# Univariate. %Cap. A dotplot is used for real-valued variables. A dot is positioned along an axis to represent the data value

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1 Basic Plots Univariate, bivariate, multivariate Histogram, boxplot, dotplot, barchart, spine plot Scatterplot, density plots, mosaic plot Parallel coordinate plot, profile plots Maps Time series plots

2 Data and its shapes Data comes in a lot of different formats We will assume that we can always get it into a shape (spread-sheet like) with headers at the top columns for each piece of information and rows for each object

3 Univariate A dotplot is used for real-valued variables. A dot is positioned along an axis to represent the data value % capitals %Cap

4 Univariate Histograms are used for realvalued variables. Values are binned and the count is displayed by a rectangle Frequency Frequency Breaks at \$ Tips (\$) Breaks at 10c Tips (\$)

5 Univariate Boxplots are used for real-valued variables The data values are summarized by 5 numbers: min, Q1, median, Q3, max The boxplot displays just these 5 numbers Max 10 Q3 3.6 Median 2.9 Q1 2 Min 1 Tips

6 Univariate Barcharts are used for categorical data Gender of person paying the bill The count for each category is represented by the height of a rectangle F M F M

7 Univariate Spine plots are used for categorical variables The count for each category is represented by the width of a rectangle Most useful when there are two variables or more. F M Gender F M

8 Bivariate Total Bill Total Tip r=0.68 Scatterplots place a dot representing a pair of numbers on a Cartesian plane Bill Tip

9 Bivariate Density plots : hexagonal grids (Carr) Tip Counts Total Bill

10 Bivariate A mosaic plot represents a two way table of categorical variables. It starts from a spine plot and divides the bars according to counts of a second variable. Thu Fri Sat Sun F M Gender M F Thu Day Fri Sat Sun

11 Barcharts with two variables Stacked barchart Side-by-side barchart Female Male Female Male Thu Fri Sat Sun Thu Fri Sat Sun Day Day

12 Multivariate A parallel coordinate plot changes from orthogonal Cartesian axes to parallel axes. Bill Tip Standardized Values Bill Tip Standardized Values Bill Tip Variables Variables

13 Parallel coordinate plots Look for patterns in the direction of the lines Standardized Values Bill Tip Gender Variables

14 Parallel coordinate plots Standardized Values Measurements on Beetles What patterns do you see here? tars1 aede3 aede2 aede1 head tars2 Variables

15 Maps Convention North at top The problems with taking longitude at number value Aspect ratio of lat to long Small regions/areas and reading information

16 Longitude at numerical value and aspect ratio of longitude to latitude Can you imagine what the world would look like if the vertical and horizontal plot space were equal? This location is both -180 and 180

17 Small areas/regions 2004 election results on map: red=republican, blue=democrat Cartogram of 2004 election results

18 Time series plots Temporal scale: Days of weeks need to be in conventional order, lines,... Count What s wrong with this plot? Average number of sunspots Lines indicate temporal dependency Year Fri Sat Sun Thu Day

19 Combinations Beetles Small multiples is an approach advocated by Tufte to plotting multiple variables in a digestible way. This might be considered as combinations of basic plots ~ tars1 tars2 head aede1 aede aede

20 Dotplots Barley yield for two different years for 6 locations in Minnesota and 10 varieties Trebi Wisconsin No. 38 No. 457 Glabron Peatland Velvet No. 475 Manchuria No. 462 Svansota Trebi Wisconsin No. 38 No. 457 Glabron Peatland Velvet No. 475 Manchuria No. 462 Svansota Trebi Wisconsin No. 38 No. 457 Glabron Peatland Velvet No. 475 Manchuria No. 462 Svansota Trebi Wisconsin No. 38 No. 457 Glabron Peatland Velvet No. 475 Manchuria No. 462 Svansota Trebi Wisconsin No. 38 No. 457 Glabron Peatland Velvet No. 475 Manchuria No. 462 Svansota Trebi Wisconsin No. 38 No. 457 Glabron Peatland Velvet No. 475 Manchuria No. 462 Svansota Waseca Crookston Morris University Farm Duluth Grand Rapids Barley Yield (bushels/acre)

21 Boxplots or Dotplots Different representations of the heights of the New York Choral Society Bass 2 Bass 1 Tenor 2 Tenor 1 Alto 2 Alto 1 Soprano 2 Soprano Soprano 1 Soprano 2 Alto 1 Alto 2 Tenor 1 Tenor 2 Bass 1 Bass Height (inches) ~

22 Basic plots form the core How does Napoleon s March use basic plots? time series plot + map + barchart How is John Snow s cholera map related to a basic plot? Map + scatterplot

23 Napoleon s March Basic plot(s)?

24 Cholera map

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