exclusive use by the purchaser of the work. Printed in the Netherlands.

5 CONTENTS Preface... xi Chapter 1. Introduction to the Fernow Watershed Acidification Study David R. DeWalle, John L. Hom, and Mary Beth Adams 1. Introduction Atmospheric Deposition at Fernow Theory of Acidification by Atmospheric Deposition Fernow Research Themes Nutrient Cation Mobilization Cation Depletion/Aluminum Mobilization Biomass Growth Cycles Steady States Book Organization References. 15 Chapter 2. Fernow and the Appalachian Hardwood Region James N. Kochenderfer 1. Regional Description Disturbance Agents Vegetation Description Early Settlement and Industrial Development Early Fernow History Fernow Research Fernow Geology and Soils Fernow Forest Composition Fernow Climate Study Watersheds Water Instrumentation Watershed Acidification Treatments References.. 34 Chapter 3. Soil Chemical Response to Experimental Acidification Treatments Mary Beth Adams, David R. DeWalle,William T. Peterjohn, Frank S. Gilliam, William E. Sharpe, and Karl W.J. Williard 1. Introduction Methods 42 v

6 vi Contents 2.1. Comparisons between WS3 and WS Comparisons between WS3 and WS Effects on Soils on WS Results Pretreatment Soil Characteristics WS3, WS4, WS Pretreatment Soil Characteristics WS Treatment Effects Comparisons between WS3 and WS Comparisons between WS3 and WS Treatment Effects WS Soil N Cycling Discussion Conclusion References 66 Chapter 4. Soil Water and Stream Water Chemical Responses Pamela J. Edwards, Karl W. J. Williard, Frederica Wood, and William E. Sharpe 1. Introduction Methods Soil Water Sampling Stream Water Sampling Chemical Analyses Data Analyses Soil Water WS4 and WS3 Responses WS9 Responses Stream Water Concentrations in Baseflow WS4 Responses WS3 Responses WS9 Responses Concentrations at Peakflow WS4 Responses WS3 Responses WS9 Responses Discussion Application of Base Cation Results Application of Nitrate Responses Regional Susceptibility to Acidification Summary and Conclusion References..131

7 Contents vii Chapter 5. Vegetation and Acidification David R. DeWalle, James N. Kochenderfer, Mary Beth Adams, Gary W. Miller, Frank S. Gilliam, Frederica Wood, Stephanie S. Odenwald-Clemens, and William E. Sharpe 1. Introduction Vegetation Description Fernow Stand Conditions WS3 and WS Herbaceous Layer Characteristics WS3 and WS Stand Conditions WS Methods Tree and Stand Growth Growth Plot Analyses Tree Core Analysis Foliar Chemistry Dendrochemistry Herb Layer Dynamics Results WS3 vs. WS7 (Fernow) Results Tree Growth Growth Plots Tree Cores Overstory Foliar Chemistry Dendrochemistry Herb Layer Effects WS9 (Clover Run) Results Tree Growth Foliar Chemistry Dendrochemistry Discussion Conclusions References Chapter 6. Response of Salamanders to Experimental Acidification Treatments Thomas K. Pauley, Mark B. Watson, James N. Kochenderfer, and Michael Little 1. Introduction Salamanders in the Fernow Experimental Forest.190

8 viii Contents 1.2. Biology and Ecology of Salamanders Effects of Disturbance on Salamanders Salamander Research on the Fernow Experimental Forest Methods Effects of Watershed Acidification Effects of Clearcutting Results Effects of Watershed Acidification on Salamanders Effects of Clearcutting on Salamanders Discussion Conclusions References 200 Chapter 7. Acidification and Nutrient Cycling Mary Beth Adams, William T. Peterjohn, and Frank S. Gilliam 1. Introduction Nitrogen Cycling Inputs Outputs Budgets Internal Cycling Sulfur Cycling Inputs Outputs Budgets Internal Cycling Calcium Cycling Inputs Outputs Budgets Internal Cycling Magnesium Cycling Inputs Outputs Budgets Internal Cycling Potassium Cycling Inputs.. 228

9 Contents ix 6.2. Outputs Budgets Internal Cycling Conclusions References Chapter 8. Implications for Forest Ecosystem Sustainability and Resiliency John L. Hom, Yude Pan, and Kevin McCullough 1. Introduction Methods Model Description: Focus on N Deposition Nitrogen Deposition Scenarios Results N Deposition Modeling and Mapping Net Primary Productivity, NPP Water Yield Current Forest N Leaching Losses and Retention Comparison with Field Data Conclusions References Chapter 9. Conclusions and Recommendations from the Fernow Watershed Acidification Study Mary Beth Adams, David R. DeWalle, and John L. Hom 1. Nutrient Cation Mobilization Cation Depletion/Aluminum Mobilization Biomass Growth Cycles Steady States Implications for Forest Sustainability and Resiliency Research Recommendations References Appendices 269 Index 277

10 Preface In the late 1980 s, a considerable amount of research addressing the effects of acidic deposition was begun, much of it related to the Congressionally mandated National Atmospheric Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP). As a result of the 10-year NAPAP program, effects on human health, materials, structures, visibility and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems were evaluated. As a result of NAPAP funded research, negative effects of acidic deposition were documented on freshwater lakes in the Adirondacks and on the red spruce of the Adirondacks and northern Appalachians. One of the recommendations of the NAPAP Forest Response Program, however, was that a better understanding of the effects of acidic deposition and its constituents on processes within forest ecosystems was needed. In response to this need, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) funded an ambitious program to manipulate the geochemical processes within waterbe treated, to encompass the scope of vegetation types, climate and sheds in the United States. Originally, there were to be many watersheds to deposition regimes. Ultimately only two such studies, one at on the Fernow Experimental Forest in West Virginia and one at Bear Brook Watersheds in Maine (BBWM) were implemented. Both are ongoing more than fifteen years later. Work began in 1987 in preparation for the Fernow Watershed Acidification Study. Much attention was initially devoted to issues related to analyses of water chemistry and the quality control/quality assurance of the data coming from the study. A pilot study was conducted on WS9 (Clover Run watershed) to ensure that the project was feasible, and to work out the details and methods to be used. Treatment of Fernow WS3 began in January 1989, and has continued to this time. Funding from EPA was relatively shortlived, and since that time the treatments and measurements have continued through the determination, cooperation, and effort of the scientists and field crew of the Fernow. Timely support in 2000 by the Northern Global Change Research Program of the USDA Forest Service allowed the study to continue. In 2003/4, the Fernow Watershed Acidification Study was selected by the National Science Foundation for funding through the Long-Term Research in Environmental Biology (LTREB) program, ensuring its continuation for at least another 5 years, and expanding the outreach and education opportunities. This book presents, for the first time, a collection and synthesis of research studies conducted as part of the Fernow Watershed Acidification Study for the period the first 15 years. While many of these data have been previously published in peer-reviewed journals and other outlets, xi

11 xii Preface this is the first time we have attempted to synthesize the information in a one publication. The list of research studies, and the researchers involved in the Fernow Watershed Acidification Study, is long, as evidenced by the contributors to this book. The efforts of these researchers have made the Fernow Watershed Acidification Study a success, and much credit goes to these individuals. In addition to these people, particular acknowledgement must be made of the contributions of J. David Helvey for his excellent work in preparing the original proposal, establishing the study, and for his research which provided the setting and background information that was critical in attracting the attention of EPA. The Fernow Watershed Acidification Study also included contributions from faculty, students and technicians of cooperating academic institutions, notably Fairmont State University, Marshall University, Penn State University, University of Maine, and West Virginia University. Research for many studies has been supported by the USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station as well as numerous grants from other sources cited in original publications. Many of those affiliated with academic institutions are authors in this book, but additional credit should be given to Bryan Swistock, Jeffrey Tepp, Callie Joe Schweitzer, Angela Happel, Agaha Brass, Anthony Buda, and Chad Voorhees from Penn State University, Jeff Bailey, Nicole Turill Welch, Staci Smith Aulick, Dan Evans and Jeff May from Marshall University, and Cassie Jo Foster and Martin Christ from West Virginia University. Long-term research requires careful, committed technical help, and the Fernow Watershed Acidification Study simply would not have been feasible without dedicated, skillful field technicians including John Campbell, Doug Owens, Melvin Owens, Layne Godwin, Clifford Phillips, Frank Long, and Cloyd Rinehart. For help with the fertilizer applications, we recognize Scott Hockman, Mark Owens, Roy Poling, Jeff Pennington, Alan Myers, and particularly Tim Scherm, our flight coordinator. The reliable work of John Pearce, Emmett Fox, Buck Grey, Lynda Gerath, Jean Cassidy and Joan Pennington in the water quality laboratory is also acknowledged. Frederica Wood has provided very capable data management for all of these years, and provided outstanding support in developing the figures for this volume. In preparing this book, we have benefited greatly from clerical support provided by Linda Loughry, Linda Plaugher, and Beau Marshall. Susan Wright provided careful editing of an earlier draft, and we acknowledge with appreciation the help of Betty Van Herk of Springer in bringing us through the publication process and assuring quality. We also acknowledge the many people who reviewed individual chapters: Scott Bailey, Ivan Fernandez, Mark Ford, Ray Hicks, Jennifer Knoepp, Steve Norton, Bill Peterjohn, Kathryn Piatek, Tom Schuler. A special acknowledgement goes to the three

12 Preface xiii individuals who reviewed the book in its entirety and provided us with helpful comments: David Grigal, Mark Johnson, and Eric Vance. Mary Beth Adams David R. DeWalle John L. Hom

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