Keywords: Asparagus officinalis L., green asparagus, white asparagus, consumption, export, domestic, hemispheres, canned, fresh, frozen

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1 2005 UPDATE OF THE WORLD S ASPARAGUS PRODUCTION AREAS, SPEAR UTILIZATION, YIELDS AND PRODUCTION PERIODS (To be published in the Proceedings of the XI International Asparagus Symposium in Acta Horticulturae) B. L. Benson California Asparagus Seed and Transplants, Inc Anza Ave., Davis, California U.S.A. Keywords: Asparagus officinalis L., green asparagus, white asparagus, consumption, export, domestic, hemispheres, canned, fresh, frozen Abstract The estimates of asparagus producing areas, the periods of spear production and the utilization of spears are presented for the world s asparagus producing countries. These data are based on contacts with international asparagus researchers, growers and industry representatives. This poster presentation was a working poster display affording the participants of the 11th International Asparagus Symposium the opportunity to update and amend the presented data. The amended data are presented in this paper. INTRODUCTION Asparagus officinalis L. production areas in 65 countries are continually changing and are difficult to monitor since asparagus is considered a minor crop in most countries and the production data is usually reported under the broad term of vegetable production. The collection of data on the recent changes in asparagus production in the various countries and the crop utilization has to be acquired from those people that are intimately associated with this crop. The production areas in the asparagus industries throughout the world are the result of the worldwide increased consumer demand for this product and the changes in the economic conditions in the producing and consuming nations. International movements of fresh, frozen and canned asparagus are inter-related and dependent upon the consumption and production periods of the various countries. The largest increases in asparagus production in the last ten years has occurred in countries in the Southern Hemisphere and China and in countries with low labor rates where they can produce spears relatively cheaply and/or market their production during a higher priced market window in another country or hemisphere. Increased internal consumption and higher market prices have helped to stabilize the production in the countries with long histories of asparagus production, although trade agreements, increased imports and higher production costs in these countries has negatively affected their production areas. The 1997, 2001 and 2005 world asparagus production data from the participants of the International Asparagus Symposia (IAS) and from author contacts provides an historical look at the changes that have occurred in the last 9 years in the world s

2 asparagus producing countries. During this period, the establishment of Free Trade Agreements in the Americas has led to the increases in the production and exportation of asparagus into the United States of America from Mexico, Peru and Chile while causing a decrease in production in the U.S.A. In Asia, China has continued to increase production to meet increased internal consumption and improving export markets. An updated, worldwide, knowledge of the areas of asparagus spear production, the periods of production and the utilization of the spears is necessary for those involved in this industry to plan for changes in their respective countries. MATERIALS AND METHODS World asparagus production data from 1997, 2001 from the participants of the International Asparagus Symposia, (Benson 1999, Benson 2002) and from personal contacts in 03 and 05 were presented in tabular form in a working poster display at the 11 th IAS. The poster display data included the numbers of hectares and the average marketable yields in each country that is known to have asparagus production. The areas are further estimated as to the changes that are taking place in each country, i.e., areas increasing, decreasing or stable and the spear type harvested, white or green, were presented. Estimates on the percent of spears used for fresh, canned or frozen spear markets and the percent of spears consumed in the domestic market or exported were presented as part of the posted display. The time during which there is any marketable spear production was presented as the spear production periods for each country. The participants attending the 11 th IAS were invited to update and amend the data that was presented so that any inconsistencies with actual areas, changes in areas and spear type and utilization could be corrected prior to publishing this paper. Those countries with amended data are included in this paper Eurasper Conference data and author contact data was used for countries that did not have participants at the XI IAS. The separation of the world s asparagus production in the North South and East-West hemispheres was calculated from the information on production areas. RESULTS AND DISSCUSSION In 2005, there were at least 57 asparagus producing countries on six continents with an estimated total production area of 225,095 hectares of which 43 percent were producing white spears and 57 percent producing green spears (Table 1). This is the first time that green spear production area has been greater than white. The 2005 production area is down from the 2001 area by 25,672 ha due mainly to the reductions of areas in China, U.S.A., France, Spain, Greece, South Africa, New Zealand and Australia (Table 2). Data was not available for the countries Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Namibia, Malawi, Western Samoa, Venezuela and Lesotho and are not included in the tables.

3 Table 2 shows that Asia s production is estimated at 89,840 ha, with China now producing on 80,000 ha. Of Europe s 62,580 ha, the leading country is Germany with 20,000 ha, followed by Spain with 15,000 ha. North America s production is estimated at 37,795 ha with the U.S.A. producing 20,000 ha followed by Mexico with 15,825 ha. Peru is the largest producer in South America s with 18,000 ha, of the 26,450 hectares in South America. South Africa s 2,000 ha and Australia s 4,000 ha lead on their respective continents. Aside from the above countries where production area has reduced, all of the other asparagus producing countries are estimated to have either a stable or increasing production areas (Table 2). These stable and increasing areas are assumed to be due to increased consumption of either white or green asparagus for export or internal markets. In those countries that have reduced their production areas, the reduction has been due to economic pressures of their increasing labor and land costs and/or the increased competition from countries that have lower production costs or that have benefited from the various free trade agreements and the addition of countries into the European Union. China s reduction in area was due to devastating floods in Very significant changes in the production of white and green asparagus (Table 3), spear utilization (Table 4), export or domestic consumption (Table 5) has been seen in China and Peru since 1997, these data have been placed in bold type in the tables. As China increased it s share in the European canned white spear market, Peru responded by decreasing their white canned spear production and increased the fresh green spear production for export primarily to the U.S.A. From 1997 to 2005, China has dramatically increased its domestic consumption of asparagus from 1 percent to 45 percent (Table 5) and it s green spear production from 15 to 50 percent (Table3). This has had two significant effects, (1) it has removed a large production of asparagus from the international markets and (2) it has allowed China to increase its production area to meet its domestic demands. Peru, in contrast, has not increased its domestic consumption and is nearly totally dependent on the exportation of its production (Table 5). There have been increased periods of spear production in Japan and The Netherlands since 2001 (Table 6). Both the early and late extensions of spear production periods have provided growers increased prices and yields for their production with the use of plastic tunnels, green houses and soil applied plastic films or modified Mother Fern production systems. Literature Cited Benson, B. L., World asparagus production areas and periods of production. Proc. of 9 th Int. Asparagus Symp. Ed. B. Benson. Acta Hort. 479: Benson, B.L., Update of the world s asparagus production areas, spear utilization and production periods. Proc. Of 10 th Int. Asp. Symp. Ed. A. Uragami. Acta Hort. 589:33-40

4 Table 1. Estimated World Asparagus Areas in 2005 by Hemispheres and the Percentage of White or Green Spear Production HECTARES AND PERCENT OF PRODUCTION HEMISPHERE HECTARES % WHITE % GREEN % NORTH 191,995 85% 90,105 47% 101,890 53% SOUTH 33,100 15% 7,295 22% 25,805 78% EAST 144,050 63% 79,775 55% 64,275 45% WEST 81,045 37% 17,625 22% 63,420 78% TOTAL 225, % 97,400 43% 127,695 57%

5 Table 2. Areas and Average Spear Yields in Asparagus Producing Countries COUNTRIES Change in Area AVE. YIELD Kgs./Ha Asparagus Production Areas Hectares COUNTRIES Change in Area AVE. YIELD Kgs./Ha Asparagus Production Areas Hectares China up 8,000 80,000 90,000 55,000 Canada (Ont.) stable 3,000 1,500 1,500 1,250 India up 3, Costa Rica stable 3, Indonesia up 3, El Salvador stable 3, Iran stable 1, Guatemala stable 4, Japan stable 6,800 3,700 6,700 8,700 Honduras stable 4, Korea up 3, Mexico up 3,700 15,825 15,000 10,000 Malaysia stable 4, Nicaragua stable 3, Pakistan up Panama stable 3, Philippines up 4,900 2,800 1,200 1,200 U.S.A. down 20,000 33,500 33,500 Taiwan down California stable 4,000 9,000 Thailand up 15,000 2,200 1,568 2,000 Washington down 5,000 5,000 EUROPE Michigan stable 2,000 6,000 Austria stable 6, S. AMERICA Belgium stable 4, Argentina stable 3,780 2,000 2,000 2,000 Bugaria stable 5,200 2,300 Brazil stable Cyprus stable 4, Chile stable 4,500 4,000 4,200 5,500 Czech Rep. up 6, Colombia stable 4, Denmark stable 2, Ecuador up 3, France stable 3,500 7,000 10,500 12,140 Peru stable 14,100 18,000 20,000 20,000 Germany up 6,000 20,000 14,500 12,000 Uruguay up 4, Greece down 6,000 4,500 6,000 6,000 AFRICA Hungary up 5,000 1, Egypt up 4, Israel up 3, Morocco stable? Italy stable 5,300 6,700 6,000 6,300 South Africa down 3,500 2,000 2,500 3,500 Netherlands stable 8,000 2,350 2,275 2,300 Tunisia stable 3, Norway up 3, Zimbabwe down 4, Poland up 3,000 1,000 1,500 1,000 AUSTRALIAN AREA Portugal stable 4, Australia stable 5,000 4,000 4,500 4,500 Romania stable 4, New Zealand down 3,700 1,200 2,500 2,500 Slovakia up 6, Slovinia up 6, Spain stable 4,500 15,000 17,000 20,200 Switzerland down Turkey up 4, United King. up 3,000 1,

6 Table 3. Percent of White or Green Spear Production COUNTRIES WHITE GREEN WHITE GREEN WHITE GREEN COUNTRIES WHITE GREEN WHITE GREEN WHITE GREEN China Canada (Ont.) India Costa Rica Indonesia El Salvador Iran Guatemala Japan Honduras Korea Mexico Malaysia Nicaragua Pakistan Panama Philippines U.S.A Taiwan California Thailand Washington EUROPE Michigan Austria S. AMERICA Belgium Argentina Bulgaria Brazil Cyprus Chile Czech Rep Colombia Denmark Ecuador France Peru Germany Uruguay Greece AFRICA Hungary Egypt Israel Morocco Italy South Africa Netherlands Tunisia Norway Zimbabwe Poland AUSTRALIAN AREA Portugal Australia Romania New Zealnd Slovakia Slovinia Spain Switzerland Turkey United King

7 Table 4. Percent of Spears Utilized as Fresh Canned or Frozen COUNTRIES FRESH CAN FROZ FRESH CAN FROZ FRESH CAN FROZ COUNTRIES FRESH CAN FROZ FRESH CAN FROZ FRESH CAN FROZ China Canada (Ont.) India Costa Rica Indonesia El Salvador Iran Guatemala Japan Honduras Korea Mexico Malaysia Nicaragua Pakistan Panama Philippines U.S.A Taiwan California Thailand Washington EUROPE Michigan Austria S. AMERICA Belgium Argentina Bulgaria Brazil No Data Cyprus Chile Czech Rep Colombia Denmark Ecuador France Peru Germany Uruguay Greece AFRICA Hungary Egypt Israel Morocco Italy South Africa Netherlands Tunisia Norway Zimbabwe Poland AUSTRALIAN AREA Portugal Australia Romania New Zealand Slovakia Slovinia Spain Switzerland Turkey United King

8 Table 5. Percent of Production Exported or Used Domestically COUNTRIES Export Dom. Export Dom. Export Dom. COUNTRIES Export Dom. Export Dom. Export Dom. China Canada (Ont.) India Costa Rica Indonesia El Salvador Iran Guatemala 95 5 Japan Honduras Korea Mexico Malaysia Nicaragua Pakistan Panama Philippines U.S.A Taiwan California Thailand Washington 6 94 EUROPE Michigan Austria S. AMERICA Belgium Argentina Bulgaria Brazil Cyprus Chile Czech Rep Colombia Denmark Ecuador France Peru Germany Uruguay Greece AFRICA Hungary Egypt Israel Morocco Italy South Africa Netherlands Tunisia Norway Zimbabwe Poland AUSTRALIAN AREA Portugal Australia Romania New Zealand Slovakia Slovinia Spain Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom

9 Table 6. Periods of Spear Production in Asparagus Producing Countries COUNTRIES JAN. FEB. MAR. APR. MAY JUN. JUL. AUG. SEP. OCT. NOV. DEC. COUNTRIES JAN. FEB. MAR. APR. MAY JUN. JUL. AUG. SEP. OCT. NOV. DEC. China xx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxx x xxxxxx xx Canada (Ont.) xxxxxx xxxx India xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx Costa Rica xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx Indonesia xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx El Salvador xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx Iran xxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xx Guatemala xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx Japan xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx x xxxxxx Honduras xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx Korea xx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx Mexico xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx Malaysia xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx Nicaragua xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx Pakistan xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx Panama xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx Philippines xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx U.S.A. xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xx Taiwan xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx California xxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxx Thailand xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx Washington xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx EUROPE Michigan xx xxxxxx xxxxxx xx Austria xxx xxxxxx xxx S. AMERICA Belgium xxx xxxxxx xxx Argentina xxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx Bulgaria xxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxx Brazil xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx Cyprus xxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxx Chile xx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xx Czech Rep. xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xx Colombia xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx Denmark xxxxxx xxxxxx xxx Ecuador xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx France xxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx Peru xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx Germany xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx Uruguay xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxx Greece xx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xx AFRICA Hungary xxxxxx xxxxxx xx Egypt xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx Israel xxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxx Morocco xx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxx Italy xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx x South Africa xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx Netherlands xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xx Tunisia xx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxx Norway xx xxxxxx xxxx Zimbabwe xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx Poland xxx xxxxxx xxxx AUSTRALIAN AREA Portugal xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx Australia xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx Romania xx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx New Zealand xxxxxx xxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx Slovakia xxx xxxxxx xxxxxx Slovenia xxxxxx xxxxxx xx Spain xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx x Switzerland xxxxxx xxxxxx Turkey xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx United King. xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx

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