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3 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics Editors: Caroline Mohammed Tasmanian Institute of Agriculture, University of Tasmania, Tasmania, Australia Chris Beadle The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Australia Jolanda Roux Forestry and Agriculture Biotechnology Institute, University of Pretoria, South Africa Sri Rahayu Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia Faculty of Forestry Universitas Gadjah Mada 2012

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5 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics October 8 th 10 th, 2012 Yogyakarta, Indonesia 2012 By Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Gadjah Mada Citation : Mohammed, C., Beadle,C., Roux, J., Rahayu, S. (eds.) Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics, October 8 th 10 th, 2012, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Gadjah Mada Published by Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Gadjah Mada Jln. Agro No. 1, Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta ISBN : Cover Design : Faozan Indresputra Printed in Indonesia

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7 PREFACE Clear evidence is emerging that climate change is altering the distribution, incidence and intensity of forest pests and diseases. One example is the gall rust disease Falcataria moluccana caused by Uromycladium tepperianum which is currently advancing from the North-East into South- West of South-East Asia. Given the probability for the further development of new climates, of concern is the Asian long horn beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis). While this beetle is native to regions of Japan, China and Korea, it is now also established in the US and Canada (FAO, 2009), and with other similarly destructive pests, has the potential to move into tropical regions. Changing climates can affect forest pests and the extent of the damage they cause by altering a range of processes and behaviours. These include (i) their development, survival, reproduction, distribution and spread; (ii) host physiology and plant defence; and (iii) relationships between pests and diseases and environment, and their natural enemies, competitors and mutualists. To address these issues, IUFRO WP has organized an international conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in the Tropics in Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia from October 8 th - 10 th The aim of this conference is to update the status of pests and diseases in the tropics, and to foster close collaboration and links between interested parties. This will be achieved by addressing the following main topics: 1. Forest Trees Pest and Disease Biology and Epidemics 2. Updating Information on the Occurrence of Pests and Diseases in Planted Forest, Community Forest and Natural Ecosystems 3. Management of Pests and Diseases 4. Emerging Pests and Diseases 5. Invasive alien pathogens and insects 6. Novel Associations between Insects and Pathogens 7. Climate Change and Tropical Pests and Diseases of Forest Trees About 40 significant papers relating to the above topics appear in these proceedings. They have been written by authors from Australia, Bangladesh, Fiji, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Nepal, Thailand, and Vietnam. I wish to acknowledge all our esteemed invited speakers, speakers, and all participants for contributing to this conference. I also thank to APAFRI, APFISN, ACIAR, I-MHERE Universitas Gadjah Mada (UGM), Faculty of Forestry UGM, Riau Pulp anf Paper (RAPP), PERHUTANI, PT. Serayu Makmur kayuindo and PT Dharma Satya Nusantara, for their Financial support. Sincerely Yours, Dr. Sri Rahayu Coordinator IUFRO WP Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics vii

8 viii Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

9 CONTENTS PREFACE CONTENTS ABBREVIATION Page v vii xi 1 THE CHALLENGES OF MODELLING FOREST PESTS IN A CHANGING CLIMATE Caroline Mohammed. (Keynote Speaker) EMERGING PESTS AND DISEASES IN NEW AREAS S.S. Lee. (Keynote Speaker) A REVIEW DISEASES IN NURSERIES AND PLANTATIONS IN THAILAND Uthaiwan Sangwanit APPRAISAL OF PEST AND DISEASES FOR FUTURE FOREST PRODUCTIVITY IN BANGLADESH M. Al-amin and S. Afrin WHY DOES THE JAPANESE OAK WILT OCCUR ONLY IN JAPAN? Naoto Kamata, Hideaki Goto, Keiko Hamaguchi, Hayato Masuya, Dai Kusumoto, Toshihide Hirao, Wen-I Chou, Wiwat Suasa-Ard, Sawai Buranapanichpan, Sopon Uraichuen, Oraphan Kern-Asa, Sunisa Sanguansub, Thu Pham Quang, Sih Kahono, and Heddy Julistiono Ceratocystis sp. CAUSES CROWN WILT OF Acacia spp. PLANTED IN SOME ECOLOGICAL ZONES OF VIETNAM Pham Quang Thu, Dang Nhu Quynh and Bernard Dell HEART ROT IN PLANTATION ACACIA HYBRID IN VIETNAM T.T Trang, C. Beadle and C. Mohammed GALL RUST DISEASE AND GENETIC VARIATION OF Falcataria moluccana IN INDONESIA Sri Rahayu OCCURRENCE OF INSECTS ASSOCIATED WITH Khaya ivorensis (AFRICAN MAHOGANY) IN SABAH, MALAYSIA Arthur Y. C. Chung, Richard Majapun, Ahmad Harun, Robert Ong and Chak Chee Ving Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics ix

10 10 THE LACEBUG Tingis beesoni DRAKE., A NEW Gmelina arborea PEST IN INDONESIA Pujo Sumantoro, Frida E. Astanti, and Deden Sylva D DEFOLIATOR AND STEM BORER ATTACK ON JABON OF DIFFERENT AGES AND PLANTED AT DIFFERENT ALTITUDES Selvi Chelya Susanty and Noor Farikhah Haneda WHITEFLIES (HEMIPTERA: ALEYRODIDAE) BREEDING ON Dalbergia latifolia Roxb. IN SOUTH INDIA R. Sundararaj, T. G. Revathi, and K.P. Divya EMERGING DISEASE PROBLEMS IN EUCALYPT PLANTATIONS IN LAO PDR Paul A. Barber, Pham Q. Thu, Giles E. Hardy, and Bernard Dell EMERGING INSECT PEST PROBLEMS ON INDIAN SANDALWOOD (Santalum album L.) UNDER ITS CULTIVATION, A CAUSE OF CONCERN R. Sundararaj, Rajamuthukrishnan and O. K. Remadevi Streblote lipara (LEPIDOPTERA: LASIOCAMPIDAE) outbreak in several mangrove rehabilitation sites in Peninsular Malaysia Ong, S.P., Che Salmah M.R., Khairun Y, and Kirton L.G AN OUTBREAK OF BAGWORMS ON Falcataria molluccana: A CASE STUDY IN CENTRAL JAVA Neo Endra Lelana and Illa Anggraeni SURVIVAL MECHANISM OF THE TEAK DEFOLIATOR, Hyblaea puera DURING THE DRY SEASON IN EAST JAVA, INDONESIA Enggar Apriyanto AN INSECT AND A FUNGUS-IMPENDING INVASION THREAT TO INDIA K.V. Sankaran and T.A. Suresh INVASIVE ALIEN PLANT PESTS IN INDIA, THEIR IMPACTS AND OPTIONS FOR MITIGATION Kavita Gupta and P.C. Agarwal ABUNDANCE OF PREDATORY ANTS IN WANAGAMA EDUCATION FOREST, GUNUNG KIDUL, YOGYAKARTA Musyafa, H. Supriyo and W.H. Pamungkas x Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

11 21 RETROSPECTIVE ON FOREST INSECT PESTS OF NEPAL WITH REFERENCE TO CLIMATE CHANGE Sanjaya Bista and Hasta B. Thapa INTEGRATED FOREST HEALTH MANAGEMENT WILL ASSIST IN ADAPTING TO A CHANGING CLIMATE Simon Taka Nuhamara and Haryono Semangun FOREST PEST DETECTION SYSTEMS IN FIJI Binesh Dayal and Sanjana Lal OCCURRENCE, CHARACTERIZATION AND SPECIFIC DETECTION OF BROWN ROOT DISEASE PATHOGEN IN PENINSULAR MALAYSIA FOREST PLANTATIONS USING INTERNAL TRANSCRIBED SPACER (ITS) SPECIFIC PRIMERS Mohd Farid A., Maziah Z., Lee S.S., and Mohd Rosli H IDENTIFICATION OF SEVERAL GANODERMA SPECIES CAUSING ROOT ROT IN Acacia mangium PLANTATION IN INDONESIA D. Puspitasari, V. Yuskianti, A. Rimbawanto, M. Glen, and C. Mohammed RESPONDS OF YOUNG Falcataria moluccana TO GALL RUST L. Baskorowati, A. Rohandi, and Gunawan SUSCEPTIBILITY OF URBAN TREES Polyalthia longifolia AND Pterocarpus indicus TO ROOT ROT FUNGUS Ganoderma sp. Widyastuti S.M, I. Riastiwi, and Harjono BIOLOGY, SPREAD AND MANAGEMENT OF ROOT ROT IN Acacia Mangium PLANTATIONS IN INDONESIA Chris Beadle (Keynote Speaker), Morag Glen, Luciasih Agustini, Vivi Yuskianti, Anthony Francis, Anto Rimbawanto and Caroline Mohammed PREVENTIVE SPRAYS FOR Ceratocystis acaciivora INFECTION CONTROL FOLLOWING SINGLING PRACTICES OF Acacia mangium Marthin Tarigan, Budi Tjahjono and Abdul Gafur DEVELOPMENT OF BIOLOGICAL CONTROL AGENTS TO PROTECT PLANTATION FORESTS IN SUMATRA, INDONESIA Abdul Gafur, Aswardi Nasution Marthin Tarigan, and Budi Tjahjono BIOFERTILIZER APPLICATION FOR MAINTAINING HEALTH AND PRODUCTIVITY IN OIL PALM PLANTATIONS UNDER A CHANGING CLIMATE Mucharromah, Teguh Adi Prasetyo, Hidayat, Sigit Nugroho, and Merakati Handajaningsih Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics xi

12 32 FORMULATION OF A METARHIZIUM BASED MYCOINSECTICIDE AND FIELD TRIALS AGAINST DEFOLIATOR PESTS OF Tectona grandis AND Ailanthus excelsa T.O. Sasidharan, O.K. Remadevi, N. Sapna Bai and M. Balachander TECHNIQUE DEVELOPMENT FOR PROTECTING SENGON FROM GANODERMA INFECTION Elis N. Herliyana, Darmono Taniwiryono, Ratna Jamilah, Benyamin Dendang, Hayati Minarsih, Muhammad Alam Firmansyah, Permana Jenal, and Ai Rosah Aisyah POSTERS 1 SOME NOTES ON INSECTS ASSOCIATED WITH Jatropha curcas IN SABAH Arthur Y. C. Chung, Chia Fui Ree, and Richard Majapun INFESTATION OF Achaea janata Linnaeus (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE: CATOCALINAE) IN THE MANGROVES OF SANDAKAN, SABAH Arthur Y. C. Chung, Joseph Tangah, and Fadzil Yahya INSECTS IN TEAK (Tectona grandis L.F.) IN THE FOREST AREA OF PASSO VILLAGE, CITY OF AMBON MALUKU PROVINCE INDONESIA Fransina, Latumahina, and Illa Anggraini EFFECT OF ROOT EXUDATES OF SENGON (Paraserianthes falcataria L. Nielsen) INOCULATED WITH THE FUNGAL ENDOPHYTE Nigrospora sp. ON CONTROL OF THE ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE Meloidogyne spp. Nur Amin Occurrence of lac scales, Tachardina aurantiaca, in Peninsular Malaysia On g, S.P., Ne u m a n n, G., Ch e Sa l m a h, M.R., Kh a i r u n, Y. & Ki r t o n, L.G LIST OF PARTICIPANT xii Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

13 ABBREVIATION ACIAR : Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research ANOVA : Analysis of Variance APAFRI : Asia Pasific Association of Forestry Institutions APFISN : Asia-Pacific Forest Invasive Species Network CBD : Convention on Biological Diversity CoP : Conference of Parties CRB : Completely Randomized Block CSRIO : Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization DAC : Department of Agriculture and Cooperation DI : Disease Index DIP : Destructive Insects and Pests DSN : Dharma Satya Nusantara EPA : Environment Protection Act FDPM : Forestry Department Peninsular Malaysia IAS : Invasive Alien Species IMPF : Intensively Managed Planted Forest IPM : Integrated pest management IUFRO : International Union of Forest Research Organizations MoEF : Ministry of Environment and Forests NPV : Nuclear Polyhidrosis Virus NRE : Natural Resources and Environment PDA : Potato Dextrose Agar PDA-WP : Potato Dextrose Agar Wood Powder PERHUTANI : Perusahaan Hutan Negara Indonesia (Indonesian state forestry company) PIFWA : Penang Inshore Fishermen Welfare Association PRA : Pest Risk Analysis RAPP : Riau Andalan Pulp and Paper SBSTTA : Subsidiary Body of Scientific Technical and Technological Advice T : Treatment UGM : Universitas Gadjah Mada Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics xiii

14 xiv Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

15 INVITED PAPER THE CHALLENGES OF MODELLING FOREST PESTS IN A CHANGING CLIMATE Caroline Mohammed Tasmanian Institute of Agriculture, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia Corresponding author: Introduction The full continuum of biosecurity activities (Figure 1) spans pre-border activities that reduce the risk of incursion by exotic pests and pathogens not present in country. Plantation forestry does have problems unique to its sector. Trees are planted and exposed to risk for many years before harvest and remuneration. Trees could be negatively impacted by pests shared with conservation forests, pests shared with timber in service, pests shared with garden and nursery industry, forest biosecurity risks created by other industries or urban trees. In particular, the close proximity of production forests to conservation forests leaves both plantation and native production forests vulnerable to pest incursions that may commence in native non-production forests. Conservation forest managers may consider that a response to an incursion of a pest is not warranted or it may even be illegal, e.g. in World Heritage Areas. Figure 1. Schematic of the biosecurity continuum and associate management intervention. There may be several barriers to effective biosecurity responses. The ad-hoc nature of biosecurity understanding, knowledge, processes established and communication pathways and a perception of inadequate forestry representation in national biosecurity arrangements across the urban, rural and natural environments. Industry stakeholders may consider biosecurity to be of high or moderate concern to their companies but only half of the companies surveyed have a biosecurity plan. Priority actions area a) an urgent need to demonstrate the benefits of industry investment in biosecurity preparedness or the potential costs of non-participation, b) pathway analysis for functional pest guilds and c) an investigation of the effects of changed environmental conditions on forest biosecurity preparedness. Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 1

16 Modelling Pest Distribution in A Changing Climate Pest maps are excellent visual communication tools for either alien or native species which describe their possible spatial and temporal distribution (Venette et al., 2010)They are commonly used in pest risk analyses to determine where invasive alien species might arrive, establish, spread, or cause harmful impacts. Such maps are increasingly being used to depict the distribution of pest species under future climate scenarios. Strategic and tactical decisions for the management of pest species depend on accurate spatial and temporal characterizations of pest risk. Most pest risk models attempt to characterise the dimensions of a species fundamental niche(sutherst, 2003). Models use a variety of techniques to identify and characterise a species niche requirements and require spatio-temporal datasets to estimate where a species could persist. Niche models vary from simple degree-day accumulation models to detailed process-based life-cycle models. The power of niche models is their capacity to transfer, or project reliably a species response to new situations such as introduction to a region, under climate change, or to climate variability. Mapping requires several steps and information. Knowledge of a species current distribution including the absence of a species in a particular region. "Absence" as a consequence of never having looked for a species, or of a species never having had an opportunity to arrive in an area, indicates little about the potential for establishment within that area. Unfortunately most pest databases and/or pest surveys in forestry are constructed with little thought for the more stringent requirements of models and may be of little use. An understanding of the direct effects of environmental gradients on population processes for a particular species. Time series data that describe how population densities fluctuate. Spatially explicit data (i.e., covariates) that describe environmental conditions within the area of interest either under current climate or future climate scenarios. Table 1 (taken from Venette et al. 2010) lists the different approaches designed to describe the relationship between environmental covariates and the potential occurrence of a species. Most models have adopted an inductive approach (statistical analyses of the known distribution of a species and climatic data to estimate its climatic preferences). The deductive approach uses detailed knowledge of pest climatic preferences determined from laboratory studies. Some modeling approaches such as the one used in this project are more flexible and use deductive or inductive methods to determine relationships between the presence of a species and environmental covariates. The quality of any pest map is subject to the constraints of available knowledge about the biology of the species and the environmental conditions within an area of interest, and the map s quality should be considered when making decisions. Error and uncertainty in pest risk maps is unavoidable. The incompleteness of knowledge of complex ecological systems is well recognized. Recent studies that compared species-distribution models illustrate model uncertainty well, showing clearly that different models can give divergent results. Inherent uncertainties about the biology of pests, future climate conditions, and species interactions further complicate map interpretation. Most pest risk maps also report risk as the relative likelihood of a species entry, establishment, and distribution without addressing potential impacts in those areas, such as yield loss or environmental damage. Whatever the recognised limitations of pest mapping it is only by a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of our current approaches that significant improvements in pest risk maps will be made. 2 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

17 Table 1. (taken from Venette et al. 2010). Common approaches used to predict species distributions based on an inductive or deductive understanding of the influence of environmental conditions on populations. ( 1 Deductive and/or Inductive Approach) Approach Description I Artificial Neural General modeling technique based on machine learning I Networks (ANN) BIOCLIM/ANUCLIM Climate pattern-matching with minimum bounding rectangle I (MBR) BioMOD Applies the four most widely used modeling techniques in I species predictions, namely Generalized Linear Models (GLM), Generalized Additive Models (GAM), Classification and Regression Tree analysis (CART), and ANN CART (Classification General statistical procedure for defining set membership I and Regression Trees) based upon environmental correlates CLIMATE Climate pattern-matching with choice of several match techniques, including MBR and point-to-point similarity indices CLIMATE Climate pattern-matching using MBR I ENVELOPE CLIMEX: Compare Process-oriented model describing species response to I/D locations function climatic variables and predicting climatic suitability CLIMEX: Match Climate pattern-matching procedure generates an index of I climates function climatic similarity DOMAIN Climate pattern-matching using a point-to-point similarity I index ENFA (Ecological Computes suitability functions by comparing the species I Niche Factor Analysis) distributions in ecogeographical variables space with that of the whole set of cells using a multivariate approach Expert-driven rule set Personal opinion about the factors and conditions that I/D determine species presence; often expressed as a series of if...then statements FloraMap Principal components analysis of monthly climate data using I multivariate and Fourier transformation techniques GARP Generates environment-description rules using machinelearning I techniques GLM/GAM Generalized linear model/generalized additive model; general I statistical procedures for fitting species response functions to sur vey data GRASP Generalized regression analysis and spatial prediction. I HABITAT Creates a convex polytope in n-dimensional space I MaxEnt Probabilistic machine learning technique based on the I distribution of maximum entropy NAPPFAST Online templates for phenology, infection, and empirical I/D models and a climate-matching tool STASH Process-oriented model describing species response to climatic variables, and predicting climatic suitability D Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 3

18 Application of Predictive Systems to Forest Biosecurity and Management Forest biosecurity risks are manifold: exotic pests and pathogens not yet established; pests and pathogens (both native and exotic) established but occupying only a portion of their range (of suitable sites); and, established pests and pathogens that are widespread throughout their range of suitable sites. Few major forest pests in sub-tropical or tropical systemshave been investigated in any detail using predictive model systems because the data about the pest and/or host is not available. Booth et al was able to model the distribution of Puccinia psidii in Australia and the neotropics as the environmental requirements of this serious rust of myrtaceous plants were known. In Australia an overall measure of the net benefits (if any) frominvestment in the management of key established pests and pathogens (cost of management versus value of losses averted) is largely lacking. It is very significant that research investment in predictive systems in Australia has only occurred when there has also been some industry investment or interest in demonstrating the losses caused by any particular pest. The first decision forest owners need to make is whether the impacts of a pest / pathogen are sufficiently severe to warrant management to reduce those impacts. The lowest (operational) level of using predictive systems for the management of individual outbreaks / epidemics are based on action responses triggered by threshold levels of economic injury have been developed for two forest pests and pathogens in the Australasian region Dothistroma needle blight (Van der Pas et al., 1984 )and the Tasmanian eucalypt leaf beetle, Paropsisternabimaculata (Candy, 1999). As mentioned above the only published predictive mapping of the potential distribution in Australia of an alien forest pest was carried out with BIOCLIM for Puccinia psidii(booth et al., 2000). A strain of this pathogen entered and became established in Australia in Indeed the value of losses averted for forest pests and pathogens not yet established in Australia has only been calculated for pine pitch canker, Fusariumcircinatum(Cook and Matheson, 2008). In their analysis Cook and Matheson predicted benefits of $13M could accrue over time from delaying the entry and spread of the pathogen by as little as two years. Beare et al. (2005)using data fromgadgil et al. (2003), calculated that an annual investment of up to $260K in border controls would be justified if it reduced the risk of pitch canker incursions from 40% to 30%. Madden(1975) provided an early example of impact assessment in Australia when he monitored mortality through a Sirexnoctilio outbreak in a P. radiata plantation. Females are attracted to stressed trees after an initial flight. They drill their ovipositors into the outer sapwood to inject a symbiotic fungus (Amylostereumareolatum), toxic mucus, and eggs. The fungus and mucus act together to kill the tree and create a suitable environment for larval development. In the most severely affected sections, mortality reached 80% with an annual mortality rate of 20% at the height of the outbreak. The considerable investment in research to develop the means of managing Sirex was not based on a formal cost: benefit analysis. That was probably a reflection of an era when plantations were predominantly governmentowned and research had a high public-good component. Notwithstanding, the dramatic impact of an unmanaged Sirex outbreak posed a significant threat to the viability of Australia s developing softwood plantation estate. Research provided an effective management strategy for Sirex using a combination of silviculture and biological control. The key agent is a parasitic nematode, Deladenussiricidicola, which infects sirexwoodwasp larvae, and ultimately sterilizes the adult females. Sirex was first introduced into Tasmania in 1951, spreading to most radiata pine growing states and has recently been detected in Queensland (Lawson, personal communication). Its distribution or interaction with its biological control agent is changing yet there is only one publication applying predictive systems to the investigation of Sirex in Australia(Carnegie et al., 2006). 4 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

19 Dothistroma (Woods et al., 2005b, Welsh et al., 2009, Watt et al., 2011) needle blight of pinesis one of the most extensively studied foliar diseases and is considered one of the most important diseases of pines (Barnes et al., 2004, Woods et al., 2005a). Dothistromaseptosporum and Dothistromapini are the two species which cause blight but it is the former species that has caused significant damage to radiate pine plantations in the southern hemisphere(groenewald et al., 2007). It is present throughout the world (Harrington and Wingfield, 1998, Bradshaw, 2004) and affects over 60 pinespecies in 45 countries (Ivory, 1994). It was first introduced into Australia in Wood yield loss is known to be approximately proportional to disease severity, particularly when young photosynthetically active needles are affected (Van der Pas et al., 1984 ). Dothistroma needle blight in commercial forests of the southern hemisphere is currently controlled by breeding resistant planting stock and by copper based fungicide spraying (Bradshaw, 2004). This disease has been the subject of predictive modeling in the northern and the southern hemisphere for New Zealand, not Australia (Woods et al., 2005b, Welsh et al., 2009, Watt et al., 2011). The introduction into Australia in the mid to late 1990 s of the Monterey pine aphid, Essigellacalifornica, resulted in widespread defoliation in affected P. radiata plantations throughout southeastern Australia. May and Carlyle (2003) calculated a loss in wood volume due to defoliation over the three years following the first appearance of Essigella in the Green Triangle to be 230,000m 3 valued at $6.9M. Using national data, May (2004) calculated the total annual losses from defoliation by Essigella to be 570,000m 3 valued at $21M. Based on those data May showed investment in research and development for a biological control would, if successful, provide a net present value benefit of $15M IRR) over 30 years. In 2010, after several years of research to select and screen a candidate biological control agent the parasitic wasp Diaeretusessigellae(Kimber et al., 2010) was approved for release in Australia to control E. californica. At about the same time HVP Plantations announced the operational deployment of aphid-resistant lines of P. radiata(sasse et al., 2009). Essigellacalifornica is an aphid native to western North America, probably restricted in distribution in its home due to poor competitive abilities and impact of natural enemies. It was first detected in March 1998 on Pinus radiata in Canberra and has since been reported from all radiata pine growing areas including New Zealand. E. californica is likely to remain a permanent feature of the Australian pine industry. There is relatively detailed distributional, life cycle and impact information available for this pest (Wharton et al., 2004, Wharton and Kriticos, 2004)and CLIMEX models to predict distribution in Australia under current climatic conditions have already been developed for this pest (Wharton and Kriticos, 2004). There have been a large number of studies of native pests generated by a young eucalypt plantation industry in Australia. Certain native pests and diseases such as Mycosphaerellaleaf disease (MLD), a fungal leaf pathogen and Autumn Gum Moth (AGM) cause extremely visible and high levels of foliar damage to juvenile eucalypt plantations. Industry needed a clear indication of impact and for insect pests when and if to use costly chemical management. It took at least a decade of research to clearly establish the robustness of young eucalypts to a single defoliation event and that high levels of leaf damage were often required to impact long term productivity (Rapley et al., 2009, Battaglia et al., 2011). However this research led to the understanding of the physiology of defoliation in pine (Eyles et al., 2011) and eucalypt (Battaglia et al., 2011)and the development/testing of various predictive systems: a DYMEX population dynamics model for AGM (GumMoth) uses temperature to predict the development time of instars(steinbauer et al., 2004). GumMoth clearly shows the interplay between the insect s development and ambient temperature and photoperiod. Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 5

20 a forest health module within a process-based productivity model CABALA (Battaglia et al., 2004, Battaglia et al., 2011) which can predict the impact of defoliation and necrotic damage. application of a bioclimatic niche model in lieu of an epidemiological model to address questions of risk, using MLD as a case study and process-oriented climatic niche model CLIMEX to project the current and future potential distributions of MLD(Pinkard et al., 2010b). assessment of the impacts of a defoliating pest, Mycosphaerella leaf disease (MLD), on rotation-length Eucalyptus globulus plantation productivity under current and future climates by using the ecoclimatic species niche model CLIMEX to generate severity, frequency and seasonality scenarios for MLD for specific E. globulus sites (Pinkard et al., 2010a). Appropriate Information Required for Effective Forest Biosecurity Responses Is the type of information that has or can be generated appropriate for effective forest biosecurity responsesunder a changing climate? In respect to alien forest pests established in Australia the attitude of those representing the commercial sectoris that historically forestry reacts effectively to such pests and that there was no need for proactive investment and/or that there are other more important claims on investment. In regard to established exotic or native pests there was a perception that i) pests are or will be effectively managed ii) there is insufficient information on the costs of pest damage to warrant further investment iii) there are few effective management methods for certain pests even if an investment was made to increase the level of information about risk and impact. The overwhelming message from the workshop was that biosecurity is not a risk that receives priority compared to other environmental issues such as drought and current market pressures. A recent project in Australia included the development of risk maps for three pests (Dothistroma, Sirexand Paropsisatomaria) two exotic pests but long established in Australia on radiata pine and a native pest of eucalypt(ireland, Pinkard, Kriticos, Lawson, Debuse, Wardlaw,Mohammed, unpublished). Initially it had been planned that these maps would depict pest functional group/guilds. It became rapidly apparent that the generic climatic requirements for functional groups may be difficult to ascertain without first examining individuals of these functional groups. Further work can then compare trends in responses of individuals of functional groups in order to better understand their general response to changing climates. Under both climate change scenarios examined with CLIMEX it is projected that the potential distribution of Sirex and Dothistroma (non-native pests) would expand southwards, with particular increases in climatic suitability in Tasmania. While range for P. atomaria (native pest) remained static under future climate scenarios as predicted by DYMEX, predicted beetle performance (as measured by mean numbers of fourth instar larvae produced over a season) varied over the eight locations studied. Attempts to link severity to climatic suitability with Sirexand Dothistroma were not successful. Potentially, with greater data on the severity of outbreaks within its native range we may be able to elucidate whether a connection exists between climate and severity. Since we do not currently have good data for P. atomariato relate population numbers generated in the model to defoliation levels, and subsequently to potential economic loss, we attempted to obtain an estimate of defoliation risk by assessing the frequency of outbreaking populations of the beetle. This approach to defining risk was more meaningful to industry. However many caveats exist on the interpretation of model outputs due to the lack of sufficient information and data. Research in this project on the application of predictive systems highlighted the 6 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

21 need for more investment in the collection of data so that the connection between climate and impact can be made. In conclusion it is difficult to state which predictive system(s) can deliver the most appropriate information required for effective forest biosecurity responses under a changing climate. There are a limited number of studies which have resulted in potentially useful information about potential pest incidence and impact to guide adaptation strategies such as site-species matching. All these systems are data hungry which requires industry or public investment in surveillance or other data collection methodology that can be used in such predictive systems. Acknowledgements The concepts and discussion of this paper were developed under a project funded by the Depart of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Australia (M18799 Forest Biosecurity and Preparedness for climate change). Participants were Kylie Ireland (TIA, now working with DEEDI, Queensland), Darren Kriticos (CSIRO CSE Canberra), Libby Pinkard (CSIRO CSE Hobart), Simon Lawson (DEEDI, Queensland), Valerie Debuse (DEEDI, Queensland), Tim Wardlaw (Forestry Tasmania), Mohammed, Caroline (TIA). References BARNES, I., CROUS, P. W., WINGFIELD, B. D. & WINGFIELD, M. J Multigene phylogenies reveal that red band needle blight of Pinus is caused by two distinct species of Dothistroma, D-septosporum and D-pini. Studies in Mycology, BATTAGLIA, M., PINKARD, E. A., SANDS, P. J., BRUCE, J. L. & QUENTIN, A Modelling the impact of defoliation and leaf damage on forest plantation function and production. Ecological Modelling, 222, BATTAGLIA, M., SANDS, P., WHITE, D. & MUMMERY, D CABALA: a linked carbon, water and nitrogen model of forest growth for silvicultural decision support. Forest Ecology and Management, 193, BEARE, S., ELLISTON, L., ABDALLA, A. & DAVIDSON, A Improving Plant Biosecurity Systems: A Cost-Benefit Framework for Assessing Incursion Management Decisions. ABARE ereport Prepared for the Victorian Department of Primary Industries. Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Canberra, 47pp. BOOTH, T. H., OLD, K. M. & JOVANIC, T A preliminary assessment of high risk areas for Puccinia psidii (Eucalyptus rust) in the neotropics and Australia. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 82, BRADSHAW, R. E Dothistroma (red-band) needle blight of pines and the dothistromin toxin: a review. Forest Pathology, 34, CANDY, S. G Predictive Models for Integrated Pest Management of the Leaf Beetle Chrysophtharta bimaculata in Eucalyptus nitens Plantations in Tasmania. PhD thesis, University of Tasmania. CARNEGIE, A. J., MATSUKI, M., HAUGEN, D. A., HURLEY, B. P., AHUMADA, R., KLASMER, P., SUN, J. H. & IEDE, E. T Predicting the potential distribution of Sirex noctilio (Hymenoptera : Siricidae), a significant exotic pest of Pinus plantations. Annals of Forest Science, 63, COOK, D. C. & MATHESON, A. C An estimate of the potential economic impact of pine pitch canker in Australia. Australian Forestry, 71, Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 7

22 EYLES, A., SMITH, D., PINKARD, E. A., SMITH, I., CORKREY, R., ELMS, S., BEADLE, C. & MOHAMMED, C Photosynthetic responses of field-grown Pinus radiata trees to artificial and aphid-induced defoliation. Tree Physiology, 31, GADGIL, P., DICK, M., SIMPSON, J., BEJAKOVICH, D., ROSS, M., BAIN, J., HORGAN, G. & WYLIE, R Management Plan Response to an Incursion of Pine Pitch Canker in Australia or New Zealand, Commissioned and published by the Forest Health Committee on behalf of the Forestry and Forest Products Committee, Canberra. GROENEWALD, M., BARNES, I., BRADSHAW, R. E., BROWN, A. V., DALE, A., GROENEWALD, J. Z., LEWIS, K. J., WINGFIELD, B. D., WINGFIELD, M. J. & CROUS, P. W Characterization and distribution of mating type genes in the Dothistroma needle blight pathogens. Phytopathology, 97, HARRINGTON, T. C. & WINGFIELD, M. J Diseases and the ecology of indigenous and exotic pines. In: RICHARDSON, D. M. (ed.) Ecology and Biogeography of Pinus. Cambridge (United Kingdom): Cambridge University Press. IVORY, M. H Records of foliage pathogens of Pinus species in tropical countries. Plant Pathology, 43, KIMBER, W., GLATZ, R., CAON, G. & ROOKE, D Diaeretus essigellae Starý and Zuparko (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiini), a biological control for Monterey pine aphid, Essigella californica (Essig) (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Cinarini): host-specificity testing and historical context. Australian Journal of Entomology, 49, MADDEN, J. L An analysis of an outbreak of the woodwasp, Sirex noctilio F. (Hymenoptera, Siricidae), in Pinus radiata. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 65. MAY, B. M Assessment of the causality of Essigella-ascribed defoliation of midrotation radiata pine and its national impact in terms of cost of lost wood production. FWPRDC report PN MAY, B. M. & CARLYLE, J. C Effect of defoliation associated with Essigella californica on growth of mid-rotation Pinus radiata. Forest Ecology and Management, 183, PINKARD, E. A., BATTAGLIA, M., BRUCE, J., LERICHE, A. & KRITICOS, D. J. 2010a. Process-based modelling of the severity and impact of foliar pest attack on eucalypt plantation productivity under current and future climates. Forest Ecology and Management, 259, PINKARD, E. A., KRITICOS, D. J., WARDLAW, T. J., CARNEGIE, A. J. & LERICHE, A. 2010b. Estimating the spatio-temporal risk of disease epidemics using a bioclimatic niche model. Ecological Modelling, 221, RAPLEY, L. P., POTTS, B. M., BATTAGLIA, M., PATEL, V. S. & ALLEN, G. R Long-term realised and projected growth impacts caused by autumn gum moth defoliation of 2-year-old Eucalyptus nitens plantation trees in Tasmania, Australia. Forest Ecology and Management, 258, SASSE, J., ELMS, S. & KUBE, P Genetic resistance in Pinus radiata to defoliation by the pine aphid Essigella californica. Australian Forestry, 72, STEINBAUER, M. J., KRITICOS, D. J., LUKACS, Z. & CLARKE, A. R Modelling a forest lepidopteran: phenological plasticity determines voltinism which influences population dynamics. Forest Ecology and Management, 198, SUTHERST, R. W Prediction of species geographical ranges (Guest editorial). Journal of Biogeography, 30, VAN DER PAS, J. B., BULMAN, L. & HORGAN, G. P Estimation and cost benefits of spraying Dothistroma pini in tended stands of Pinus radiata in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science, 14, Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

23 VENETTE, R. C., KRITICOS, D. J., MAGAREY, R. D., KOCH, F. H., BAKER, R. H. A., WORNER, S. P., RABOTEAUX, N. N. G., MCKENNEY, D. W., DOBESBERGER, E. J., YEMSHANOV, D., DE BARRO, P. J., HUTCHISON, W. D., FOWLER, G., KALARIS, T. M. & PEDLAR, J Pest Risk Maps for Invasive Alien Species: A Roadmap for Improvement. Bioscience, 60, WATT, M. S., GANLEY, R. J., KRITICOS, D. J. & MANNING, L. K Dothistroma needle blight and pitch canker: the current and future potential distribution of two important diseases of Pinus species. Canadian Journal of Forest Research-Revue Canadienne De Recherche Forestiere, 41, WELSH, C., LEWIS, K. & WOODS, A The outbreak history of Dothistroma needle blight: an emerging forest disease in northwestern British Columbia, Canada. Canadian Journal of Forest Research-Revue Canadienne De Recherche Forestiere, 39, WHARTON, T., COOPER, P. & FLOYD, R Life stage development of Essigella californica (Aphidoidea: Lachnidae: Cinarinae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 97, WHARTON, T. N. & KRITICOS, D. J The fundamental and realized niche of the Monterey Pine aphid, Essigella californica (Essig) (Hemiptera: Aphididae): Implications for managing softwood plantations in Australia. Diversity and Distributions, 10, WOODS, A., COATES, K. D. & HAMANN, A. 2005a. Is an unprecedented dothistroma needle blight epidemic related to climate change? Bioscience, 55, WOODS, A. J., COATES, D. K. & HAMANN, A. 2005b. Is an unprecedented Dothistroma needle blight epidemic related to climate change? Bioscience, 55, Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 9

24 INVITED PAPER EMERGING PESTS AND DISEASES IN NEW AREAS S.S. Lee Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kepong, Selangor, Malaysia Corresponding author: Abstract Plantations of non-native fast-growing forest tree species have expanded very rapidly in South-East Asia over the last two decades. Increasing rotations have been accompanied by the emergence of new pests and diseases and new host-pest combinations not seen before. New pest and disease problems have also emerged in areas previously free of such pests and diseases. Acacia mangium which had initially been believed to be relatively free from pests and diseases is now known to be very susceptible to red root rot caused by Ganoderma philippii. More recently, dieback and stem canker associated with several species of Ceratocystis was found to cause serious damage and mortality in young A. mangium plantations in Indonesia, Malaysia and Vietnam. Similar examples can also be found in plantations of other species such as Eucalyptus spp. and Falcataria moluccana. An upsurge in invasive alien species (IAS) is also expected. This has been borne out by recent outbreaks of the Australian blue gum chalcid, Leptocybe invasa in Eucalyptus plantations in several countries in South East Asia. Keywords: Emerging pests and diseases, fast-growing species, invasive alien species, nonnative species, plantations, South-East Asia Introduction Over the last two decades plantations of non-native fast-growing forest tree species have expanded very rapidly in South-East Asia, particularly in Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam. These plantations have largely been established in response to the rapid depletion of natural forests in the region as well as to meet the increasing demand for forest products, particularly pulp and paper. Species which are most popular are the nitrogen-fixing acacias, mainly Acacia mangium, and various Eucalyptus spp. In 2005 Vietnam and Indonesia were among the top ten reforestation countries in the world (FAO, 2010). Indonesia is presently reported to have about 9 million ha of industrial forest plantations consisting mainly of acacias (mostly A. mangium and some A. crassicarpa) and Eucalyptus spp. and another 3.5 million ha of community forests comprising of mixed species, including acacias (Neo Endra Lelana, pers. comm.). Vietnam has 2.9 million ha of forest plantations of which 60 % consist of acacias and eucalypts (Dell et al., 2012). Thailand is estimated to have about 3.9 million ha of forest plantations, mainly consisting of teak (Tectona grandis), pine (Pinus kesiya), eucalypts, acacias (mostly Acacia mangium) and casuarina (Casuarina equisetifolia) (Supachote Uengwichanpanya, pers. comm.). In 2010 Malaysia was reported to have 1.8 million ha of planted forests (FAO, 2010), consisting mainly of acacias (A. mangium) and rubber. Plantations of non-native fast growing species have also been established on a small scale in Lao PDR and Cambodia (Dell et al. 2012). The Philippines also have industrial scale forest plantations but up-to-date data are unavailable. 10 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

25 This paper discusses the emerging pests and diseases of non-native forest plantation species, particularly Acacia mangium and eucalyptus species which have been extensively planted in many South-East Asian countries. New Pests and Diseases Acacia mangium and other Acacia species The natural distribution of A. mangium ranges from the coastal tropical lowlands of northern Queensland, Australia to the Western Province of Papua New Guinea extending into Maluku and Irian Jaya in Indonesia. A. mangium is the most popular species of Acacia for forest plantations in the region. Apart from being fast-growing, nitrogen fixing, and non-site demanding, it is relatively free from pests and diseases in its initial stages. Time has shown, however, that this situation changes with increasing rotations. Heart rot was the first significant disease problem detected in the 1980s (Gibson, 1981; Lee et al., 1988) and it was later found to be associated with the invasion of wounds by a range of fungi native to the new areas of plantations (Mahmud et al., 1993; Lee & Noraini Shikin, 1999). Another new disease was a phyllode gall rust associated with Endoraecium digitatum (syn. Atelocauda digitata). This fungus which is widely present on native Australian acacias had been previously recorded on A. auriculiformis in Java, Sumatra and South Kalimantan (Santoso & Suharti, 1984). However, it became of concern when it was found to be widespread on A. mangium in the major plantation-growing areas of Sumatra and Kalimantan (Old et al., 2000). It has since also been found in A. mangium plantations in the Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak on the island of Borneo. However, it has not been observed in plantations in Peninsular Malaysia. In Vietnam the fungus is considered a biosecurity threat as the country is still free from the disease but it may be a matter of time before it makes its appearance there as the rust spores are easily wind dispersed. Species of Ganoderma and Phellinus are common root pathogens in their native lowland rainforests of South-East Asia. These fungi have a very wide host range and cause root disease in many important commercial crops such as rubber, tea, and oil palm. Root disease caused by native Ganoderma phillippii and other species of Ganoderma and Phellinus noxius has emerged to become the most economically damaging disease of A. mangium with high mortality rates, particularly in second and third rotations ((Lee, 2000; Eyles, 2008). Another emerging disease of great concern is a dieback and wilt disease associated with Ceratocystis spp. which kills young A. mangium trees. Some scientists believe that this is the most important emerging disease problem in Acacia plantations in South-East Asia and that it poses a very severe threat to the success of future plantations. The disease was reported from Indonesia in 2011 (Tarigan et al., 2011) but has also been observed in Malaysia and Vietnam. In fact Ceratocystis sp. was isolated from discoloured wood of A. mangium in Peninsular Malaysia in 1985 but at that time no mortality was observed and the fungus was not identified to species. In the light of current research, it is now recognised that typical symptoms of the disease were observed on A. mangium trees in Sumatra in However, with no subsequent research there was no further information about this disease until the recent observations of high mortality rates in young A. mangium trees. Detailed and in-depth research needs to be conducted to answer the many key questions associated with the disease, e.g. is it a new disease or is it a disease that has long been present but only now making an impact, and if so why; how is the disease spread; are there vectors involved; etc. There are also significant areas of A. crassicarpa plantations in Indonesia. A severely damaging leaf and shoot blight of A. crassicarpa observed in Australia and Indonesia since the late 1990s had been believed to be caused by different fungi. However, careful research has revealed that the disease in both countries are actually caused by the same pathogen, Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 11

26 Passalora perplexa (Beilharz et al., 2004). This fungus is apparently native to Australia and is believed to have spread to the A. crassicarpa plantations in Indonesia. Damage caused by many native insect pests has been recorded in Acacia plantations with the the most serious damage being caused by the mosquito bug, Helopeltis spp. (Nair, 2000; Thu et al., 2010). In contrast, there are no reports of introduced insect pests that have caused serious damage to tropical acacias where they have been planted as non-natives. Eucalyptus spp. Eucalyptus spp. planted in South-East Asia are native to Australia and various hybrids, e.g. E. grandis x E. urophylla are popular. A wide range of diseases are already present in South- East Asian Eucalyptus plantations (Old et al. 2003). However, a number of new delibitating pests and pathogens seem to have appeared more rapidly in large recently established plantations in the region, e.g. Teratosphaeria destructans (syn. Kirramyces destructans, Phaeophleospora destructans) (Old et al., 2003). This fungus can cause extensive shoot blight, distortion of young leaves and premature leaf abscission. Chrysoporthe cubensis (syn. Cryphonectria cubensis) which is a native fungus on native Melastomaceae in South Africa and South-East Asia is known to have undergone a host shift to infect Eucalyptus species in these regions. This fungus which infects through wounds can cause cankers which extend several metres up the stem. Chrysoporthe spp. are now believed to pose a significant threat to eucalypts and other members of the Myrtaceae and Melastomataceae in areas where these trees and shrubs are native (Wingfield et al., 2008). Many insect pests are also found in eucalyptus plantations but of greater concern are several new non-native insect pests. Outbreaks of the native Australian blue gum chalcid, Leptocybe invasa have been reported in Vietnam (Thu et al., 2010) and Thailand (Supachote Uengwichanpanya, pers. comm.) and was belileved to be absent in Malaysia until a recent visit to plantations in Sabah revealed otherwise. The insect is also most likely present in Indonesia. Feeding by the larvae causes the formation of galls on the shoots, petioles, leaf midribs and leaves resulting in deformation, stunting, growth retardation and loss of productivity. Another new insect pest to be aware of is the native Australian gall wasp, Ophelimus maskelii which was very recently found in Vietnam (Thu, P.Q., pers.comm.). Other forest plantation tree species Examples of new diseases in new areas are also found in other species, for example, the gall rust of Falcataria moluccana caused by the rust fungus, Uromycladium tepperanium. The disease was first reported from the Philippines in the early 1990s and shortly thereafter it appeared in Sabah, Malaysia (Lee, 2004). It is now known to be widespread on several islands in Indonesia as well (Sri Rahayu et al., 2010). The origin of the disease outbreak in the Philippines was apparently traced back to the importation of seeds from Australia (Rogelio Valdez, pers. comm.). Adaptation of native species and invasive alien species The early non-native plantations in South-East Asia were generally pest and disease free in their new locations because of their separation from the majority of their natural enemies. Over time, some native pathogens at the new locations adapted to the new non-native hosts, e.g. the fungi causing heart rot and root disease in A. mangium. These facultative parasitic fungi possess very wide host ranges and it therefore comes as no surprise that they are able to switch to A. mangium as a new host. Natural dispersal of the pests and pathogens, especially of those which are wind dispersed, increased levels of trade and tourism, and importation of large amounts of germplasm and planting material such as seeds and cuttings, have facilitated 12 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

27 the gradual arrival, build-up and emergence of new pest and disease organisms in the regions which were free of the natural predators of these pests and diseases. Evidence shows that once a pest or pathogen has become established in the plantations of a region where it was previously absent, there is a good chance that it will spread to other regions (Wingfield et al., 2010). The threat of invasive alien species to the biodiversity and economy of South-East Asian countries has been identified as a major driver of environmental change, constraining environmental conservation, economic growth and sustainable development (ASEAN Centre for Biodiversity, 2010). Outlook There is emerging evidence of new associations between insects, microbes and trees (Wingfield et al., 2010). It is likely that more new pests and diseases will emerge in new areas in the near future. Field staff, foresters and pest and disease personnel need to be observant and vigilant and report any unusual observations as soon as possible to the responsible authorities so that appropriate action can be undertaken. More research, close collaboration, cooperation and information sharing between scientists in the region is also crucial in combating pests and diseases and prevention of their spread. In addition new innovations and the development of new technologies such as gene markers will be necessary for more effective forest protection in the future. Acknowledgement I would like to thank the organisers and APFISN for the invitation and support to participate in this conference. References ASEAN CENTRE FOR BIODIVERSITY ASEAN Biodiversity Outlook: Invasive Alien Species An assault with irreversible impact, pp Los Banos, Laguna, Philippines. BEILHARZ, V.C., PASCOE, I.G., WINGFIELD, M.J., TJAHJONO, B. & CROUS, P.W Passalora perplexa, an important pleoanamorphic leaf blight pathogen of Acacia crassicarpa in Australia and Indonesia. Studies in Mycology 50, DELL, B., XU, D. & THU, P.Q Managing threats to the health of tree plantations in Asia. Pp In: Bandani, A.A. (Ed.). New Perspectives in Plant Protection InTech. Available from Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 13

28 A REVIEW OF DISEASES IN NURSERIES AND PLANTATIONS IN THAILAND Uthaiwan Sangwanit Department of Forest Biology, Faculty of Forestry, Kasetsart University Lardyaow, Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900, Thailand Corresponding author: Abstract Diseases in several forest tree nurseries in three regions of Thailand, the Northeast, Center and South, were surveyed during 1983 to Eight diseases on 47 tree seedling species, caused by 45 species of fungi were recorded. Disease surveys in Eucalyptus camaldulensis plantations located in all regions of Thailand recorded at least 25 species of fungi causing damage to seedlings, cuttings, foliage, shoots, twigs, branches and stems. In 1 to 7 years old stands of E. camaldulensis plantations, there were 7 diseases caused by 19 species of fungi and one bacterial species. Disease severity varied with disease type, fungal pathogen, eucalypt clones and environmental factors. The two most severe diseases in plantations were Cryptosporiopsis eucalypti leaf spot and shoot blight and. In term of selection of disease resistant clones to C. eucalypti pathogen, a rapid Phaeophleospora destructans leaf blight. Disease management for both nursery and plantation diseases should rely on sound selection and breeding programmes to obtain suitably disease resistant genotypes for propagation. This should be combined with good silviculture. Key words: Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Cryptosporiopsis eucalypti, Phaeophleospora destructans Introduction The total land area of Thailand is about 513,000 km 2. Due to forest degradation leading to a reduction in forest land area from 43.2% of the total land area in 1973 to 25.3% in 1998, the Thai government announced a logging ban and set up a national forest policy to maintain forested land at 40% of the total land area. There have been numerous activities to establish tree plantations and green areas by the government and private sectors since The efforts have resulted in an increase in forested area to 33.4% of the total land area in a 2008 inventory (RFD 2012). Among efforts to green Thailand, the large scale production of tree seedlings, both indigenous and exotic species, as well as large areas of monoculture and economic tree plantations were initiated mainly by the Royal Forest Department (RFD) in all regions of the country. These plantations have, however, been affected by insect pests and plant diseases. This paper aims to review the recorded plant diseases in forest nurseries and plantations of economical importance. Diseases in forest tree nurseries Several reports of tree seedling diseases in nurseries in Thailand have been made since the 1980s. Out of them, reports by Pongpanich, Boonthaweekul and Chalermpongse (1988); Kaewsrithong (1999) and Kawabe, Kamizore and Aihara (2002) contributed most information. They surveyed tree seedling diseases in five large-scale RFD nurseries. Three nurseries are located in the north eastern part of the Nakorn Ratchasima Province, one in the 14 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

29 Central part of the Ratchaburi Province and one in the southern part of the Prachuabkirikhan Province. The surveys were done by examination of disease symptoms, identification of fungi associated with the symptoms, mostly using dissecting and compound microscopes and comparison of fungal morphologies with disease causing agents from other research publications. Isolation of fungi into pure culture was performed when it was necessary. These studies reported eight plant diseases on 47 tree seedling species, caused by 45 pathogenic fungi (Table 1). Effective methods to control the diseases were recommended as follows: 1. Sanitation aiming at reducing the inoculum sources of causal fungi in the nurseries, such as removing and burning infected leaves, using clean soil and substrates for sowing and planting. 2. Using disease resistant seeds or cuttings to produce seedlings. 3. Good nursery management to have enough light and moisture, good drainage and aeration. 4. Adding some organic or inorganic fertilizer to soil as needed. 5. Application of appropriate fungicides at the correct time and dosages. Table 1. Fungal diseases of forest tree seedlings found in nurseries in Thailand Disease Seedling species Fungal species Reference 1. Dampingoff Tetrameles nudiflora Fusarium sp. Chalermpongse (1995) Duabanga grandiflora Botrytis cinerea Eucalyptus spp. Botryodiplodia sp. Melia azedarach Rhizoctonia solani Intsia palembanica Sclerotium bataticola Cassia grandis Phytophthora spp. Cassia fistula Pythium spp. Gmelina arborea Afzelia xylocarpa Pinus kesiya 2. Powdery Acacia auriculaeformis Oidium sp. Pongpanich et al.(1988), mildew Acacia mangium Oidium sp. Chalermpongse (1993), Kaewsrithong (1999), Kawabe et al. (2002) Peltophorum pterocarpum Oidium sp. Chalermpongse (1995), Kaewsrithong (1999) Cassia siamea Oidium sp. Kaewsrithong (1999) Leucaena leucocephala Oidium sp. 3. Sooty mold Acacia auriculaeformis Meliola sp. Chalermpongse (1993), Kaewsrithong (1999) Acacia mangium Meliola sp. Kaewsrithong (1999) Adenanthera pavonina Meliola sp. Sandoricum koetjape Meliola sp. Cassia floribunda Meliola sp. Cassia siamea Meliola sp. Acacia spp. Meliola sp. Chalermpongse (1995) Shorea henryana Cirsosia sp. Saenglew (1989) Alstonia scholaris Meliola alstoniae Saenglew (1989), Alstonia macrophylla Meliola alstoniae Kaewsrithong (1999) Phyllanthus emblica Meliola brideliae Saenglew (1989) Eucalyptus camaldulensis Meliola helleri Saenglew (1989) Nephelium hypoluecum Meliola spindi-esculenti Saenglew (1989) Tamarindus indica Meliola tamarindi Saenglew (1989), Kaewsrithong (1999) Dipterocarpus alatus Lembosia sp. Kaewsrithong (1999) Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 15

30 4. Rust disease Albizia odoratissima Uromyces Pongpanich et al. (1988) appendicularis Ravenelia sp. Cassia occidentalis Aecidium spp. Lawsuwan et al. (1983) Bambusa spp. Dasturella bambusina Lawsomboon (1986) Dalbergia cochichinensis Maravalia pterocarpi Pongpanich et al. (1988), Kaewsrithong (1999), Kawabe et al. (2002) Tectona grandis Chaconia (Olivea) Chalermpongse (1995), tectonae Kaewsrithong (1999) Dalbergia oliveri Maravalia achroa Kaewsrithong (1999) Phyllanthus emblica Kernkampella emblicae Adenanthera pavonina Ravenelia sp. Albizia procera Sphaerophragmium luzonicum Wrightia tomentosa Hemileia wrightiae Bombax anceps Uredo bombacis Afzelia xylocarpa Uredo sp. Cassia bicapsularis Uredo cassieabicapsulalis 5. Leaf spot disease 6. Tar spot disease 7. Leaf blight disease 8. Root rot disease Spondias pinata Kuehneola sp. Eucalyptus spp. Phaeoseptoria eucalypti Chalermpongse (1995) Melia azedarach Cercospora subsessilis Pterocarpus macrocarpus Cylindrosporium sp. Kaewsrithong (1999) Cercospora sp. Kawabe et al. (2002) Pterocarpus indicus Pseudocercospora pterocarpicola Acacia auriculaeformis Pestalotiopsis guepinii Kaewsrithong (1999) Acacia mangium Pestalotiopsis guepinii Sindora siamensis Phyllosticta sp. Albizia lebbeck Camptomeris albiziae Albizia procera Camptomeris albiziae Pterocarpus macrocarpus Phyllachora pterocarpi Chalermpongse (1995), Kaewsrithong (1999) Phyllachora sp. Kawabe et al. (2002) Dalbergia oliveri Phyllachora sp. Pongpanich et al. (1988), Kaewsrithong (1999) Dalbergia cochinchinensis Phyllachora pterocarpi Kaewsrithong (1999) Phyllachora sp. Kawabe et al. (2002) Dalbergia cultrate Phyllachora sp. Kaewsrithong (1999) Millettia leucantha Phyllachora sp. Canarium subulatum Phyllachora sp. Albizia odoratissima Stigmochora sp. Pterocarpus indicus Phyllachora pterocarpi Kawabe et al. (2002) Hopea ferrea Colletotrichum Chalermpongse (1995) gloeosporioides Eucalyptus camaldulensis Cylindrocladium sp. Boonthaweekul (1991) Coniella sp. Cassia fistula Phytophthora palmivora Keupratone et al. (1985) Diseases in economic tree plantations Eucalyptus species are of major economic, social and environmental importance to countries in the Southeast Asian region, including Thailand. The most commonly grown species is E. camaldulensis which at present covers approximately 443,000 hectares in Thailand. Major losses due to fungal pathogens occurred where E. camaldulensis was grown in monoculture and with genetically susceptible clones. Fungal diseases are a major problem in all growth 16 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

31 stages. Eucalypt seeds were destroyed by both parasitic and saprophytic fungi, and at least 25 species of fungi have been found to cause damage to seedlings, cuttings, foliage, shoots, twigs, branches and stems. Detailed descriptions of the diseases were published in Pongpanich et al. (2010). In one to seven years old E. camaldulensis plantations located in all parts of Thailand, there were seven diseases caused by 19 fungi and a bacterial species (Pongpanich 2002) (Table 2). The disease severity varied with disease type, fungal pathogens, eucalypt clones and environmental factors. The most significant diseases of plantation grown E. camaldulensis are leaf and shoot blight caused by Cryptosporiopsis eucalypti and branch and stem cankers associated with fungi of the coelomycete and ascomycete groups. Disease management using chemotherapy was found helpful in controlling and minimizing damage to nursery stocks. In plantations, the most effective control method is to select for resistant clones to local pathogens through the use of species, provenance, progeny and clonal trials. Table 2. List of Eucalyptus diseases in Thailand Plant stage Disease/symptom Associated fungi Host Seedling Damping off Collar rot Leaf spot Leaf blight Top blight Cylindrocladium scoparium Sclerotium rolfsii Rhizoctonia solani Cylindrocladium sp. Kirramyces sp. Cercospora sp. Unknown (Coelomycetes) Coniella sp. Unknown (Coelomycetes) Phomopsis sp. Lasiodiplodia theobromae Colletotrichum gloeosporioides E. camaldulensis E. camaldulensis E. deglupta E. camaldulensis E. camaldulensis E. camaldulensis E. camaldulensis E. camaldulensis E. camaldulensis E. camaldulensis Cuttings Rot Top dieback in scion garden Plantation Leaf spot & blight Shoot blight Leaf spot Leaf blight Shoot dieback Canker Phomopsis sp. Lasiodiplodia theobromae Glomerella sp. (teleomorph) & Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Dothiorella sp. & Botryosphaeria sp. (telemorph) Cryptospoiopsis eucalypti Pseudocercospora sp. Cercospora sp. & Mycosphaerella sp. (teleomorph) Mycotribulus sp. Unidentified (coelomycetes) Cylindrocladium quinqueseptatum Coniella sp. Coniella fragariae Cytospora sp. Phomopsis sp. Dothiorella sp. Coniothyrium zuluense Cytospora sp. E. camaldulensis E. camaldulensis E. camaldulensis E. camaldulensis E. camaldulensis E. urophylla E. camaldulensis E. urophylla E. camaldulensis E. camaldulensis E. camaldulensis E. camaldulensis E. camaldulensis E. urophylla E. camaldulensis E. camaldulensis E. deglupta E. camaldulensis E. camaldulensis E. camaldulensis Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 17

32 Heart rot Source: Pongpanich (2002) Lasiodiplodia theobromae Dothiorella sp. & Botryosphaeria sp. Unidentified (coelomycetes) Cryphonectria cubensis Valsa sp.? Basidiomycetes E. camaldulensis E. urophylla E. camaldulensis E. deglupta E. urophylla E. deglupta Selection of leaf and shoot blight disease resistant clones have been done using plantation evaluations based on natural infection. However, Doungnamol (2004) carried out an experiment to select E. camaldulensis resistance clones to Cryptosporiopsis eucalypti leaf spot disease using a rapid screening method. He surveyed plantations located in Prachinburi, Rayong and Chonburi Provinces in eastern Thailand and Ratchaburi and Kanchanaburi Provinces in central Thailand and found that there were 10 eucalyptus clones planted. These were CT37, CT76, CT190, SF5, SF7, C1, C2, T5, A17 and No These clones had different levels of disease incidence: low level (A17 and CT76), medium level (C1 and C2), severe level (CT190 and No.3048) and very severe level (CT37, SF5, SF7, and T5). Diseased leaves of the 10 clones were sampled and examined for fungal structures by using dissecting and compound microscopes. C. eucalypti were were isolated into pure culture from each clone to obtain 10 isolates in total. These isolates were grown on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) and presented different colony characteristics. Two isolates, CT76 and SF5 were selected based on their rapid growth on PDA and profuse sporulation, and used for further studies to determine their pathogenic ability in order to screen eucalyptus clones for their resistance to C. eucalypt. By using spore suspensions of isolates CT76 and SF5 to spray on 5 E. camaldulensis clones, W13, CT37, CT76, W118 and W1, it was found that W1, W118 and CT76 were resistant clones, while W13 and CT37 were non-resistant or susceptible clones. These results corresponded with the results based on field surveys. Therefore, the technique can be used as a rapid screening method. Ayawong (2007) conducted a survey on leaf blight of Eucalyptus spp. caused by P. destructans in 8 provinces including Chachoengsao, Prachin Buri, Sa Kaeo, Kanchanaburi, Chon Buri, Rayong, Nakhon Ratchasima and Loei. P. destructans produces light-yellow lesions on the infected leaves and later causes leaf blight and defoliation. The highest disease severity was shown during the rainy season on E. camaldulensis in Dan Sai district, Loei Province. Natural infection by the fungus on 19 clones in Tha Takhiab district, Chachoengsao Province, showed that clone A2, A3 and KS1 were highly resistant (0.0%) whereas SI1 and A5 were susceptible to the disease (83.3%) Susceptibility of 6 clones of E. camaldulensis and its hybrids to P. destructans was evaluated. After two weeks of inoculation in the greenhouse, clone ST2 and S4 were moderately resistant and S2 was moderately susceptible with the disease indexes at 31.25, and 72.9%, respectively. The transmission of this pathogen from fruit to seed and seed to seedling was investigated using blotter and agar methods and the results revealed no occurrence of infection and transmission. At present, the disease has been reported as epidemic and having a negative effect on Eucalyptus spp. growth because of severe defoliation. Since the information on biology, infection, epidemiology and seed transmission of P. destructans is already obtained (Refs), immediate recommendations on control measures by forest pathologists are possible. Therefore, forest pathologists must be well prepared of any plant diseases which have potential to become epidemic and cause severe damage to tree species, both in nursery and 18 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

33 plantation conditions, in order to have appropriate control measures against the diseases and lessen the loss from them. References AYAWONG, C Biology, Infection, Epidemiology and Seed Transmission of Phaeophleospora destructans (M.J. Wingf. & Crous) Crous, F.A. Ferreira & B. Sutton, the Fungal Pathogen of Eucalyptus Leaf Blight. Master Thesis, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, 79 pp. (in Thai) BOONTHAWEEKUL, T Violent diseases of Eucalyptus camaldulensis in plantations. In The Forestry Annual Conference Pattaya, Chonburi, p (in Thail) Chalermpongse, A., 1993: Management of Forest pathogens in Thailand. In Ecological & Economics in Relation to Forest Conservation and Management. Malindo Printers, Selangor Darul, Ehsan, p CHALERMPONGSE, A Forest tree diseases and soil micro-organisms in seedling production and plantation establishment. In The Training Course on Plantation Establishment and Agroferestry. Tak Forestry Training Center, Tak Province, p (in Thai) DOUNGNAMOL, D Selection of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. clones by a rapid screening method for resistance to Cryptosporiopsis eucalypti leaf spot disease, Master Thesis. Kasetsart University, Bangkok, 86 pp. (in Thai) KAEWSRITHONG, S Fungal Diseases of Forest Tree Seedlings in Nurseries. Master Thesis. Kasetsart University, Bangkok, 94 pp. (in Thai) KAWABE, Y., KAMIZORE, S. AND AIHARA, H Seedling diseases in large-scale nurseries of the reforestation and extension project in northeast Thailand. In Hutacharern, C., Napompeth, B., Allard, G. and Wylie, F. R. (eds.): Proceedings of the IUFRO/FAO Workshop on Pest Management in Tropical Forest Plantations, May 25-29, 1998, Chanthaburi, Thailand, p KEUPRATONE, U., SENGKONG, S. AND TANTAYAPORN, S Phytophthora spp. in Thailand. In Proceedings of the 28 th Conference on Plants. Kasetsart University, Bangkok, p (in Thai) LAWSOMBOON, P Rust Fungi in Thailand. Master Thesis. Kasetsart University, Bangkok. (in Thai) LAWSUWAN, C., KAMHAENGRITTIRONG, T., TANTAYAPORN S. AND YUAEEM, A Study on morphology and taxonomy of rust disease of economic crops and weeds. In Research Results of 1983 Vol. 1. Division of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, Department of Agriculture, Bangkok. (in Thai) PONGPANICH, K., BOONTHAWEEKUL T. AND CHALERMPONGSE, A Seedling diseases in Sakaerat Forest Nursery. In The 4 th Seminar on Silvicullture, Pattaya, Chonburi, p (in Thai) PONGPANICH, K Diseases of Eucalyptus in Thailand and options for reducing their impact. In Hutacharern, C., Napompeth, B., Allard, G. and Wylie, F. R. (eds.): Proceedings of the IUFRO/FAO Workshop on Pest Management in Tropical Forest Plantations, May 25-29, 1998, Chanthaburi, Thailand, p PONGPANICH, K., AYAWONG, C., HIMAMARN, W., DUANGKAE, K. AND SKOLUCK, B Eucalypt Diseases in Thailand. Agricultural Co-operative Group of Thailand Co. Ltd., Bangkok. 56 pp. Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 19

34 ROYAL FOREST DEPARTMENT Forestry Statistics. Available Source: Aug. 23, SAENGLEW, P Sooty Molds in Thailand. Master Thesis. Kasetsart University, Bangkok. (in Thai) 20 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

35 APPRAISAL OF PEST AND DISEASES FOR FUTURE FOREST PRODUCTIVITY IN BANGLADESH M. Al-Amin and S. Afrin Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences, Chittagong University, Chittagong-4331, Bangladesh Corresponding author: or Abstract Bangladesh has a potential to be a good habitat of diversified plants and organisms as she lies in tropical zone of the world, which facilitates intrusion of harmful pest and diseases particularly in forests. This study focuses on the major pest and diseases with their severity of attack and incurred losses in the forests of Bangladesh. Pests are described with their place of occurrences viz. nursery pests, plantation pests and wood and timber pests. Moreover, the present status of the infestation and their monitoring and surveillance to prevent and control the attack for conservation of forests securing its productivity were discussed with available literatures. This piece of research concludes more research on invasive species and detrimental pests are needed to cope future threats for productive forest where changing climate also a concealed intimidation. Key words: pest, diseases, tropical forest, monitoring, pathological research Introduction Bangladesh is a Unitary and sovereign Republic, known as the People s Republic of Bangladesh; it gained its independence on March 26, Bangladesh occupies a unique geographic location (20 ο 34 N 26 ο 38 N latitude to 88 ο 1 E 92 ο 41 E longitude) spanning a relatively short stretch of land between the mighty Himalayan mountain chain and open ocean. The broad physiographic regions are classified as flood plains occupying about 80%, terrace about 8% and hills about 12% of the land area (Rashid, 2000). Bangladesh, is a tropical country, enjoys a wide range of bio-diversity covering both wild and cultivated land. Of the total area of Bangladesh (147,570 sq. km.), agricultural land makes up 64%, forest lands account for almost 18%, whilst urban areas are 8% of the area. The total forest area in Bangladesh, according to Forest Department, is estimated to be 2.52 million ha corresponding to 17.4% of the surface area of the country. This includes 1.52 million ha Forest Department controlled land, 0.73 million ha Unclassified State Forests (USF) under the control of District Administration and 0.27 million ha village forest land (mostly homesteads). Forestry plays a significant role in Bangladesh, by providing a source of energy, supplies forest products such as fuel-wood, fodder, timber, poles, thatching grass, medicinal herbs, construction materials and contributes to the conservation and improvement of the country s environment. The warm humid climate of Bangladesh is favorable for various pest & diseases on plants (Tree, Shrubs, and Crops etc.). Forests of Bangladesh face a number of threats. Pest and disease is considered as one of the major threat for maintaining forest health and productivity. In the face of the fact that they are integral components of forest ecosystems, insects and diseases have considerable influence on the health of forests, trees outside forests and other wooded lands. They can adversely affect tree growth, vigor and survival, the yield and quality of wood and non-wood products, wildlife habitat, recreation, aesthetics and cultural Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 21

36 values. Forest insect pests and diseases may also result in the scantiness of plantation programmes, the abandonment of a given tree species and the necessity to clear cut large areas dominated by infested trees. Pest and diseases cause damaged of about 15% of the plants annually in Bangladesh. Forests of Bangladesh need to be managed so that the risks and impacts of unwanted disturbances are minimized. Insect pests in forest of Bangladesh 3 major groups of forest insect pests are found in Bangladesh: nursery pests; plantation pests; and wood and timber pests. Nursery pests The groups described under nursery pests are cutworms (Agrotis ipsilon), cockchafers or white grubs (mainly Leucopholis, Holotrichia and Anomala spp.), termites and ants, crickets and mole crickets (mainly Brachytrupes (Tarbinskiellus) portentosus, Gryllotalpa africana and Tradactylla sp.), defoliators (including the leaf eaters - Catopsilla and Eurema spp., the leaf rollers - such as Parotis marginata, and the leaf miners), and sap suckers. Plantation pests Six major groups of plantation pests are: the teak (Tectona grandis) defoliators Hyblaea puera and Eutectona machaeralis; the teak and gamar (Gmelina arborea) canker grub, Dihamnus [Acalolepta] cervinus; the gamar defoliator, Calopepla leayana; the sal (Shorea robusta) heartwood borer, Hoplocerambyx spinicornis; the semul (Bombax malabaricum) shoot borer, Tonica niviferana; and the mahogany shoot borer, Hypsipyla robusta, an important pest of Meliaceae including Swietenia macrophylla (mahogany), Cedrela toona (Toona ciliata) (toon) and Chickrassia (Chukrasia) tabularis (chickrassy). Wood and Timber pests The sequence of wood and timber pests found as drying and seasoning advances are: Borers attacking green logs (e.g. Platypus, Crossotarsus, Xyleborus and Webbia spp.), sap and heartwood borers infesting logs with moisture content <50% (the buprestids Chrysocroa, Catoxantha (Chrysochroa) and Belionata spp., and the cerambycids Hoplocerambyx spinicornis and Glenea spp.), and dry wood borers attacking drier wood (powder post beetles such as Sinoxylon, Dinoderus, Lyctus and Heterobostrychus spp.) and well seasoned timber (some cerambycids). Termite attack does not follow any sequence based on wood moisture content, but mostly occurs 2-3 months after felling and is primarily caused by subterranean termite species such as Microcerotermes beesoni and Odontotermes spp (Baksha, 1990). 22 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

37 Table 1. Major pest and diseases with their host and causal factors. Disease/Pest Host Pathogen/ Causal factor Keora Cytospora sp (Sonneratia apetala) Dieback in Plantation Sundari ( Heritiera fomes) Botryosphaeria ribis associated with gall or canker on the tree Top dying of Sundari Bhaluka (Bambusa balcooa) & Bhaijja (B. vulgaris) Sarocladium oryzae Bamboo Blight Gamar (Gmelina arborea), Teak (Tectona grandis) Scurrula gracilifolia, Dendrophthae falcata, S. parasitica Mistletoes in plantation Pyinkado (Xylia dollabriformis) Ganoderma lucidum Root rot of Pyinkado Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 23

38 Disease/Pest Host Pathogen/ Causal factor Jackfruit Botryodiplodia theobromae (Artocarpus heterophyllus) (pathogen of leaf blight) Dieback, Canker & Leaf blight disease of Jack fruit Sal (Shorea robusta Gaertn.f.) Curvularia palliscens Leaf spot disease Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) Aphomopsis spp. is closely associated with the dieback Dieback of Hevea brasiliensis Tectona grandis, Avicennia officinalis, Callicarpa arborea, Vitex spp. and Oroxylum indicum. Hyblaea puera, Eutectona machaerali Teak Defoliator Keora(Sonneratia apetala), Gewa (Excoecaria agallocha) Streblote siva, Trabala vishnou &Ercheia cyllaria Keora Defoliator, Gewa Defoliator 24 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

39 Table 2. Major Plantation Pests and Diseases with their symptoms, affected areas and control measures in Bangladesh (adopted from Rahman et al, 1997, Chakraborty & Nandi, 1977) Disease/Pest Host Symptoms Dieback in Plantation Massive mortality in Keora plantation Top dying of Sundari Bamboo Blight Mistletoes in plantation Root rot of Pyinkado Keora (Sonneratia apetala) Keora (Sonneratia apetala) Heritiera fomes Bhaluka (Bambusa balcooa) & Bhaijja(B. vulgaris) Gamar, Teak, Malakana koroi Pyinkado (Xylia dollabriform is) High proportion of side branches dying or top dying condition Death of leaf, twigs and branches & ultimately the whole tree Trees develop galls and/or canker, mainly on twigs, to a lesser extent on main branches and infrequently on trunks. Affected Young trees mostly die. Little or no increase in the number of blighted culms. Blight starts death and decay first of culms sheath and then of culms at node Angiospermic parasitic bushes havinggreen foliage and small branches ; it tries to engulf the host branch and ultimately kills the portion of host branch Pale green color of leaf at the initial stage and finally dries up & fall of, twigs and branches dries up. Ultimately death of crown. Disease/Pest Host Symptoms Dieback & Canker of Jackfruit (Artocarpus Dieback Discoloring of leaves Infested Geographical Locations Plantations of Coastal afforestation divisions of Chittagong, Noakhali, Barisal and Patuakhali. Mostly severe in Chittagong Coastal plantations of Bangladesh Mangrove Forests Chittagong, Dinajpur, Rangpur Hill Forests Pathogen/ Causal factor Cytospora sp The condition is caused by sudden heavy siltation in coastal plantations which covers all the pneumetaphores at and around the basal area of keora trees A fungus, Botryosphaeria ribis has been found to be closely associated with the gall and/or canker Sarocladium oryzae Scurrula gracilifolia, Dendrophthae falcata, S. parasitica Control Dithane M45 2 gm / litre Avoid or reduce the extent of siltation Yet to be identified By improving cultural practices and Dithane M45 2 gm / litre Mixed plantation with Evergreen species may reduce the infection but not yet tested in large scale Sal Forests Ganoderma lucidum Use of 2% formaline in water as soil drench at the initial stage, raising mixed plantation Infested Geographical Locations Throughout the country Pathogen/ Causal factor Control - Measures not yet been Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 25

40 Jack fruit Leaf blight disease of Jack fruit Leaf damage in Eucalyptus Canker Disease in Albizia Leaf spot disease heterophyllu s) Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllu s) Eucalyptus camaldulens is Albizia procera Sal (Shorea robusta Gaertn.f.) and fall off and drying of major branches & most of the crowns Canker Blackening of bark at the bases of dead branches Infected portion turned yellow & lastly brown in color surrounded by yellow margin Death of leaf in lower & crown zone Appearance of a stem canker in the form of a depressed grayish black area, wood of the affected trees showed brown to grayish black discoloration in streaks Appearance of a small brownish circular spot on the leaf blade Throughout the country Throughout the country Hill Forests Sal forests of Bangladesh Botryodiplodia theobromae Yet to be identified Botryodiplodia theobromae & Pestalotiopsis guepinii Curvularia palliscens found out Aureofungin & Brassicol Yet to be identified Use of Bavistin, Dithane M45 2 gm / litre Yet to be identified Dieback of Hevea brasiliensis Teak Defoliator Keora Defoliator, Gewa Defoliator Hevea brasiliensis Tectona grandis, Avicennia officinalis, Callicarpa arborea, Vitex spp. and Oroxylum indicum Keora (Sonneratia apetala),ge wa (Excoecaria agallocha) Starts as death of immature leaves,followed by death of young twigs & then progressively larger branches Rubber Estates in Bangladesh Aphomopsis spp. Is closely associated with the dieback Leaf damage & fall Hill Forests Hyblaea puera, Eutectona machaeralis Leaf damage & fall Coastal Forests Streblote siva, Trabala vishnou &Ercheia cyllaria Yet to be identified Dithane M45 2 gm / litre Mixed plantation, Cultural practices, Light trapping Status of Pest Monitoring and Surveillance Program in Bangladesh Pest surveillance and forecasting systems of the country are yet to be developed. However, scientists in Bangladesh are trying to get information using qualitative surveys. Almost all research efforts have been directed towards the qualitative surveys of existing insects, diseases and vertebrates. Although, some work has been done on quantitative aspects of pest monitoring and surveillance. This study revealed that some research has been initiated in areas necessary to support a pest monitoring and surveillance program. These areas include development of economic thresholds, action levels, pesticide screening, race determinations 26 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

41 and population dynamics. Most of this work is rudimentary but very promising. Work is also beginning in biological control of insect pest species through the use of predators and parasites (Cole & Horne, 1985). Legislation is also developed for protection of plants regarding pest and diseases. The existing plant quarantine legislation known as Destructive Insects and Pests Rules, 1966 (Plant Quarantine) was framed as per provisions delineated under Sub-section (I) of Section-3, Section-4A & 4D of the Destructive Insect and Pests Act, 1914 (II of 1914). On the basis of the National Seed Policy, an amended Plant Quarantine Acts, 2007 has been drafted, scrutinized and may get the final approval of the Government soon. Status of Research in Plant Pathology In view of the acute shortage in supply of timber and fuel wood in Bangladesh, and damage which diseases have caused to trees in various parts of the world, research on diseases of forest trees was started in Bangladesh Forest research Institute at Chittagong, to understand various diseases so as to find out means to avoid or minimize losses caused by them (Rahman, 1990). The status of research in plant pathology relating to pest monitoring and surveillance was evaluated by conducting numerous interviews and reviewing a total of 179 published (Table 2). Table 3. Breakdown in plant pathology relating to pest monitoring and surveillance from 179 Published papers (Cole and Horne, 1985) Subject Area % of Papers Disease Description 6 Pathogen Cataloging 11 Monitoring and Surveillance 0 Disease Control (Methods other than varietal resistance) 22 Disease Control (Evaluation of varietal response to pathogens) 50 Disease Etiology 2 Epidemiology 1 Evaluation of Disease Loss 6 Estimation of Disease Loss 2 Total 100 Conclusion Forest pests and diseases are a global problem and have considerable impacts on forests and the forest sector. They can adversely affect tree growth and the yield of wood and non-wood products. Detecting pests or pathogens in trees and timber products is challenging, as is the development of effective and affordable measures to control. Measures to protect forests from insect pests and diseases are an integral part of sustainable forest management. Effective pest management requires reliable information information on the pests themselves, their biology, ecology, and distribution, their impacts on forest ecosystems and possible methods of control. However, Bangladesh has lots of available reliable information on pathogens of crop species, but has limited comprehensive information in case of forests tree. It is high time to become aware about this severe problem, take effective steps at regional, national level and necessary to look beyond national borders to develop effective solutions. Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 27

42 References BAKSHA, M. W Some Major Forest Insect Pests of Bangladesh and Their Control. "Bulletin - Forest Entomology Series, Forest Research Institute (Chittagong)" COLE, C.L. AND HORNE, W. C Pest Monitoring and Surveillance in Bangladesh. Bangladesh Agriculture Research Council, International Agricultural Development Service. Chakrabarty, N. and Nandi, B., In-Vitro Inhibitory Effect Of Certain Fungicides on the Growth of Botrydiplodia theobromae (Pat.). Indian Journal of Microbiology, 16(2): RAHMAN, M. A Diseases in the forests of Bangladesh. Proceedings of the ILIFRO Workshop on Pests and Diseases of Forest Plantation in the Asia Pacific. Regional Office for Asia and Pacific (RAPA), Publication 1990/9, FAQ, Bangkok pp. RAHMAN, M. A., BAKSHA, M. W. AND AHMED, F. U Diseases and Pests of Tree Species in Forest Nurseries and Plantations in Bangladesh. Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council Farmgate, Dhaka. RASHID, MD., A A Review of the Forest Status in Bangladesh and the Potential for Forest Restoration for Wildlife Conservation. In: Forest Restoration for Wildlife Conservation, Proceedings of a Workshop with the International Tropical Timber Organization and the Forest Restoration Research Unit, Chiang Mai University, Thailand. FAO, Global Review of Forest Pests & Diseases: A thematic study in the framework of the Global forest resources assessment Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. 28 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

43 WHY DOES THE JAPANESE OAK WILT OCCUR ONLY IN JAPAN? Naoto Kamata, Hideaki Goto, Keiko Hamaguchi, Hayato Masuya, Dai Kusumoto, Toshihide Hirao, Wen-I Chou, Wiwat Suasa-Ard, Sawai Buranapanichpan, Sopon Uraichuen, Oraphan Kern-Asa, Sunisa Sanguansub, Thu Pham Quang, Sih Kahono, Heddy Julistiono The University of Tokyo Chichibu Forest, The University of Tokyo, Hinoda-machi, Chichibu, Saitama , Japan Corresponding author: Abstract In Japan, Japanese oak wilt (JOW) caused by a fungus Raffaelea quercivora carried by an ambrosia beetle Platypus quercivors has been prevalent for more than two decades. P. quercivorus was recorded from India, Indonesia, New Guinea, Thailand and Taiwan. However, the JOW has been recorded only from Japan. The purpose of our project is to answer the query Why does the JOW occur only in Japan? There are two types (Groups A & B) of P. quercivorus and suggested taxonomic reexamination of this species. We collected P. quercivorus from Japan, Thailand, Vietnam and Indonesia for the Group A, and from Japan, Taiwan and Vietnam for the Group B. This is the first record of P. quercivorus from Vietnam. Regarding to the Japanese populations of the Group A, phylogenic study indicates that the mainland populations that cause the JOW was closest to Thai population while the Ryukyu population was closest to Indonesian, and Vietnam population was intermediate. R. quericovra was isolated from all populations of P. quercivorus indicating that absence of the JOW outside Japan could not be explained by absence of R. quercivora. R. quercivora isolates from each country did not form an independent clade. Virulence of R. quercivora to Q. serrata differed greatly among isolates. An isolate from Taiwan showed stronger virulence than strong-virulent strain in Japan indicating that virulence of R. querivora cannot explain absence of the JOW outside Japan. Host plants that are distributed more north tended to show higher mortality by the JOW. Quercus crispula, the most susceptible tree species, is distributed in the most north showed the highest mortality by the JOW, whereas less preferred by P. quercivorus than evergreen oaks. Because the subfamily Pltyponinae is prosperous in tropics and sub-tropics, a lack of coevolutionary process among host trees-r. quercivora-p. quercivorus is a likely cause of the current epidemics of the JOW in Japan. In future, variations in tree susceptibility to R. quercivora need to be determined including host species outside Japan. Introduction Since the late 1980s, the Japanese oak wilt (JOW) has been prevalent in Japan (Ito et al., 1998). The JOW has been recorded since the 1930s, but up to 1980, epidemics lasted for only a few years and were confined to a few areas on the west side of Japan (Figure 1) (Ito and Yamada, 1998). More recently, epidemics have lasted for more than ten years, and the JOW incidence has been spreading to new localities where dieback has never been recorded in the past (Ito and Yamada, 1998). These incidences of the JOW have tended to spread concentrically from a source population (Kamata et al., 2001a,b), exhibiting a pattern of spread typical of introduced invasive species (Elton, 1958). Raffaelea quercivora Kubono et Shin. Ito (Moniliales: Moniliaceae) is a pathogen of the disease (Ito et al., 1998; Kubono and Ito, 2002). The ambrosia beetle, Platypus quercivorus (Murayama) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a major vector of this fungus (Ito et al., 1998; Kubono and Ito, 2002; Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 29

44 Kinuura and Kobayashi, 2006). Ambrosia beetles usually attack weakened or dead trees. Some of the exceptions are Austroplatypus incompertus (Schedl) (Kent & Simpson, 1992) and Platypus subgranosus Schedl in Australia (Kile & Hall, 1988), Platypus cylindrus Fabricius in Europe (Baker, 1963), Platypus sulcatus Chapuis in Argentina (Mareggiani et al., 2000), Trachyostus ghanaensis Schedl in Africa (Wagner et al., 1991), Dendroplatypus impar Schedl (all Coleoptera: Platypodidae) in Southeast Asia (Brown, 1961), and Corthylus columbianus Hopkins (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in the USA. These species attack vigorous trees but seldom kill the host. The present case in Japan is the first example of an ambrosia fungus carried by an ambrosia beetle that kills vigorous trees. Platypus quercivorus can reproduce on living as well as dead hosts if the gallery is successful (Kato et al., 2001a,b). Necrosis has been observed around the gallery systems in sapwood, and has been attributed to the symbiotic ambrosia fungus, Raffaelea quercivora (Kuroda & Yamada, 1996; Ito et al., 1998). The necrosis stops water conductance, and a tree dies when necrosis completely blocks any cross section of the tree (Kuroda & Yamada, 1996). Platypus quercivorus is distributed in Thailand (Hulcr et al., 2008a), India (Beeson, 1937), Papua New Guinea (Wood, 1972), and Vietnam (Kamata et al., unpublished), Taiwan (Murayama, 1925), and Indonesia (Schedl, 1972). However, we cannot find the JOW incidence outside Japan. Why does the JOW occur only in Japan? Some possibilities incluede: host plant susceptibility, pathogenicity/virulence of R. querciovra, aggressiveness of P. quercivorus, and environmental factors. Before P. quercivorus wo. JOW (incl. past records) Past record of JOW incidence JOW incidence Figure 1. Records of an ambrosia beetle Platypus quercivorus and incidence of the Japanese oak wilt in Japan Life history of Platypus quercivorus (Kamata et al. 2002) Platypus quercivorus is basically univoltine in Japan (Kinuura, 1995) with an occasional second generation (Sone et al., 1998, 2000). Adult emergence of the main overwintering generation was observed from May to September with a peak in early July, and emergence of the second generation observed from late August to earlydecember (Sone et al., 2000). 30 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

45 Dispersal flight of newly eclosed adults detected by sticky interception traps continues from late June to early December with a peak in July and early August (Esaki et al., in press; Igeta et al., 2000). After a male selects a tree as a breeding site, it initially bores a cylindrical entrance tunnel about 15 mm into the tree (max. 43 mm) (Kobayashi et al., 2001). When a female arrives later at the entrance, the male emerges and leads the female into the tunnel. After mating at the entrance hole, the male follows the female into the tunnel where she starts to bore a horizontal gallery. This gallery branches a few times laterally and vertically. Meanwhile the male plugs the entrance hole with his body to prevent natural enemies and competitors from invading the gallery. One male and female pair occupy a single gallery. On the thorax of the female are the mycangia in which the spores of the symbiotic ambrosia fungus are transported. The female lays eggs on the walls of the gallery, spreading fungal spores in the process. During the summer she grazes on the developing ambrosia fungus and lays eggs up to the end of autumn (mid-november in Ishikawa). Both parents are presumed to die before or during the winter period as no freshly laid eggs have been found in the following spring. Eggs hatch within about a week and larvae graze on the ambrosia fungus covering the walls of the horizontal gallery. Larvae pass through five instars and mature larvae pupate in a vertical cradle in the gallery. Individuals that develop rapidly are able to pupate by autumn of the same year (mid-october in Ishikawa) and emerge as adults of a second generation from September to early December. The bulk of the population overwinters in the larval stage and completes development in the following year. Preference performance relationship of P. quercivorus and host mortality (Kamata et al. 2002) Although 45 species among 27 genera in 17 families of woody plants have been recorded as host plants of P. quercivorus (Nobuchi, 1993a,b; Sone et al., 1995; Ito et al., 2000), woody plants belonging to the Fagaceae are considered as essential hosts of P. quercivorus because beetle attack density is significantly higher on trees of the Fagaceae family (Sone et al., 1995; Ito et al., 2000). There are many records of P. quercivorus outbreaks in stands of evergreen species of Fagaceae in Japan, but few evergreen trees have been killed by this ambrosia beetle fungus even though many entry holes have been found on the trunk surface (Matsumoto, 1955; Sueyoshi, 1990a,b; Sone et al., 1995). It has been suggested that the pathogenic fungus Raffaelea quercivora is an exotic fungus that has been accidentally introduced into Japan, and that P. quercivorus was free of this fungus in places where no tree mortality occurred (Yoshida, 1994). However, when oak dieback was first found in mixed forest stands of evergreen and deciduous Fagaceae in Ishikawa Prefecture in 1997 (Ito & Yamada, 1998), this hypothesis was rejected because tree mortality caused by this ambrosia beetle and fungus differed greatly among species: the mortality of newly attacked Quercus crispula Blume was c. 40%, but no mortality was observed in associated species of Fagaceae. However, the numbers of new entry holes made by this beetle in different species of Quercus were similar. Significant differences in tree mortality were subsequently found between Q. crispula and Q. serrata Thunb. ex Murray and between Q. crispula and Q. acuta Thunb. ex Murray (Kamata et al., 2000). Several studies also proved that Q. crispula was much more susceptible to this fungus than other sympatric species of Fagaceae (Inoue et al., 1998; Nishigaki et al., 1998). Although necrosis of sapwood tissues was observed in all host species regardless of the host fate, trees died when necrosis completely blocked any cross section of the tree (Kuroda & Yamada, 1996). Thus, the fate of each individual Q. crispula was determined by the balance between the rate of radial growth and the rate of development of the necrosis. Although this applied to all host tree species, the rate of development of necrosis was slow in evergreen species of Fagaceae. Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 31

46 The reproductive success of P. quercivorus differed among the four species of fagaceae: Q. crispula was the most suitable host species for reproduction (mean no. of offspring adults emerged per gallery = 7.0 ± 0.82 SD), while Q. acuta was the least suitable (n = 1.0 ±1.0 SD) (fig. 4) (Kato et al., 2001a,b). The beetle attacks healthy, weakened, freshly-cut or even dead Q. crispula. For example there was no significant difference in the mean number of offspring emerging per gallery from newly-infested live (n = SD) or dead trees (n = SD) of Q. crispula (Kato et al., 2001a,b). However, infestation history influenced the number of beetle attacks per tree, with virgin, non-infested trees receiving more attacks than trees already infested by P. quercivorus. Fresh saw dust produced by beetles as they bored into the wood was attractive to adults of the same species and led to a high infestation in the first year. Fewer beetles attacked infested trees in subsequent years. Males of P. quercivorus were observed initiating entrance holes in subsequent years, but left before mating took place (Kato et al., 2001a,b). This may have been due to the advancing necrosis caused by Raffaelea quercivora, that probably made the tree less suitable as a substrate for fresh insect attack and fungus development (Inoue et al., 2000; Kato et al., 2001a,b). The quality and amount of saw dust produced during the peak invasion period in summer was less attractive overall, and so mass attacks did not occur on infested trees. Kamata et al. (2001a,b) investigated the percentage of infested trees and plant species composition in two stands with different tree composition. Platypus quercivorus showed the least preference for Q. crispula (10.0% of individual trees were attacked in 1999, and 30.0% in 2000) (Kamata et al., 2002), although its reproductive success was highest on this species. An inverse relationship was found between the preference of P. quercivorus for different tree species and its performance on these species. Its greatest preference was for Castanopsis sieboldii (Makino) Hatusima ex Yamazaki (Fagaceae) with 45.6% and 67.6% of trees attacked in 1999 and 2000, respectively. Because reproductive success of P. quercivorus on trees other than Q. crispula is low, the aerial population density of P. quercivorus adults in this stand (L) was lower than in the other stand with a high percentage of Q. crispula (H) (H/L = 45.8 in 1999, 3.3 in 2000). The percentage mortality of Q. crispula was low in this stand and the tree composition of the stand remained stable. In the stand with a high percentage of Q. crispula, the infestation spread out very rapidly to all species of Fagaceae. Tree mortality of newly infested Q. crispula was about 40% each year, which caused great changes in tree composition. Thus, the oak Q. cripsula was preferred least by P. quercivorus, but it was the most suitable host for reproduction and was susceptible to the symbiotic ambrosia fungus. Coevolution and global warming (Kamata et al. 2002) Among the species of Fagaceae found in our research plots in Ishikawa, Q. cripsula tended to occur in the coolest localities (Kurata, ). Platypodinae are abundant in tropical and subtropical regions (Kalshoven, 1958, 1960; Beaver, 1977, 1979; Kirkendall, 1993). Platypus quercivorus is also distributed in South and Southeast Asia, Taiwan, and the Japanese Archipelago (Nobuchi, 1993a,b). Japan is the northernmost edge of the distribution of P. quercivorus. Oak dieback occurs in the northern regions and high altitude margins of the distribution of P. quercivorus and in the southern/low altitude margins of the distribution of Q. crispula. The other three associated species of Fagaceae are resistant to Raffaelea sp. 1 probably because a stable relationship has been formed among these tree species, the fungus, and the insect over a long evolutionary process. Quercus crispula was probably left out of this coevolution because of its more northerly distribution separate from that of P. quercivorus. It is proposed that the oak dieback in Japan is the result of the warmer climate since the late 1980s: 0.4 C higher than the average temperature of the past 100 years (Japan 32 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

47 Meteorological Agency, 2000). The warmer climate has made it possible for P. quercivorus to encounter Q. cripsula by allowing it to extend its range to more northerly latitudes and higher altitudes in Japan. Because P. quercivorus can realize higher reproductive success on Q. crispula than on other species, the percentage of Q. crispula in each stand is an important factor influencing the density of this insect and the rate of spread of oak dieback. Once the insect colonizes stands with a high percentage of Q. crispula, infestation spreads very rapidly. This situation is similar to the invasion of exotic pests into new areas when outbreaks last for a long period in the absence of normal regulating factors. The plant species composition of forest stands can change greatly when there is a high initial percentage of Q. crispula because of the high mortality rate of this species caused by Raffaelea quercivora. The annual mortality rate of infested trees was c. 40% during the study period. Two types of Platypus quericivorus and phylogeny Hamaguchi and Goto (2010) reported two types (Groups A & B) of P. quercivorus and suggested taxonomic reexamination of this species. We collected P. quercivorus from Japan, Thailand, Vietnam and Indonesia for the Group A, and from Japan, Taiwan and Vietnam for the Group B. This is the first record of P. quercivorus from Vietnam. Regarding to the Japanese populations of the Group A, phylogenic study indicates that the mainland populations that cause the JOW was closest to Thai population while the Ryukyu population was closest to Indonesian, and Vietnam population was intermediate. Virulence of Raffaelea quericora and its phylogenetic signal Raffaelea quericovra was isolated from all populations of P. quercivorus indicating that absence of the JOW outside Japan could not be explained by absence of R. quercivora. Raffaelea quercivora isolates from each country did not form an independent clade. Virulence of R. quercivora to Q. serrata differed greatly among isolates. An isolate from Taiwan showed stronger virulence than strong-virulent strain in Japan indicating that virulence of R. querivora cannot explain absence of the JOW outside Japan. Conclusion Host plants that are distributed more north tended to show higher mortality by the JOW. Quercus crispula, the most susceptible tree species, is distributed in the most north showed the highest mortality by the JOW, whereas less preferred by P. quercivorus than evergreen oaks. Because the subfamily Pltyponinae is prosperous in tropics and sub-tropics, a lack of coevolutionary process among host trees-r. quercivora-p. quercivorus is a likely cause of the current epidemics of the JOW in Japan. In future, variations in tree susceptibility to R. quercivora need to be determined including host species outside Japan. References BAKER, J.M Ambrosia beetles and their fungi, with particular reference to Platypus cylindrus Fab. Symposia of the Society for General Microbiology 13, BEESON, C.F.C., 1937: New Crossotarsus (Platypodidae, Col.). The Indian Forest Records New Series Entomology 3: BEAVER, R.A Bark and ambrosia beetles in tropical forests, in Proceedings of Symposium on Forest Pests and Diseases in Southeast Asia, April, 1976, Bogor, Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 33

48 Indonesia. BIOTROP special publication no. 2, Regional Center for Tropical Biology. pp BEAVER, R.A Host specificity of temperate and tropical animals. Nature 281, BROWN, F.G The biology of Malayan Scolytidae and Platypodidae. Malayan Forest Records 222, BYERS, J.A Upwind flight orientation to pheromone in western pine beetle tested with rotating wind vane traps. Journal of Chemical Ecology 14, CHOUDHURY, J.H. & KENNEDY, J.S Light versus pheromone-bearing wind in the control of flight direction by bark beetles, Scolytus multistriatus. Physiological Entomology 5, ELTON, C, S The ecology of invasions by animals and plants. London, Methuen, 181 p. ESAKI, K., KAMATA, N. & KATO, K Temporal and spatial dynamics of ambrosia beetle, Platypus quercivorus (Murayama) and oak dieback. I. Spatial and temporal distribution of aerial population and the number of insect attack on tree trunks, in Proceeding of the 111th Annual Meetings of Japanese Forestry Society, Fujisawa, Kanagawa, 2-4 April 2000 Japanese Forestry Society, pp (in Japanese) ESAKI, K., KAMATA, N. & KATO, K A sticky screen trap for surveying aerial populations of ambrosia beetle Platypus quercivorus (Coleoptera: Platipodidae). Applied Entomology and Zoology 37(1): HAMAGUCHI, K., GOTO, H Genetic variation among Japanese populations of Platypus quercivorus (Coleoptera: Platypodidae), an insect vector of Japanese oak wilt disease, based on partial sequence of the nuclear 28S rdna. Appl. Entomol Zool 45: HIJII, N., KAJIMURA, H., URANO, T., KINUURA, H. & ITAMI, H The mass mortality of oak trees induced by Platypus quercivorus (Murayama) and Platypus calamus Blandford (Coleoptera: Platypodidae). - The density and spatial distribution of attack by the beetles -. Journal of the Japanese Forestry Society 73, (in Japanese with an English summary) HULCR, J., BEAVER, R. A., PURANASAKUL, W., DOLE, S. A., SONTHICHAI, S A comparison of bark and ambrosia beetle communities in two forest types in Northern Thailand (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae). Environ Entomol 37 (6): IGETA, Y., KATO, K. ESAKI, K. & KAMATA, N Stand level distribution and movement of aerial population of an ambrosia beetle, Platypus quercivorus. in Proceedings of the 49th Annual Meetings of Chubu Branch of the Japanese Forestry Society, Tsu, 14 October 2000 Chubu branch, the Japanese Forestry Society. p. 16. (in Japanese) INOUE, M., NISHIGAKI, S. & NISHIMURA, N Attack density and seasonal prevalence of two Platypodid beetles, Platypus quercivorus and Platypus calamus (Coloeptera: Platypodidae) on live, dead and logged oak trees. Applied Forest Science 7, (in Japanese with an English summary) INOUE, M., NISHIGAKI, S. & NISHI, N Attack by the oak borer, Platypus quercivorus, to living oak trees. Applied Forest Science 9, (in Japanese with an English summary) ITO, S., TAKEDA, A. & KAJIMURA, H Host plant species of the ambrosia beetle, Platypus quercivorus (Murayama) (Col, Platypodidae), in Japan, in Proceedings of the 49 th Annual Meetings of Chubu Branch of the Japanese Forestry Society, Tsu, 14 October 2000 Chubu branch, the Japanese Forestry Society. p. 16. (in Japanese) 34 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

49 ITO, S., KURODA, K., YAMADA, T., MIURA, Y. & INOUE, S Investigation of fungi associated with the mass mortality of oak trees. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan 59, (in Japanese with an English summary) ITO, S., KUBONO, T., SAHASHI, N. & YAMADA, T Associated fungi with the mass mortality of oak trees. Journal of the Japanese Forestry Society 80, (in Japanese with an English summary) ITO, S. & YAMADA, T Distribution and spread of mass mortality of oak trees. Journal of the Japanese Forestry Society 80, (in Japanese) Japan Meteorological Agency, 2000: Report on Unusual Weather in 99. Tokyo, Printing Bureau, Ministry of Finance, Japan, 61p+341p KALSHOVEN, L.G.E., 1958: Studies on the biology of Indonesian Scolytoidea. 1. Xyleborus fornicatus Eichh. As a primary and secondary shot-hole borer in Java and Sumatra. Entomologische Berichten, Amsterdam 18, KALSHOVEN, L.G.E Studies on the biology of Indonesian Scolytoidea. 7. Data on the habits of Platypodidae. Tijdschrift voor entomologie 103, KAMATA, N., ESAKI, K. & KATO, K Temporal and spatial dynamics of ambrosia beetle, Platypus quercivorus (Murayama) and oak dieback. III. Factors related to tree mortality, in Proceeding of the 111th Annual Meetings of Japanese Forestry Society, Fujisawa, Kanagawa, 2-4 April 2000 Japanese Forestry Society, pp (in Japanese) KAMATA, N., ESAKI, K. & KATO, K Temporal and spatial dynamics of ambrosia beetle, Platypus quercivorus (Murayama) and oak dieback. VII. Why oak diebacks are prevalent in 1990s? in Proceeding of the 112th Annual Meetings of Japanese Forestry Society, Gifu, GIfu, 2-4 April 2001 Japanese Forestry Society, pp (in Japanese) KAMATA, N., ESAKI, K. & KUBO, M Stand- and local-level analysis of spreading pattern of oak decline using aero photos, in Proceedings of 2001 International Symposium on Environmental Monitoring in East Asia -Remote Sensing and Forests-, Beijing, China, 19 June, 2001 EMEA Project, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan. pp KAMATA, N., ESAKI, K., KATO, K., IGETA, Y., WADA, K Potential impact of global warming on deciduous oak dieback caused by ambrosia fungus Raffaelea sp. carried by ambrosia beetle Platypus quercivorus (Coleoptera : Platypodidae) in Japan. Bull Entomol Res 92 (2): KATO, K., ESAKI, K. IGETA, Y. & KAMATA, N Preliminary report on comparison of reproductive success of Platypus quercivorus among four species of the family Fagaceae. Chubu Forest Research 49, KATO, K., ESAKI, K. IGETA, Y. & KAMATA, N Temporal and spatial dynamics of ambrosia beetle, Platypus quercivorus (Murayama) and oak dieback. V. Gallery construction and the reproductive success of the ambrosia beetle, in Proceeding of the 112th Annual Meetings of Japanese Forestry Society, Gifu, Gifu, 2-4 April 2001 Japanese Forestry Society, p (in Japanese) KENT, D.S. & SIMPSON, J.A Eusociality in the beetle Austroplatypus incompertus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Naturwissenschaften 79, KILE, G.A. & HALL, M.F Assessment of Platypus subgranosus as a vector of Chalara australis, causal agent of a vascular disease of Nothofagus cunninghamii. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science 18, KINUURA, H Oak dieback and biology of the ambrosia beetle, Platypus quercivorus (Murayama). Ringyotoyakuzai 130, (in Japanese) KINUURA, H Life history of Platypus quercivorus (Murayama) (Coleoptera: Platypodidae). Behavior, Population Dynamics and Control of Forest Insects, in Proceedings of the International Union of Forestry Research Organizations Joint Conference, Maui, Hawaii, 6-11 February 1994 The Ohio State University, Wooster, Ohio. pp Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 35

50 KINUURA, H Fungal flora in the gallery system of the ambrosia beetle, Platypus quercivorus (Murayama) (Coleoptera: Platypodidae) in Quercus crispula Blume, in Proceeding of the 105th Annual Meetings of Japanese Forestry Society, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 2-4 April 1996 Japanese Forestry Society, pp (in Japanese) KINUURA, H., KOBAYASHI, M Death of Quercus crispula by inoculation with adult Platypus quercivorus (Coleoptera: Platypodidae). Appl Entomol Zool 41 (1): KIRKENDALL, L.R Ecology and evolution of biased sex ratios in bark and ambrosia beetles (Scolytidae). pp in Wrensch, D.L. & Ebbert, M.A. (Eds.) Evolution and Diversity of Sex Ratio: Insects and Mites. New York, Chapman & Hall. KOBAYASHI, M., UEDA, A. & TAKAHATA, Y Inducing infection of oak logs by a pathogenic fungus carried by Platypus quercivorus (Murayama) (Coleoptera: Platypodidae). Journal of Forest Research. 6: KUBONO, T., ITO, S Raffaelea quercivora sp. nov. associated with mass mortality of Japanese oak, and the ambrosia beetle (Platypus quercivorus). Mycoscience 43 (3): KURATA, S Illustrated Important Forest Trees of Japan. Vol Tokyo, Chikyu Shuppan. (in Japanese) KURODA, K. & YAMADA, T Discoloration of sapwood and blockage xylem sap of ascent in the trunks of wilting Quercus spp. following attack by Platypus quercivorus. Journal of the Japanese Forestry Society 78, (in Japanese with an English Summary) KUSUMOTO, D., MASUYA, H., OHMURA, K., KAMATA, N Virulence of Raffaelea quercivora isolates inoculated into Quercus serrata logs and Q. crispula saplings. J For Res 17 (4): MAREGGIANI, G., ETIENNOT, A., GIMENEZ, R. & GARCIA, G Platypus sulcatus: a rational approach to its control in Populus spp. in Argentina, in Abstract book I, XXI-International Congress of Entomology, Iguas, Brazil, August 2000 Entomological Society of Brazil, p MATSUMOTO, K An outbreak of Platypus quercivorus and its control. Forest Pests 4, (in Japanese) MURAYAMA, J Supplementary notes on "The Platypodidae of Formosa". Journal of the College of Agriculture, Hokkaido Imperial University 15: NISHIGAKI, S., INOUE, M. & NISHIMURA, N The relationship between the number of Platypus quercivorus and the water content of wood and mass mortality of oak trees. Applied Forest Science 7, (in Japanese with an English summary) NOBUCHI, A. 1993a. Platypus quercivorus (Murayama) (Coleoptera, Platypodidae) attacks on living oak trees in Japan, and information on Platypodidae (I). Forest Pests 42, (in Japanese) NOBUCHI, A. 1993B. ditto (II). Forest Pests 42, (in Japanese) PERTTUNEN, V Seasonal variation in the light reactions of Blastophagus piniperda L. (Col., Scolytidae) at different temperature. Annales Entomologici Fennici 26, SAFRANYIK, L., SILVERSIDES, R., MCMULLEN, L.H. & LINTON, D.A An empirical approach to modeling the local dispersal of the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopk.) (Col., Scolytidae) in relation to sources of attraction, wind direction and speed. Journal of Applied Entomology 113, SCHEDL, K Monographie der familie Platypodidae (Coleoptera). W. Junk, Den Haag SONE, K., MORI, T. & IDE, M Life history of the oak borer, Platypus quercivorus (Murayama) (Coleoptera: Platypodidae). Applied Entomology and Zoology 33, SONE, K., USHIJIMA, T., MORI, T., IDE, M & UMATA, H Incidence and spatial distribution of trees infested by the oak borer, Platypus quercivorus (Murayama) 36 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

51 (Coleoptera: Platypodidae), in a stand. Bulletin of the Kagoshima University Forests 23, (in Japanese with an English Summary) SONE, K., UTO, K., FUKUYAMA, S. & NAGANO, T Effects of attack time on the development and reproduction of the oak borer, Platypus quercivorus (Murayama). Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology 44, (in Japanese with an English Summary) SUEYOSHI, M. 1990a. The incidence of broadleaved trees attacked by Platypus quercivorus (Coleoptera : Platypodidae) (1). Forest Pests 39, (in Japanese) SUEYOSHI, M. 1990b. The incidence of broadleaved trees attacked by Platypus quercivorus (Coleoptera : Platypodidae) (2). Forest Pests 39, (in Japanese) WAGNER, M.R Wood borers of living trees. pp in WAGNER, M.R., ATUAHENE, S.K.N. & COBBINAH, J.R. (Eds) Forest Entomology in West Tropical Africa: Forest Insects of Gahana. London, Kluwer Academic. WOOD, S.L Review of K. E. Schedl, Monographie der familie Platypodidae Coleoptera. Science 178 (4065): YOSHIDA, N Mass mortality of evergreen and deciduous oaks in Japan. Sanrin 1325, (in Japanese) YOSHIDA, N. & NUNOKAWA, K Biology of the ambrosia beetle, Platypus quercivorus (Murayama), in Kashiwazaki, Niigata, Japan in Proceeding of the 105th Annual Meetings of Japanese Forestry Society, Fuchu, Tokyo, 3-5 April 1994 Japanese Forestry Society, pp (in Japanese). Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 37

52 Ceratocystis sp. CAUSES CROWN WILT OF Acacia spp. PLANTED IN SOME ECOLOGICAL ZONES OF VIETNAM Pham Quang Thu 1), Dang Nhu Qynh 1), Bernard Dell 2) 1) Vietnamese Academy of Forest Science, Dong Ngac, Tu Liem Hanoi, Vietnam; 2) Centre of Excellence for Climate Change, Woodland and Forest Health, Murdoch University, Murdoch, WA Australia Corresponding author: Abstract The plantation area in Vietnam of Acacia auriculiformis, A. mangium and their hybrid has expanded greatly in the last decade. Recently, a new stem canker disease causing symptoms of crown wilt, followed by wood discoloration then death of infected trees has occurred in many ecological zones. Ascomata were obtained by incubating discolored wood pieces in moist chambers or by carrot baiting. Isolates of fungi were obtained on PDA medium by taking spores emerging from the tips of ascomata necks. Ceratocystis was identified based on ascospore morphology and conidial types. Twenty six isolates of Ceratocystis were used for pathogenicity assessment on 8-month old seedlings of A. mangium in a nursery, with 5 seedlings per isolate. Stems were inoculated by inserting an 8 mm diameter PDA plug covered with 15-day old mycelia onto the cambium about 50 cm above the ground. Five seedlings were inoculated with sterile PDA plugs to serve as the control. The wounds and plugs were sealed with parafilm to protect them against desiccation and rain. After 60 days of inoculation, based on lesion development and tree death, the pathogenicity of the isolates were identified: 2 isolates (AA8, AMH12) nil, 4 isolates (AAHX1, AMH40, AMD26, AHDL1) low, 4 isolates (AA22, AMH9, AMMB7, AHXL3) moderate, 3 isolates (AMBL3, AMPL2, AMH5) high, and 13 isolates (AA54, AA62, AMH24, AMH26, AMH41, AMHX1, AMQN1, AMBL4, AHBB1, AHBD1, AHBP1, AHXL1 and AHXL2) very high level of pathogenicity causing plant death. This is the first record of Ceratocystis causing damage to Acacia plantations in Vietnam. The origin of the pathogen is unknown. Work is progressing to determine whether the species is the same as that known to cause damage to A. mangium plantations in Indonesia. Keywords: Acacia auriculiformis, Acacia mangium, acacia hybrid, Ceratocystis, crown wilt, new disease record, pathogenicity Introduction There are more than 1.1 million ha of acacia plantations in Vietnam, providing raw materials for the pulp, chip, board and other industries. Acacias were introduced to Vietnam in the 1960s and Acacia auriculiformis was chosen for large scale plantings in many locations, mostly in southern provinces (Turnbull et al., 1998). Later, A. mangium and A. auriculiformis were selected for planting in the north-east, centre and south-east of Vietnam. In 1991, naturally occurring A. mangium and A. auriculiformis hybrids were observed growing at Ba Vi research station, near Hanoi city. Since then, hundreds of clones of natural and artificial Acacia hybrids have been placed in trials in plantations. Industrial acacia plantations are widespread in Vietnam especially in Quang Ninh, Tuyen Quang, Phu Tho, Thai Nguyen, Thua Thien Hue and Dong Nai provinces. From health surveys conducted 1-2 times a year in commercial plantations and genetic trials, the main pathogens associated with A. mangium, A. auriculiformis and acacia hybrids were 38 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

53 shown to be Oidium spp. causing white mildew disease to seedlings in nursery and young plantations, Meliola spp. associated with black mildew disease on mature leaves in the lower part of the crown in high density plantations and in hedge orchards, and stem cankers infected by Corticium salmonicolor, which has caused serious problems in hybrid plantations of susceptible clones at 3 years of age (Old et al., 2000). Recently, a new disease of trees in acacia plantations in Vietnam has emerged, associated with crown wilt and stem canker followed by wood discoloration. These symptoms were observed for the first time in Quang Ninh province in 2007 in an acacia hybrid at 3 years of age. Since then, the acacia wilt problem has become a serious issue in Vietnam. In the same period, mortality of A. mangium in plantations in Indonesia has been associated with the incidence of a virulent species of Ceratocystis (Tarigan et al., 2010). Our objectives in this study were to determine if Ceratocystis is associated with the new wilt decline of acacia plantations in Vietnam and to test the virulence of the isolates on A. mangium. This is the first report of Ceratocystis associated with acacia plantations in Vietnam. Materials and Methods Stem sampling Trees with recent wilt symptoms were located in acacia plantation in Quang Ninh, Phu Tho, Tuyen Quang, Thua Thien Hue, Binh Duong, Binh Phuoc, Lam Dong and Dong Nai provinces in 2008 (Fig. 1). The trees were dissected with handsaws and samples of discolored wood were removed, placed in paper packets and transported to the laboratory for isolation. Fungal isolates Isolates of Ceratocystis were obtained from the germination of single spores. The wood samples were cut into small pieces, some pieces were placed in plastic bags containing moistened tissue paper for 4-10 days to induce sporulation, other pieces were wrapped between carrot slices (that had first been immersed for 1 min in 70% alcohol) and then placed in plastic bags for 3-5 days, or until fruiting bodies were observed (Moller and De Vay, 1968). Single spore drops were collected directly from fungal fruiting bodies onto PDA medium. Isolates collected in this study are maintained in the culture collection of the Forest Protection Research Division, FSIV for further studies. Observation and identification Two-week-old cultures grown on PDA were used to describe the morphological characteristics of the isolates. Fruiting structures were observed and measured with an olympus BX50 microscope. Identification to genus was based on the morphology of fruiting structures, ascospores, conidiphores and conidia. Pathogenicity tests Stems of 18-month-old A. mangium seedlings were inoculated 1 m above the ground with mycelium from 20 isolates of Ceratocystis (Table 1). A 10 mm diameter cork borer was used to remove a piece of bark from each stem to expose the cambium. A disc of the same size was taken from the edge of a rapidly growing 11-day-old Ceratocystis colony and placed into the exposed wound with the mycelium facing the cambium. In order to prevent desiccation, the inoculation sites were covered with tissue paper moistened with sterile water and secured with masking tape. After 10 weeks, the length (L) of the stem lesion was measured and the pathogenicity of the Ceratocystis strains ranked on the following scale: 0 no damage, 1)L 10 cm, 2)10 cm < L 20 cm, 3)20 cm < L 30 cm and 4) L > 30 cm. Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 39

54 Based on the severity level of every tree, an average disease index (DI) was calculated according to the following formula: DI = 4 1 nivi N in which, DI is the average disease index, ni the number of trees infected at disease index i, vi the disease index at level i, N number of trees assessed. Result Field observations Discolored wood samples were collected from wilted A. mangium, A. auriculiformis and acacia hybrid trees in 8 provinces that had large areas of acacia plantations and covered a wide geographical range from the north to the south of Vietnam (Fig. 1). Wilt (Fig. 2a), crown dieback (Fig. 2b) and canker symptoms were commonly observed on young A. mangium, A. auriculiformis and acacia hybrid trees, up to 3 years of age, in plantations. The bark and the wood surrounding the cankers were discolored. The discolored wood typically had a streaked appearance, turning a uniform dark brown to dark blue color with age (Fig. 2c). Of the 26 samples that were collected (Table 1), 2 samples of acacia hybrid and 2 samples of A. mangium were associated with an ambrosia beetle Xylosandrus crassuisculus (Quang Ninh and Phu Tho provinces, respectively), 1 sample of acacia hybrid was associated with pruning wounds (Binh Phuoc province, Fig. 2d) and the remaining samples were not associated with insects or pruning. Figure1. Distribution of Ceratocystis causing wilt in acacia plantations in Vietnam Ceratocystis isolates A total of 26 Ceratocystis isolates were obtained from diseased acacia collected in Dong Nai, Thua Thien Hue, Binh Duong, Binh Phuoc, Tuyen Quang, Quang Ninh and Lam Dong provinces. Within two weeks incubation in the laboratory, mature ascomata were produced. 40 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

55 A Thielaviopsis anamorph formed from mycelia when grown on PDA. The isolates were typical of Ceratocystis spp., the ascomata had black globose to sub globose bases (Fig. 3a) and long necks with divergent ostiolar hyphae at their tips exuding hat-shaped ascospores (Tarigan et al., 2011; Fig. 3b,c). Ascomata varied in size, the neck ranging from mm in length and the base from mm. Primary phialides and second phialides were formed in pure culture (Fig 3d,e). Both barrel-shaped and cylindrical conidia and chlamydospores were present (Fig.3f, g, h). a b c d Figure 2. Disease symptoms caused by Ceratocystis in acacia plantations in Vietnam (a-d) a. Wilted Acacia mangium in 2-year-old plantation in Phu Tho province, b. severely impacted Acacia mangium in 2-year-old plantation in Phu Tho province, c. section of stem showing canker with stained wood below associated with Xylosandrus crassuisculus and distal spread, d. stained wood associated with a pruning wound. Pathogenicity After 10 weeks from inoculation, all of the Ceratocystis isolates caused stem cankers in A. mangium and the majority were highly virulent. Cankers ranged in length from 3.5 to 40 cm (data not presented) and the disease index ranged from (Table 1). Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 41

56 Discussion The first death of acacia associated with wilting, cankering and discolored wood was observed in Quang Ninh province in north Vietnam in At this site, Xylosandrus crassuisculus was present in all the acacia hybrid trees with wilt symptoms and Fig. 2c shows an example of the distribution of blue-green stain in the wood of one tree. In the following year wilt and stem canker symptoms were found in A. mangium and an acacia hybrid in Phu Tho province associated both with and without an insect vector. Annual field surveys of plantation health across Vietnam revealed that, between 2008 and 2011, the disease expanded widely in the whole country with mortality rates of 15-20% in 2011 in Thua Thien Hue and Dong Nai provinces. Ceratocystis wilt is now the main threat to acacia plantations in Vietnam. Ceratocystis is a worldwide pathogen of woody plants especially in tropical parts of the world (Kile, 1993) and is known to cause wilt and canker in plantation-grown acacias (Roux and Wingfield 2009). In past decades, several species have caused minor damage to acacia plantations in Brazil (Ribeiro et al., 1988; C. fimbriata s.l. on Acacia decurrens) and South Africa (Morris et al., 1993; Roux and Wingfield, 1997; C. fimbriata and C. albifundus on A. mearnsii). More recently, however, Ceratocystis has been recognized as an emerging threat to plantations in Asia and Australia (Wingfield et al., 2009). During the course of recent disease surveys in A. mangium plantations in Sumatra (Indonesia), significant mortality of young trees showing rapid wilt symptoms was observed and two species of Ceratocystis were consistently associated with diseased trees, C. acaciivora and C. manginecans (Tarigan et al., 2010). Both species produced lesions on inoculation but C. acaciivora was the most pathogenic. Similar symptoms to those described by Tarigan et al. (2011) and also in Figure 2 are now present in industrial acacia plantations in Malaysia (David Boden, pers. comm.). The rapid spread of the disease symptoms in plantations in Vietnam, that are annually monitored for health, suggests that either the pathogen is being vectored or that stands of trees are increasingly becoming stressed and hence are more susceptible to attack by insects and pathogens. Indeed, many of the trees at the time of initial wilting showed symptoms of nutrient imbalance. Whether abiotic stress can lead to bark fracture creating entry wounds for Ceratocystis remains to be determined. Furthermore, it is not yet known whether the Ceratocystis outbreaks in Vietnam are connected to events occurring elsewhere in SE Asia. Whether the pathogen has been recently introduced or is endemic in the region is yet to be determined. There are unpublished reports of Ceratocystis causing canker in some horticultural trees in Vietnam such as Anacardium occidentale, Dimocarpus longan, Theobroma cacao and Hevea brasiliensis. In conclusion, this is the first report of a serious new disease of acacias in Vietnam. Work is progressing to identify resistant acacia clones, the species of Ceratocystis that are most virulent and factors that may predispose trees to infection. 42 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

57 b c d e a f g h Figure 3. Diagnostic features of the pathogen. a. Globose ascomata with long neck; b. hat-shaped ascospores; c. Divergent ostiolar hyphae; d. primary phialides; e. secondary phialides; f. cylindrical conidia; g. barrel-shaped conidia; h. Chlamydospores. Scale bars a = 90 μm; d e = 10 μm; b, c, f, g, h = 5 μm. References KILE GA Plant diseases caused by species of Ceratocystis sensu strict and Chalara. In: Wingfield MJ, Seifert KA, Webber JF, (Eds) Ceratocystis and Ophiostoma: Taxonomy, Ecology and Pathogenicity. The American Phytopathology Society, St. Paul, Minnesota, pp OLD KM, LEE SS, SHARMA JK, & YUAN ZQ A manual of diseases of tropical acacias in Australia, South-East Asia and India. Center for International Forestry Research, Jakarta. MOLLER WJ, DE VAY JE Insect transmission of Ceratocystis fimbriata in deciduous fruit orchards. Phytopath 58: Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 43

58 MORRIS MJ, WINGFIELD MJ, DE BEER C Gummosis and wilt of Acacia mearnsii in South Africa caused by Ceratocystis fimbriata. Plant Path 42: RIBEIRO IJA, ITO MF, FILHO OP, DE CASTRO JP Gomose da Acacia negra causada por Certaocystis fimbriata Ell. & Halst. Bragantia Campinas 47: ROUX J, WINGFIELD MJ Survey and virulence of fungi occurring on diseased Acacia mearnsii in South Africa. For Ecol Man 99: ROUX J, WINGFIELD MJ Ceratocystis species: emerging pathogens of non-native plantation Eucalyptus and Acacia species. Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science 71: TARIGAN M, VAN WYK M, ROUX J, TJAHJONO B, WINGFIELD MJ Three new Ceratocystis spp. in the Ceratocystis moniliformis complex from wounds on Acacia mangium and A. crassicarpa. Mycoscience 51: TARIGAN M, ROUX J, VAN WYK M, TJAHJONO B, WINGFIELD MJ A new wilt and die-back disease of Acacia mangium associated with Ceratocystis manginecans and C. acaciivora sp. nov. in Indonesia. S Afr J Bot 77: TURNBULL JW, MIGLEY SJ, COSSALTER C Tropical acacias planted in Asia: an overview. ACIAR Proceedings 82: WINGFIELD MJ, ROUX J, WINGFIELD BD Insect pests and pathogens of Australian acacias grown as non-natives an experiment in biogeography with far-reaching consequences. Diversity Distrib 17: Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

59 HEART ROT IN PLANTATION ACACIA HYBRID IN VIETNAM T.T Trang 1), C. Beadle 2) and C. Mohammed 3) 1) Vietnamese Academy of Forest Sciences, Hanoi; 2) CSIRO Sustainable Ecosystems, Hobart; 3) Tasmanian Institute of Agriculture, University of Tasmania Corresponding author: Abstract High levels of heart rot incidence were associated with pruned Acacia hybrid in southern Vietnam. Pruning however is not the only entry point for stem decay and the cause of stem defects. Wind damage and Pink disease (Corticium salmonicolor) also contributory factors. Recommendations are made on strategies to reduce stem defect in Acacia hybrid. Introduction Vietnam is recovering from a period of catastrophic decline of its forest resources. The establishment of plantation monocultures based on acacia species, particularly on degraded soils and cleared land, forms a significant part of this recovery program. Acacia trees are pruned and thinned to optimize the productivity of sawlogs. A project funded by the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (FST/2006/087) is examining silvicultural practices such as pruning and thinning that optimise the production of high-quality sawlogs from Acacia hybrid (Acacia auriculiformis Acacia mangium). Wounds in acacia can negatively impact on the quality of acacia wood due to the entry via pruning wounds of fungi which cause stem defects and affect the quality of timber e.g. heartrot fungi, sapwood bluestain fungi and various canker fungi. Acacia mangium is known to be high susceptible to heart-rot (Mohammed 2006) but the susceptibility of Acacia hybrid has not been investigated. Methods Assessment of Heart Rot Levels at Phan Truong II (PT2) This trial in southern Vietnam was planted in August 2008, singled in March 2009, formpruned in September 2009 and form pruned to 4 m in January There are 3 thinning treatments x 2 times of thinning x 3 fertiliser x 3 replicates (blocks). For the purpose of stem defect assessments at the second time of thinning (in July 2011) we harvested 3 trees/plot x 9 treatment combinations x 3 replicates = 81 trees, 27 in un-thinned plots and 54 in thinned plots. After felling, each of the trees was cut into ½ meter sections and sections assessed for decay. 27 trees were cut up in un-thinned plots and 54 in thinned plots. After felling, each of the trees was cut into ½ meter sections and the top of each section assessed for decay. A rating scale for heart-rot decay was established. More than 250 samples of fungi were isolated into pure culture from small samples taken from each of decay columns. Pruning-Associated Heart-Rot Trial at Nghia Trung This Acacia hybrid trial was planted in August 2009 at Nghia Trung in southern Vietnam. The primary purpose of this trial is to investigate the effect of two different thinning Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 45

60 treatments (control and 600 sph) and three fertilisation treatments. Trees were lift-pruned in December 2010 to 1.5 m and thinned immediately after lift-pruning. A pruning associated decay trial was set up at this site in each of the 18 treatment blocks in The number of branches tip-pruned in the stem section up to 1.5 m in unpruned trees and number of large diameter (> 2 cm) branches in unpruned trees or fresh pruning wounds in pruned trees in the stem section up to 1.5m The number of older unoccluded wounds in the stem section up to 1.5 m. These wounds had been made prior to the December Ten buffer trees (those with the best form) were selected in each block. Five trees were pruned up to 1.5 m and 5 trees left unpruned. The following observations were recorded at trial establishment: Tree diameter and total number of branches or pruning stubs in the stem section up to 1.5 m visit and were counted in both unpruned and pruned trees. In the stem section above 1.5 m the number of branches which had split away from the main stem and the number of any large stem wounds In July 2012 the 180 buffer trees at Nghia Trung pruned in 2010 to investigate heart-rot were destructively harvested. For each tree we cut the pruned or unpruned 1.5 m sections into 3. The stage of decay was recorded by taking photos at the top end of each section. For each of the 18 treatment plots we also cut 4 of the trees into 10 sections, 2 unpruned and 2 pruned trees also recording the decay stage by taking photos. Results Assessment of Heart Rot Incidence and Severity at Phan Truong II (PT2) Nearly all trees sampled had various stages of heart-rot, only one tree in a thinned plot was clear of heart rot. In a preliminary analysis of data just over two thirds of the trees in unthinned plots each had over 10 segments with significant heart-rot. In thinned plots just under two thirds of the trees each had more than 10 decayed segments but more trees in un-thinned plots were decayed along the entire length of the pruned section. In an external assessment of the wounds of 360 standing trees after the second thinning most of the wounds were occluded, even larger wounds in the most recently pruned sections of the stem. A heart-rot rating scale was established for Acacia hybrid (Figure 1), based on a similar assessment for heart rot in Acacia mangium in Indonesia but, unlike A. mangium, rating 4 (decay with hollow stem) was rarely observed. Most of the segments with decay were assessed as Rating 2 e.g. for the 54 thinned trees, No. of trees (10) with only rating 1 = 18.5% No. of trees (36) with rating 2 section(s) = 66.7% No. of trees (8) with rating 3 section(s) = 14.8% 46 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

61 Rating 0: Healthy solid heart wood: often lighter than A. mangium Rating 1: Discoloration and sound - staining often like A. mangium Rating 2: Discoloration and decay in the center (wood feels rough) but generally sound Figure 1. Rating scale for heart-rot in Acacia hybrid Rating 3: Advanced decay, not sound, fibrous and soft but no hollows Pruning-Associated Heart-Rot Trial at Nghia Trung The following observations were made at the site in December 2010; a large number of wounds with poor occlusion with visible fungal growth present on the surface of the pruning stubs significant wind damage that had caused branches in the top of the crown to break, strip bark from trees resulting in large wounds stem decay visible in large stubs from branches pruned during the visit stem decay fungi fruiting on debris in the plantation Out of the 180 trees first lift pruned in December 2010: 92 trees had either fresh pruning wounds or branches in the section of the stem up to 1.5m which were >2cm in diameter. The total number of wounds or branches >2cm in diameter was 148, between 1 to 4 large branches or wounds per tree. The number of trees with older unoccluded wounds in the stem section up to 1.5 m was very high (147). The total number of such wounds for the 147 trees was 337, an average of more than 2 per tree. There were 21 out of 180 trees observed with wind damage and branches splitting away from the main stem. In July 2012 there was little difference between pruned (below left) and unpruned (below right) log sections in terms of heart rot incidence in the bottom section of stem (up to 1.5 m) (Figure 2). However pruning a large diameter branch (below left) is associated with more advanced or severe heart rot (below left) compared to naturally abscised branches in unpruned logs (below right). Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 47

62 Figure 2. Comparison of severity of heart-rot originating from a large diameter unpruned stub (right) compared to a large diameter pruned stub (left). The incidence and severity of heart-rot decay and other stem defects were higher up the stem (above 1.5 m) and associated with large wounds (perhaps wounds associated with thinning), cankers (Pink disease), and obviously wind damage. Sometimes it was impossible to saw stem into 10 sections as above 3 m the stems were broken or completely rotten. Many sporocarps of basidiomycete rotters were present in the plantation and on rotted stem sections (eg. Ganoderma, Trametes). Termite damage was also significant, many stumps were hollow. Discussion The incidence and severity of heart rot at both Nghia Trung and PT2 indicate that heart rot in southern Vietnam could be a significant problem. However it is well understood that entry of decay into pruning wounds can be reduced by careful silvicultural practices which reduce the size of the branches to be pruned (Beadle at al 2006). A rule not to prune in the wet season (to avoid decay entry) should be followed. Many clones of Acacia hybrid with very high early growth rates such as at Nghia Trung, without intervention, will be multi-stemmed, often with large branches the development of fewer but larger branches than at the other sites. Tip pruning removes a proportion of the length of undesirable branches and branches. The advantages of tip pruning are: Dominance of competing stems or leaders is removed but leaf area and therefore growth potential is retained; Excision of unhardened stems/branches at the point where they join the retained stem is avoided, potentially reducing the potential for disease entry. Observations at PT2 indicated that well occluded wounds were still associated with heart-rot indicating that fungal entry is relatively rapid after pruning of unhardened stems. It is clear from stem dissections at both sites that there are other sources of decay entry apart from pruning wounds and these are often associated with damage to the higher sections of the stem. Wind damage and Pink disease are two such damage agents. While it is more problematic to avoid wind damage clones resistant to Pink disease are available and should be deployed. Much of the heart-rot at both sites was assessed at rating 2. It is not known how quickly the heart-rot will develop in severity and what problems this or a more serious rating will pose at the sawmill. 48 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

63 Further research should determine if the fungi associated with heart-rot are generalist rotters or more specific in identity. A. auriculiformis has been shown to be more resistant to heart-rot and to produce antifungal compounds (Barry et al. 2005). The biochemical response of Acacia hybrid clones to fungi playing a major causative role in heart rot should be investigated and the results applied to the screening of clones for resistance. References BARRY, K.M., MIHARA, R., DAVIES, N.W., MITSUNAGA, T., MOHAMMED, C.L Polyphenols in Acacia mangium and Acacia auriculiformis heartwood with reference to heart rot susceptibility. Journal of Wood Science 51, BEADLE, C., BARRY, K., HARDIYANTO, E., IRIANTO, R., JUNARTO, MOHAMMED, C., RIMBAWANTO, A Effect of pruning Acacia mangium on growth, form and heart rot. Forest Ecology and Management 238, MOHAMMED, C Heart rot and root rot in Acacia mangium: identifying symptoms and conducting assessments of incidence and severity. Heart rot and root rot in Acacia plantations: a synthesis of research progress Oral presentation and published proceedings, 7-9th February, Grand Mercure Hotel, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 49

64 GALL RUST DISEASE AND GENETIC VARIATION OF Falcataria moluccana IN INDONESIA Sri Rahayu Department of Forest Silviculture, Faculty of Forestry, Gadjah Mada University, Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia Corresponding author: Abstract Pathogens are considered a major threat to genetic variation of forest tree species. In the case of exotic pathogens, a balance between host and pathogen does not exist, increasing the likelihood that a disease epidemic might decimate tree populations and erode their genetic diversity. Falcataria moluccana (batai, sengon) occurs naturally in Indonesia (Moluccas and Irian Jaya), Papua New Guinea, New Britain and the Solomon Islands. Trees have been planted and established for more than fifty years in community forests and more than twenty years in plantation forests in Java Island. In 2004, outbreaks of gall rust disease caused by Uromycladium tepperianum fungus first occurred in East Java and have now spread throughout the island. The disease causes severe damage to all growth stages from seedlings in the nursery to mature trees in the field. As almost all the genetic resources of F. moluccana have been affected to some extent by the gall rust fungus, it is necessary to assess the current genetic diversity and ascertain its relationship to disease severity. Using the RAPDs technique, it was found that the genetic diversity was small, with 1.04 to 1.1 effective alleles, polymorphic loci, Shannon Diversity Index and Nei s Diversity index. The genetic distance among the seed sources assessed was narrow (0.04 to 0.15). All seedlings from Brumas seed sources (R02, R05, R2001 and 2S/75) were closely related to those from East Timor, East Flores, Moluccas and Java (Kediri, Jasinga, Ampel), but were distant from Wamena in Irian Jaya. Seedlings from Wamena were more tolerant to gall rust disease than those from other seed sources. Thus, in situ and ex situ gene conservation from native populations of Irian Jaya, particularly Wamena are required to prevent the loss of low frequency alleles that may be genes that confer protection against gall rust fungus. Introduction Genetic variation is the basis of evolution and the catalyst for species to adapt to changes in the environment (FAO, 2009), including pest and disease attack. Pathogens are posed to be a major threat to genetic variation of forest trees species. In the case of exotic pathogens, a balance between host and pathogen is absent, thus it is more likely that disease epidemics may decimate tree populations and erode their genetic diversity (Byrne, 2000). Falcataria moluccana (Albizia, batai, sengon) occurs naturally in Indonesia (Moluccas and Irian Jaya), Papua New Guinea, New Britain and the Solomon islands, ranging from 10 S to 30 N (Richter and Dallwitz, 2000). Trees have been planted for more than fifty years in community forests and more than twenty years in plantation forests in Java Island (Zebala, 1997). In 2004, outbreaks of gall rust disease on F. moluccana caused by the rust fungus Uromycladium tepperianum were detected in East Java and the disease now affects the entire island (Rahayu, 2009). It causes severe damage to all growth stages from seedlings in the nursery to mature trees in the field (Rahayu, 2007). The objectives of this study were to demonstrate the genetic diversity of F. moluccana and its relationship among 44 genotypes 50 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

65 originating from eleven seed sources using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and to distinguish the effects of gall rust disease on seedlings from eleven seed sources. Materials and Methods A Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with 3 blocks, 7 replications per block and 4 samples per replication using 4-week-old F. moluccana seedlings from 11 seed sources (Table 1) were set up for gall rust inoculation or control treatments. The genomic DNAs used in the study were extracted from seedling leaves of 44 accessions belonging to control seedlings. DNA quantification, PCR amplification and gel electrophoresis were conducted using the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. Symptoms exhibited by gall rust on seedlings vary in different plant tissues and can appear on the shoot, leaf stalk and stem. In this study, the scores were based on estimations made on the stem since earlier findings had indicated that the stem is the most susceptible tissue (Rahayu et al., 2006). Based on an index score for gall rust symptoms, gall rust disease severity (DS) was calculated using a modified Chester's formula (Chester, 1959). The genomic DNAs used in the study were extracted from control seedling leaves of 44 accessions belonging to the eleven seed sources. Table 1. Forty-four accessions belonging to eleven seed sources of F. moluccana used in the phylogenetic study No Accession Seed Source Origin 1-4 (W) Wamena 1, 2, 3, 4 Wamena Papua New Guinea (PNG) 5-8 (G) WG 1, 2, 3, 4 Walang Gintang East Flores, Indonesia 9-12 (X) R05 1, 2, 3, 4 RO5/95 Java island, Indonesia (Y) R02 1, 2, 3, 4 RO2/95 Java island, Indonesia (Z) R2001 1, 2, 3, 4 RO2/2001 Java island, Indonesia (M) Morotai 1, 2, 3,4 Morotai Moluccas island, Indonesia (K) Kediri 1, 2, 3, 4 Kediri, Puncu East Java, Indonesia 9-32 (J) Jasinga 1, 2, 3, 4 Jasinga, Bogor West Java, Indonesia (E) East Timor 1, 2, 3, 4 East Timor Timor, Timor Leste (A) Ampel 1, 2,3, 4 Ampel, Boyolali Central Java,, Indonesia (S) 2S/75 1, 2, 3, 4 2S/75 Java island, Indonesia Results and Discussion Genetic Diversity The genetic diversity of F. moluccana seedlings assessed using RAPDs was small. All estimated genetic parameters, effective number of alleles ( ), number of polymorphic loci (34-55), proportion of polymorphic loci (35.05% to 56.76%), Shannon Diversity Index ( ) and Nei's Diversity Index ( ) had low values. However, the mean percentage of polymorphic loci of seedlings from all seed sources was higher than that recorded for other tropical species (27.60%) (Hamrick and Lovelles, 1986). However it was lower than for Gliricidia sepium (59.9%) which, like F. moluccana is also a legume species (Chamberlain et al., 1996a). While this suggests that F. moluccana as assessed in this study is less potentially adapted to variable environmental conditions than G. sepium, it is more adapted than other tropical trees species. This implies that seed sources with high adaptation to severe conditions, including resistance to gall rust disease, may be available. Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 51

66 Genetic Similarities The genetic distance among the 11 F. moluccana seed sources were small ( to ), while the genetic similarities among them were high, ranging from to All seedlings from Brumas (RO2, RO5, R2001 and 2S/75) seed sources were closely related to those from East Timor, East Flores, Moluccas and Java, but were distant to Wamena (Fig. 1). The percentage of disease severity of each seed source obtained from artificial inoculation for 7, 17, 27, 37 and 47 days after inoculation (DAI) are presented in Table 2. Table 2. Severity of Gall rust disease of F. moluccana seedlings from eleven seed sources at 7, 17, 27, 37 and 47 days after inoculation No Seed Source Means of Disease severity (%) 7 DAI 17 DAI 27 DAI 37 DAI 47 DAI Category 1 Wamena 13.1ab 37.4ab 49.3 ab 55.5a 59.0 a Moderate (M) 2 Walang Gintang 6.8 a 28.8ab 43.0 ab 70.9ab 74.4 b susceptible ( S ) 3 RO5/ ab 36.2ab 57.5 c 76.4ab 83.9 bc susceptible ( S ) 4 RO2/ a 32.2ab 45.2ab 76.5ab 88.2 bc susceptible ( S ) 5 RO2/ a 23.2ab 43.0a 76.5ab 83.8 bc susceptible ( S ) 6 Morotai 7.1a 22.1ab 41.0a 76.5ab 81.4 bc susceptible ( S ) 7 Kediri, Puncu 5.7a 22.4ab 41.2a 74.8ab 75.0 b susceptible ( S ) 8 Jasinga, Bogor 11.1ab 29.7ab 49.0ab 87.0 c 89.7 bc susceptible ( S ) 9 East Timor 10.2ab 26.4ab 40.7a 78.8bc 80.7 bc susceptible ( S ) 10 Ampel, Boyolali 12.8ab 33.5ab 52.2ab 77.4ab 77.7 b susceptible ( S ) 11 2S/ ab 33.4ab 50.9ab 74.8ab 80.8 bc susceptible ( S ) Note: Means followed by the same letter in the same column are not significantly different at 1% Wamena Walang Gintang RO RO2 R Morotai East Timor Ampel S/75 Kediri Jasinga Dendrogram of RAPD data for eleven seed sources of F.moluccana seedlings, based on Nei's genetic similarities. Numbers indicate the genetic distance 52 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

67 Seedlings from Wamena also showed more tolerance to gall rust disease than other seed sources (Table 2), (Rahayu et al., 2009). There were negative and weak relationships between polymorphic loci, Shannon's Diversity Index, Nei's Diversity Index and gall rust disease severity at 7, 17 and 27 DAI (R 2 = 4% to 27%). However, the relationships at 37 and 47 DAI were positive and moderate (R 2 = 39% to 49%). Thus, the correlations between genetic variation and gall rust disease severity of F. moluccana seedlings varied with time and their relationship was not strong. However, in situ and ex situ gene conservation from the native populations of Irian Jaya, particularly Wamena, are required in order to prevent the loss of low frequency alleles that may be genes that confer protection against gall rust fungus. Disease Severity, 47 DAI (%) y = x R 2 = Disease Severity,47 DAI (%) y = x R 2 = Nei's Diversity Index Shannon's Diversity Index Disease Severity,47 DAI (%) y = 0.627x R 2 = Proportion of polymorphic locy (%) References BYRNE, C. M., BOLTON, D. J., SHERIDAN, J. J., MCDOWELL, D. A., & BLAIR, I. S The effects of preslaughter washing on the reduction of E. coli O157:H7 transfer from cattle hides to carcasses during slaughter. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 30, CHESTER, K.S How sick is the plant. J.G.H Horsfall and A. Diamond eds., Plant Pathology Vol: 1. Academic Press, Inc, New York. FAO Forest genetic resources. Internet document: Accessed on 19 September Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 53

68 RAHAYU, S., LEE, S.S., NOR AINI, A.S., GHIZAN, SALEH Responses of Falcataria moluccana seedlings of different seed sources to inoculation with Uromycladium tepperianum. Journal of Silvae Genetica. Vol: 58, 1-2: RAHAYU, S., LEE, S.S., NOR AINI, A.S., GIZAN, S. AND AHMAD, S.S Infection of Falcataria moluccana (Miq.) Barneby & Grimes seedling by gall rust fungus Uromycladium spp. is associated with a reduction in growth and survival. Pages Proceeding of International Post Graduate Student Conference. Penang: University Science Malaysia (USM). RAHAYU, S., LEE, S.S., NOR AINI Gall rust disease epidemic on Falcataria moluccana (Miq.)Barneby & J.W.Grimes in Java Island, Indonesia. Proceeding of the Asia Congress Plant Pathology. Universitas Gadjah Mada. Yogyakarta, Indonesia. RICHTER, H.G. AND DALLWITZ, M.J Commercial timber. Internet document: Accessed on 3 January Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

69 OCCURRENCE OF INSECTS ASSOCIATED WITH Khaya ivorensis (AFRICAN MAHOGANY) IN SABAH, MALAYSIA Arthur Y. C. Chung, Richard Majapun, Ahmad Harun, Robert Ong & Chak Chee Ving P. O. Box 1407, Forest Research Centre, Sabah Forestry Department, Sandakan, Sabah, Malaysia Corresponding author: Abstract Insects associated with the African Mahogany, Khaya ivorensis, were documented in this study. More than 10 insect species were recorded causing damage to young African Mahogany saplings in selected forest plantations in Sabah. Some are new records to this tree species. Termite infestation of the genus Coptotermes at one of the plantations has caused severe damage and mortality to a few trees. The sap-sucking bug, Mictis longicornis damaged some of the shoots while the gold-dust weevil, Hypomeces squamosus was found feeding on the leaves of trees. Other insects were caterpillars of the Lepidopteran families Geometridae, Limacodidae, Psychidae, Lymantriidae, Pyralidae and Nymphalidae.These caterpillars occurred in low numbers and are considered of minor importance. Some spiders were found nesting on the trees. They are effective natural predators to control some of the insect pest populations. Introduction Khaya ivorensis A. Chev. belongs to the family Meliaceae, and is also known as the African Mahogany. This species occurs naturally in West Africa, mostly in Cote d'ivoire, Ghana, Togo, Benin and Nigeria. K. ivorensis is widespread, and is found in deciduous forests, moist forests, rainforests and secondary forests up to an altitude of 450 m in these countries. K. ivorensis is a very large tree with high buttresses and a dark green, rounded crown, with pendulous spherical fruits. It can reach a height of 60 m at maturity. The average dbh can reach 115 cm. The leaves are paripinnate, with usually 6 pairs of opposite leaflets. The leaflet is oblong to oblong-elliptic, glabrous, glossy, entire, acuminate especially on the young plant, but broadly apiculate on old ones and with a short petiolule. The flowers are yellow and scented and occur in profuse panicles borne on the crown of the tree. The fruit is a globose, woody capsule on a woody stalk. It opens by 5 valves and the winged seeds are packed above each other against the 5 faces of the vertical columella. The seed is brown, flat, irregular or oblong to triangular in shape, and surrounded by a narrow wing (Lee et al. 2008). The timber of K. ivorensis is durable and has a fine, fairly regular grain.i It is easy to work and season but is difficult to impregnate. The wood commands a very high price on the market, and is used above all for high-quality cabinet work, furniture and expensive interior finishing. Large quantities are also used for boat and ship construction. A high percentage of the wood sold in Europe as mahogany comes from K. ivorensis. The bitter bark is used for the treatment of coughs and whooping cough. When mixed with black peppercorns, it is also used to treat diarrhoea and dysentery. A bark decoction is used as a drink or bath for back pains and as a lotion for rheumatism (Anon. 2012). Not much is known about the insects associated with K. ivorensis, except for the shoot borer, Hypsipyla robusta (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) (Robinson et al. 2001) and the sapwood borer, Apate monachus (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) in Nigeria (Anon. 2012). Hence, it is appropriate and timely that any insects causing damage to this forest tree are documented to provide a Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 55

70 better understanding of the growth and management of this species in forest plantations since it is a recommended high value exotic species to be planted in Sabah (Lee et al. 2008). Materials & Methods Surveys were carried out at two small plots of forest plantations, namely Maxland and Lebihasil, in central Sabah (Figure 1). The trees were planted on a trial basis. They were about years old when the surveys were conducted in 2010 and Insects that were found damaging K. ivorensis were collected manually while surveying the plots. Pictures of the attacked area and the specimens were taken and the extent of the damage was recorded. In many cases, the damage was caused by larvae of insects, and thus a sample of the larvae was collected and was bred in plastic containers to monitor their life cycle. When the adult emerged, it was dry-mounted for identification, based on reference materials at the Forest Research Centre, Sepilok. Lebihasil Plantation %U KUDAT MAP OF SABAH CLASS II (COMMERCIAL FOREST RESERVE) Maxland Plantation Forest Research Centre, Sepilok KOTA KINABALU %U %U SANDAKAN LAHAD DATU %U %U TAWAU N Kilometers Figure 1. Location of surveyed sites in Sabah (green denotes Commercial Forest Reserves Class II). Results and Discussion Overview of insects associated with Khaya ivorensis More than 10 species of insects were recorded causing damage to K. ivorensis in this study (Table 1). Most of them are moth larvae feeding on the leaves. 56 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

71 Table 1. Insects recorded from Khaya ivorensis in this study Order Family Species Damage Occurrence Remarks Blattodea Termitidae Coptotermes sp. Root & trunk Hemiptera Coreidae Mictis longicornis Young Westwood shoot & Coleoptera Curculionidae Hypomeces squamosus Fabricius Lepidoptera Geometridae Biston insularis Warren Lepidoptera Geometridae Ectropis bhurmitra Walker Lepidoptera Limacodidae Thosea vetusta Walker Moderate - Moderate New record leaf Leaf Moderate - Leaf Low New record Leaf Low New record Leaf Low New record Lepidoptera Limacodidae Setora sp. Leaf Low New record (genus) Lepidoptera Nymphalidae Polyura athamas uraeus (Rothschild & Jordan) Leaf Low New record Lepidoptera Psychidae Unidentified spp. Leaf Moderate - Lepidoptera Lymantriidae Unidentified spp. Leaf Low - Lepidoptera Pyralidae Unidentified sp. Leaf Low - Some notes of the insects associated with Khaya ivorensis Termites Coptotermes sp. (Blattodea: Termitidae) The soldier termites exudated a milky solution when disturbed (this is one of the typical defense strategies of this genus). The termites are subterranean, making soil trails connecting its subterranean nest to the tree trunk through the roots. Although healthy in appearance at the initial stage, the affected trees would eventually degrade and die due to gradual attack on the basal trunk and root system. In plantations, chemical control is usually used to protect trees against attack by termites. Any infested trees (with the presence of mud runways at the basal part of the stem) can be treated with liquid insecticide to prevent further damage from the termites. The insecticide is diluted with water (according to formulation) to form a milky or opaque emulsion. It is easy to apply, requires little agitation, and rarely leaves a visible residue. The trenching and drenching method is commonly used to control subterranean termites. A shallow channel of about 10 cm depth is dug in the soil surrounding the tree base. Any hardened soil on the infested basal trunk is scraped. The diluted liquid termiticide is then poured down the basal part of the trunk to drench down the root system. Besides killing the termites at the infested areas, the insecticide will create a chemical barrier which is not favorable to the termites. The formulation and long residual activity of the insecticide will ensure that the barrier will remain effective for a few years. It is also recommended to treat the trees next to the infested tree / area. Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 57

72 Besides chemical control, there are a number of alternative, traditional control methods, largely relating to silvicultural practices or plantation management, which are also very important, and should be considered. Stink bug Mictis longicornis (Hemiptera: Coreidae) and other sap feeders A few species of sap-sucking bugs were observed damaging young shoots and leaves of K. ivorensis, e.g. scale insects, mealybugs, small plant hoppers and aphids. Of all these, the giant stink bug Mictis longicornis, occurred in many of the trees and had caused considerable damage in both plantations, but not killing the trees. Sap feeders affect the sapling vitality by extracting sap required for normal functioning of the plant, such as shoot extension and leaf expansion. This results in stunting, distortion or wilting, as depicted in some of the surveyed K. ivorensis. They do not generally cause serious damage to the plants, but they do affect the plant growth when they occur in high population numbers. For mealybugs and aphids, target-spraying the insects with soapy water solution (two teaspoons of a mild dish detergent, per gallon of water) would normally dislodge the pests from the plants. For the more robust sap-sucking bugs, e.g. Mictis longicornis, chemical spraying using Malathion would have to be applied if they occur in high abundance. The stink bugs can also be collected and terminated manually. Gold dust weevil Hypomeces squamosus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Quite a number of this beetle was found feeding on the leaves of K. ivorensis at Lebih Hasil but the population was lower at Maxland plantation. H. squamosus is highly polyphagous, feeding on a wide range of trees. The mode of leaf damage is usually from the leaf edge inwards, forming a semi circle. No control measure was needed as the damage did not significantly affect the tree health. If occurring in high abundance, the weevils can be collected manually. Other insects associated with Khaya ivorensis Other insects sampled from the survey did not pose any significant problems to the trees as they occurred in low abundance. All of them were leaf feeders from various lepidopteran families. Two moth species from the Geometridae family were recorded, namely Biston insularis and Ectropis bhurmitra. The larvae can be easily recognized through their looper-like caterpillars. When they are not moving, they look like a twig, which is a strategy not to be spotted by predators, especially insectivorous birds. Biston insularis is a fairly large moth and the larva could grow up to 55 mm in length. The looper is green in colour which mimics the African Mahogany leaf stalk. This species is found within the Sundaland and it is abundant in a range of lowland forest types but rarely encountered above 1,000 m (Holloway 1993). Other host plants of this species include Aleurites montana and Albizia saman (Robinson et al. 2001). Ectropis bhurmitra is a smaller geometrid moth. Chey (1996), reported that E. bhurmitra was the most common defoliator on young Sentang (Azadirachta excelsa) seedlings planted at Segaliud Lokan. This is a polyphagous species, feeding on various plant species but the African Mahogany is a new host-plant record (Robinson et al. 2001). A mature cylindrical brownish looper measures more than 25 mm and the pupal stage is 8 days. The adult moth has a wing span of 28 mm and a body length of 10 mm. Other description and ecological details of this species are provided by Holloway (1993) and Chey (1996). Setora sp. is one of the two Limacodidae species recorded feeding on the foliage of K. ivorensis in this study. Colour variation in the caterpillars is common. This insect is polyphagous, but it is a serious pest of coconut and oil palm. The nettle caterpillar has been 58 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

73 known to defoliate large tracts of palms before the outbreak is terminated, often by its natural enemies (Khoo et al. 1991). Another nettle caterpillar, Thosea vetusta was found causing damage to K. ivorensis leaves. Armed with stinging lateral spines, the caterpillar was light green in colour with a dorsal white discrete band lined with blue, and two tiny orangey spots in the middle. A mature caterpillar is 25 mm in length. The adult emerged after more than three weeks of pupation. The dull-brown moth has a wing span of 27 mm and a body length of 14 mm. Other information pertaining to this species is provided by Holloway (1986). The caterpillar feeds on quite a wide range of plants (Robinson et al. 2001). Other lepidopteran defoliators include larvae from the families Lymantriidae, Psychidae, Pyralidae and Nymphalidae. Natural predators of some insect pest species Throughout the survey within the K. ivorensis plots, many spiders were found nesting on the trees. They are effective natural predators to control some of the insect pest populations. Thus, they are important to be incorporated as part of the integrated pest management. Economic importance and management of Khaya ivorensis insect pests Although many species of insects were recorded associated with K. ivorensis from this study, especially defoliators, they do not seem to cause significant damage that would affect the tree health and growth. Termite infestation, however, may lead to mortality to some of the trees. As the attack is often localized, it can be treated with appropriate termiticide when detected early. Hence, pest surveillance and monitoring is important to detect the early stages of termite infestation. Acknowledgements We thank En. Albert Ganing of Maxland (Tree Plantation) Sdn. Bhd. and En. Wong Yin Chun, En. Liew and En. Jackson of Lebihasil Sdn. Bhd. for logistic support and information pertaining to the plots. Dr Lee Ying Fah (Head, Forest Research Centre (FRC), Sepilok), Dr Chey Vun Khen and staff of FRC (Consultancy, Entomology & Pathology Sections) are also acknowledged for their support and contribution in this study. References ANONIM Species Info.asp?SpID=1736 CHEY, V.K Forest pest insects in Sabah. Sabah Forest Record No. 15. Sabah Forest Department, Sandakan. 111 pp. HOLLOWAY, J.D Moths of Borneo: key to families: families Cossidae, Metarbelidae, Ratardidae, Dudgeoneidae, Epipyropidae and Limacodidae. Malayan Nature Journal 40: HOLLOWAY, J.D The moths of Borneo: part 11; family Geometridae: Ennominae. Malayan Nature Journal 47: HOLLOWAY, J.D The moths of Borneo: family Lymantriidae. Malayan Nature Journal 53: KHOO, K.C., OOI, P.A.C. & HO, C.T. (1991). Crop pests and their management in Malaysia. Tropical Press, Kuala Lumpur. 242 pp. LEE, Y.F., ANUAR, M. & CHUNG, A.Y.C A guide to plantation forestry in Sabah. Sabah Forest Record No. 16. Sabah Forestry Department. 150 pp. Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 59

74 ROBINSON, G.S., ACKERY, P.R., KITCHING, I.J., BECCALONI, G.W. & HERNANDEZ, L.M Hostplants of the moth and butterfly caterpillars of the Oriental Region. The Natural History Museum, London & Southdene Sdn. Bhd., Kuala Lumpur. 744 pp. 60 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

75 THE LACEBUG Tingis beesoni Drake., A NEW Gmelina arborea PEST IN INDONESIA Pujo Sumantoro, Frida E. Astanti, and Deden Sylva D. Center of Research and Development, Perum Perhutani, Wonosari Street, Batokan, Tromol Pos 6 Cepu 58302, East Java. Corresponding author: Abstract The lacebug, Tingis beesoni (Hemiptera: Tingidae), is one of the three most serious insect pests in plantations of native Gmelina arborea Roxb. in Indonesia. It also causes damage to these trees in India, Myanmar and Thailand. Infestation of T. beesoni was found in Indonesia (Java Island) since 2009/2010 and causes serious damage to plantations and shade trees. Since its first report in 2010 until April 2012, T. beesoni has damaged more than 7,500 hectares at Perum Perhutani (state-owned forestry company). The infestation of lacebug has resulted in serious defoliation, dieback and tree death. Infestation of the lacebug has been experienced in large areas in the Provinces of Jakarta, West Java, Central Java, and East Java. Chemical control trials of T. beesoni have been done using trunk injections of the systemic insecticides dimehipo and imidacloprid.. The trials showed effective control of lace bugs, but the control efforts were not economically viable. Surveys for alternative hosts showed that besides G. arborea, T. beesoni also infested G. elliptica, a wild shrub species. Keyword: Tingis beesoni, Gmelina arborea, new pest record Introduction Gmelina arborea Roxb. (Verbenaceae) is exotic to Indonesia, (Yap et al. 1993). It is indigenous to India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, and the Provinces of Yunan and Guangxi in China (CABI 2000). It is a relatively fast growing species which produces a lightweight hardwood suitable for construction, carving, etc. It also yields good quality pulp. G. arborea is planted in large-scale plantations in Sumatra (Riau, West Sumatra, Jambi, South Sumatra and Lampung), Kalimantan (West, Central, South and East Kalimantan) and the Moluccas, while small plantations have been raised in Java (Cossalter and Nair 2000). In Java, G. arborea species trials have been grown since approximately 1988 by Perum Perhutani (state-owned forestry company), while larger scale developments have taken place in East, Central and West Java since No major insect pests have been found on G. arborea plantations in Indonesia, although there are minor pests (Nair and Sumardi, 2000). One of the insects consistently associated with this species is a carpenter worm, Prionoxystus sp. (Lepidoptera, Cossidae) (Ngatiman and Tangketasik 1987; Sitepu and Suharti 1998). The larva bores into the stems of saplings, feeds from within and weakens the tree. In East Kalimantan, 5 70% of saplings may be infested (Ngatiman and Tangketasik 1987) and it also occurs in Java and Sumatra. However, the damage is not serius. Multiple infestations may weaken the saplings, but they are not killed, and insects does not build up in large numbers, passing through only one generation per year. Other pests that have been reported are Alcidodes ludificator and Apion argulicolle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Xyleborus fornicatus (Coleoptera, Scolytidae), Selepa celtis (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) and Calopepla leayana (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) (Suratmo, Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 61

76 1996), as well as Xyleutes ceramicus, the teak beehole borer (Rachmatsjah and Haneda 1998). Infestation of the lacebug, Tingis beesoni Drake. (Hemiptera: Tingidae) The first reports of serious damage to G. arborea plantations, caused by the lacebug Tingis beesoni, was at the forest district of Semarang, Central Java in June The pest was first observed in 3 year-old G. arborea trees, with ~ 22.4 ha of affected trees showing 100% defoliation and dieback (twigs and branches died). Other tree species in the area, such as Cassia siamea, were not infested. Identification of the pest was by means of the published literature as recorded by Nair and Sumardi (2000), Speight and Wiley (2001) and Mathur (1979). (Sumantoro, 2011). T. beesoni has previously been recorded from India, Thailand and Myanmar, where it is a serious pest of G. arborea, causing defoliation and dieback in young plantations (Mathew, 1986; Harsh et al., 1992; Nair, 2001; Speight and Wylie, 2001; Nair, 2007). The development T. beesoni infestations in young plantations results in defoliation and dieback and may leas to tree mortality. Since its first report in Indonesia in June 2010 affected areas have increased from 75 ha (June 2010) to ha (November 2010) (Table 1). Table 1. The development of lacebug, T. Beesoni, infestation in the Forest District of Semarang, Central Java, period June November No Data Report The development of damage (ha) Total damage (ha) Notes 1 June, 24, ha 75 ha All trees in the plantation 2 July, 19, ha 85 ha where the first reported 3 September, 20, ha ha attacked on G. arborea (aged years) were made, were 4 October, 18, ha ha completely defoliated and and 2010 alltrees died. 5 November, 13, ha ha Source : Perum Perhutani Unit I, Forest District of Semarang Populations of T. beesoni in infested trees may reach very large proportions. The nimphs congregate on the lower surfaces of the foliage and suck sap at the bases of the lamina or in the axils of leaves. Observations of feeding clusters on sampled trees, resulted in the counting ofr from 3 to 101 lacebugs on a single leaf (average 24 lacebugs) (Table 2). Table 2. Infestation of T. beesoni and the defoliation impact at an observation plot ( trees aged one year and 3 years) in the Semarang forest district. No amount of cluster of ages dbh infestation defoliation (%) samples lacebug/leaf not 20 s.d. (year) (saplings) (cm) (%) 100 average range seen > Note: observation of a feeding cluster was done at 2 leaves of 21 trees at each plantation age class. 62 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

77 The outbreak of T. beesoni in Java is larger than reported outbreaks in India (References for Indian outbreaks). At the first infestation at the forest district of Semarang, in a 22.4 ha plantation, 100% of the plants were infested and suffering total defoliation and dieback of the terminal shoots. Other observations at small plots (Table 2) of 1-year-old and 3 years-old plantations similarly showed 100% of the plants infested, with 46% and 55% respectively suffering total defoliation and dieback. Nair and Mathew (1988) reported that during one outbreak in a 10 ha plantation of 1-year-old trees in India, 67% of the plants were infested, 21% suffering total defoliation and dieback of the terminal shoot. Since the first report in June 2010 until June 2012, T. beesoni have infested more than 7598 ha plantation in the forest districts of Java and ornamental trees at the edges of streets (Table 3; Figure 1). Table 3. Distribution of Tingis beesoni infestation in various districts on Java Island and damage at the forest districts of Perum Perhutani, for the period No Distribution (Province, District) Function trees Damage at Forest District 1 Jakarta ornamental trees - 2 West Java : Bogor and Sumedang 3 Central Java : Pekalongan, Batang, Kendal, Semarang, Grobogan, Solo, Sragen 4 East Java : Tuban, Lamongan, Bojonegoro, Ngawi, Nganjuk, Kediri, Probolinggo forest plantation, ornamental trees forest plantation, ornamental trees forest plantation, ornamental trees Bogor : the filler trees Sumedang : ha from ha (37.8%) Semarang : 4350 ha. Gundih : 4.1 ha Mojokerto: ha (the filler trees ± 874 ha; the core trees > 100 ha) Bojonegoro : the filler trees Kediri : the filler trees Figure 1. Distribution of Tingis beesoni infestation in various districts on Java Island Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 63

78 Pilot control trial of T. beesoni Lace bugs cause stippling of foliage and, in heavy infestations, yellowing and premature leaf drop. Insects, including lace bugs, have traditionally been suppressed by foliar applications of pesticides. Such applications have a number of disadvantages: Complete spray coverage can be difficult when treating large trees and drift can be a problem, especially when trees are on small lots or near boundaries. Risk, both real and imagined, to the environment is also a concern (Sclar and Cranshaw 1996). By using systemic insecticides, the applicator can avoid or minimize some problems associated with spray application. For the control of T. beesoni, the systemic insecticides used are dimehipo, imidakloprid, and carbofuran were selected. Tree were treated using a variety of techniques including soil application and trunk injection.. Preference of the technique was based on the kind of insecticide formulation: carbofuran (G) for soil application, dimehipo (WSC) and imidacloprid (WP) by trunk injection. Application of insecticides were partly combined with fertilizer application. Evaluation of treatments were based on the position of the new foliage sprouting and the counting of lacebug on the stems. The results showed that application of dimehipo and imidacloprid by trunk injection results in effective decrease of lacebug populations compared to soil application by carbofuran and the control at two months (Figure 2). The application of insecticides to one year old G. arborea also showed the effectivenes of dimehipo and imidacloprid over carbofuran (results not shown). amount of lacebug month 1-month 2-months month after treatment dimehipo imidacloprid carbofuran dimehipo + urea imida + urea carbofuran + urea control dimehipo imidacloprid Figure 2. The development of T. beesoni populations under different insecticide treatments on three-year-old G. arborea. Morse et al. (2007), reported that treatment of avocado lacebug using acephate, imidacloprid, and dinotefuran provided excellent control at six weeks and that imidacloprid and dinotefuran both resulted in high levels of lacebug mortality after eleven weeks. Trunk injection may be useful for situations in which quick control of a pest problem is desired, whereas soil injection may provide a more long-term solution (Tattar et al. 1998). When imidacloprid was soil applied, 8 to 12 weeks were required to reach concentrations of 0.15 ppm in eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), pin oak (Quercus palustris), and eastern white pine (Pinus strobus). This concentration was determined to be lethal in a bean aphid study (Elbert et al. 1991). Imidacloprid that was trunk injected reached lethal concentrations in Q. palustris and T. canadensis in 1 and 4 weeks, respectively (Tattar et al. 1998). The spread of T. beesoni infestation reached high proportions in a very short time. Because of this, the control efforts with insecticides became un-economical. I Insecticide-treatment 64 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

79 must be done at the same time and periodically at large area.currently, to prevent the higher damage and loss, new plantings at the forest plantation does not use G. arborea. Alternate hosts of T. beesoni Nair (2007) stated that T. beesoni has not been recorded on any other host. To investigate this in Indonesia we conducted infestation studies on two other plant species in the Verbenaceae that occur in Indonesia. These were Gmelina elliptica (a wild shrub species found in teak ecosystems) and Lantana camara. G. Arborea was used as control species. The trial was done twice by releasing the lace bug onto seedlings. Six seedlings were used for each plant species. Results were obtained after days/weeks? It was found that T. beesoni could also infest G. elliptica. Our results further showed that infestation levels of T. beesoni on G. elliptica was about half of that on G. Arborea (Table 4). Table 4. The trial to found the alternate hosts of lacebug T. beesoni. Day G. arborea G. elliptica Lantana camara Day 1 The first releasing of 250 lacebug T. beesoni (the first trial) Amount of 2 not observed not observed not observed 3 infested infested no infestation 4 infested; infested: not found (average :16 (average : 12.3 lacebugs/ seedling) lacebugs/ seedling) 5 no foliage; no lacebug found 6 no foliage; no lacebug found 7 no foliage; no lacebug found 8 no foliage : 6 seedlings died; no lacebug found no foliage; no lacebug found no foliage; no lacebug found no foliage; no lacebug found no foliage : 6 seedlings died; no lacebug found green foliage; no lacebug found green foliage; no lacebug found green foliage; no lacebug found green foliage; no lacebug found 9 The second releasing of 250 lacebug T. beesoni (the second trial) 10 infested : (average :15.6 lacebug/ seedling) infested: (average: 8.5 lacebugs/ seedling) found : 1.3 lacebugs/seedling) 11 infested : (average: 20.2 lacebugs/seedling) 12 infested : (average: 23.6 lacebugs/seedling) 13 no foliage; no lacebug found 14 no foliage; no lacebug found 15 no foliage : 5 seedlings died; the stem of 1 seedling was still green; no lacebug found infested: (average: 8.8 lacebugs/seedling) infested : (average: 6.6 lacebugs/seedling) no foliage; no lacebug found no foliage; no lacebug found no foliage : 6 seedlings died; no lacebug found found : 1.5 lacebugs/seedling found : 1.3 lacebugs/seedlings green foliage; no lacebug found green foliage; no lacebug found green foliage; no lacebug found seedlings were 6 seedlings at every species. At the second trial, the seedling of L. camara were used at the first trial. Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 65

80 Acknowledgement Special thanks to Agus Pramono for help on the observation of T. beesoni on the alternate hosts. References CABI (COMMONWEALTH AGRICULTURAL BUREAU INTERNATIONAL) Forestry Compendium, 2005 edn., (CD version). Wallingford, UK: CAB International. ELBERT, A., B. BECKER, J.HARYWIG, AND C. ERDELEN Imidakloprid: a new systemic insecticide. Pflanzenschutz-Nachrchten Bayer 44(62): HARSH, N.S.K., JAMALUDDIN AND TIWARI, C.K Top dying and mortality in provenance trial plantations of Gmelina arborea. Journal of Tropical Forestry 8, JOSEPH MORSE, FRANK BYRNE, NICK TOSCANO, ROBERT KRIEGER Evaluation of Systemic Chemicals for Avocado Thrips and Avocado Lace Bug Management. Production Research Report California Avocado Commission. MATHEW, G Insects associated with forest plantations of Gmelina arborea Roxb. In Kerala, India. Indian Journal of Forestry 9, MATHUR, R.N Biology of Tingis (Caenotingis) beesoni Drake (Hetereptera: Tingidae). Indian Forest Bulletin No 276. NAIR, K.S.S. (ed) Insect Pests and Diseases in Indonesia Forest: An Assessment of Major Threats, Research Efforts and Literature. Center for International Forestry Research, Bogor, Indonesia. 101p. NAIR, K.S.S Pest Outbreaks in Tropical Forest Plantations: Is There a Greater Risk for Exotic Tree Species?. Center for International Forestry Research. Bogor. Indonesia. NAIR, K.S.S Tropical Forest Insect Pests. ecology, impact and management. Cambridge University Press. NAIR, K.S.S. & MATHEW, G Biological and controlof insects pests and of fastgrowing hardwood species. Albizzia falcataria and Gmelina arborea. KFRI research Report No. 51. Kerala Forest Research Institute Peechi, India, 8 p. NAIR, K.S.S. & SUMARDI Insect pests and diseases of major plantation species. In Insect Pests and Diseases in Indonesian Forests, an assessment of the major threats, research efforts and literature. CIFOR. Bogor, Indonesia. NGATIMAN AND TANGKETASIK, J Some insect pests on trial plantation of PT ITCI, Balikpapan, East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Tropical Forest research Journal Samarinda 2: RACHMATSJAH, O. AND HANEDA, N.F Jenis-jenis serangga hama potensial pada hutan tanaman di Indonesia (Kinds of potential pests in Indonesian plantation forest). In: Suratmo, F.G., Hadi, S., Husaeni, E.A., Rachmatsjah, O. Kasno, Nuhamara, S.T. and Haneda, N.F. (eds) Proceedings Workshop Permasalahan dan Strategi Pengelolaan Hama di Areal Hutan Tanaman, Fakultas Kehutanan IPB dan Departemen Kehutanan, Bogor, Indonesia. SCLAR, D.C., AND WS. CRANSHAW Evaluation of new systemic insecticide for elm insect pest control. J. Environ. Hortic. 14: SITEPU, I.R. AND SUHARTI, M Pest and disease management in industrial forest plantation in Indonesia. Proceedings of a workshop held at Bogor, Indonesia, 6-7 May 1998, CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products, Australia. SPEIGHT, M.R. AND F.R. WYLIE Insect pests in tropical forestry. CABI Publishing. UK. 66 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

81 STANTON GILL, DAVID K. JEFFERSON, RONDALYN M. REESER, AND MICHAEL J. RAUPP Use of soil and trunk injection of systemic insecticides to control lace bug on hawthorn. Journal of Arboriculture 25(1): January SUMANTORO, P Ancaman Hama Kepik Renda Tingis beesoni (Hemiptera: Tingidae) pada Tanaman Gmelina arborea di Indonesia (Threat of Tingis beesoni lace bug (Hemiptera: Tingidae) on Gmelina arborea in Indonesia). In: Budiadi, H. Supriyo, S. Indrioko, S. Rahayu, Y. Widyana, Widiyatno (eds.). Prosiding Seminar Nasional Rimbawan Kembali Ke Hutan: melestarikan sumberdaya dan menyejahterakan masyarakat. held at Yogyakarta. Indonesia, December 17, 2010, p Faculty of Forestry Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta. Indonesia SURATMO, F.G Emerging insect pest problems in tropical plantation forest in INDONESIA, IN: NAIR, K.S.S., SHARMA, J.K. AND VARMA, R.V. (eds.) Impact of diseases and insect pests in tropical forests, Kerala Forest Reearch Institute and FAO/FORSPA, Peechi, India. TATTAR, T.A., J.A. DOTSON, M.S. RUIZZO, AND V.B. STEWARD Translocation of imidakloprid in three tree species when trunk and soil injected. J. Arboric. 24: YAP, S.K., SOSEF, M.S.M. AND SUDO, S Gmelina L. In Soerianegara, I. And Lemmens, R.H.M.J. (eds.) Plant resources of South-East Asia No 5(1)-Timber trees: major commercial timberrs, Pudoc Scientific Publishers. Wageningen. Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 67

82 DEFOLIATOR AND STEM BORER ATTACK ON JABON OF DIFFERENT AGES AND PLANTED AT DIFFERENT ALTITUDES Selvi Chelya Susanty and Noor Farikhah Haneda Department of Silviculture, Faculty of Forestry, Bogor Agricultural University, Darmaga Campus, Bogor, Indonesia Corresponding author: Abstract Jabon (Anthocephalus cadamba Miq.) is widely planted as a main species in community forests in Indonesia. In plantations, defoliators and stem borers slow growth and reduce stem quality. The aim of this research was to obtain information on these pests of A. cadamba growing at altitudes of 410 and 900 m above sea level (asl) and when the trees were age 7, 11, and 17 months. The results showed that defoliators attacked at both altitudes while the stem borer attacks occurred only at 900 masl. Percentage defoliation was greater at age 7 than at age of 11 and 17 months. Three defoliators, Arthochista hilaralis, Moduza procis, Daphanis hypothous were identified; one defoliator remains unidentified. Thus altitude and the age of Jabon may affect the incidence and severity of pest attack. Keywords: Anthocephalus cadamba, defoliator, stem borer Introduction Every year, Indonesia s demand for timber increases, but as this demand cannot be fulfilled by the domestic supply, wood is imported from other countries, including China, Japan, Malaysia (ITTO, 2011). The situation has worsened because deforestation has contributed to this decreasing wood supply. Jabon is planted in community forests and also as plantation forest. Jabon is fast growing, produces cylindrical and straight stems, is well-adapted to various locations, and is easy to manage silviculturally. However, plantation monocultures across large areas cause jabon to be vulnerable to insect pests. These pests have a greater impact in plantations because of the abundance of food. A study of defoliator and stem borer attack on jabon is needed to obtain basic information for pest management of this species. The purpose of this study is to provide knowledge about the levels of incidence of defoliators and stem borers on jabon at 410 and 900 masl, and when the trees were 7, 11, and 17 months old. Materials and Methods The study was conducted in community forests of jabon in Sukamakmur, Megamendung, and Pamijahan. Levels of incidence of defoliators and stem borers were measured in the stands at Sukamakmur (at 410 masl) and Megamendung (900 masl) which were two years old. Species identification was undertaken and levels of incidence of defoliators were measured in Pamijahan (435 masl) on trees that were 7, 11 and 17 months old. This study was carried out between May until June Three 0.02 sample plots that allowed systematic sampling were set up in each location. For each plot the number of trees attacked by defoliators and stem borers was counted. Each tree was also assessed for the presence of pests in leaf, twig, branch, bark, stem and root material. The insect pest samples were brought to the laboratory for further investigation and 68 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

83 identification. The samples were reared until the adult stage in the laboratory to allow identification up to species level (if possible) using the following insect identification books: Tsukuda (1991), Holloway (1987), Sutrisno (2010). Percentage of Pest Incidence was calculated by the following equation: K= Percentage of Pest Incidence n =Number of damaged trees in a plot N= Total number of trees in a plot Results and Discussion Defoliator and Stem Borer Attack Percentage incidence of defoliator attack on jabon (A. cadamba) at Sukamakmur and Megamendung can be seen in Figure % Percentace incidence 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 67% 0% Sukamakmur (410 msal) Megamendung (900 msal) Place (Altitude) Figure 1. Percentage incidence defoliator attack in Sukamakmur and Megamendung Defoliator attack occurred at both Sukamakmur and Megamendung. In Sukamakmur at an altitude of 410 masl, the percentage incidence (100%) was greater than at Megamendung (67%) at an altitude of 900 masl. Defoliator development that occurred at both locations is influenced by several biotic and abiotic factors. Abiotic factors that may be influential are environmental conditions such as temperature, humidity, ph, and rainfall, or the management system implemented. Suitable environmental conditions for plant growth will make jabon grow, and be healthy and resistant to pests. However, the environmental conditions that are less favorable for plant growth may make plants more susceptible to pests. Anggraeni et al. (2010) described conditions that could result in damage to the leaves and the effectiveness of photosynthesis, thus affecting the growth of plants. Severe defoliation can cause plant death. The percentage of stem borer attack on jabon (A. cadamba) in Sukamakmur and Megamendung can be seen in Figure 2. Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 69

84 Percentage incidence 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% 0% Sukamakmur (410 masl) 32% Megamendung (900 masl) Figure 2. Pleace (Altitude) The percentage incidence of stem borer attack at Sukamakmur (at 410 m altitude) and Megamendung (at 900 m altitude). At an altitude of 410 masl at Sukamakmur, jabon was not attacked by the stem borer. At Megamendung at an altitude of 900 masl, the percentage of stem borer attack reached 32%. Mansur (2010) showed that the optimal altitude for the growth of jabon is less than 500 masl. The finding of an absence of stem borer attack at Sukamakmur suggests that lower altitudes allow this species to maximise its genetic potential for growth because of its resistance to stem borer attack. Maximum growth rates support the generation of plant saponin compounds and other secondary metabolites that play a role in protecting plants from insect attack. In addition to the influence of high altitude in the promotion of stem borer attack at Megamandung which is affected by overcast conditions, the presence of weeds growing under the stand may also have promoted stem borer attack. At this site, the understorey was overgrown by grass weeds, while Sukamakmur was weed free. Anggraeni et.al (2010) state that as well as weeds competing with the crop for water, nutrients and sunlight, they can also serve as a host plant for pests. The existence of stem borers can be seen where the trunk and branches have disintegrated because of the presence holes formed by the borers. If the larvae are still active on the inside, frass will form as small dots on the surface. Stem borers inside the tree can remain active for long periods, creating hollows and lowering the quality of the wood produced. Severe attacks can cause the whole tree to become brittle and fall. Stem borer attack can also cause disruption of the transport of nutrients and water, so that the plant becomes water-stressed, and the leaves wither and eventually die. The percentage incidence of stem borer attack and defoliators on jabon (A. cadamba) in Sukamakmur (410 masl) and Megamendung (900 masl) can be seen in Figure 3. There was a greater percentage of defoliator attack compared to stemborer attack in both locations. In Sukamakmur defoliator attack reached 100% while stem borer attack was absent. At Megamendung, defoliator attack reached 67%, while stem borer attack was lower at 32%. This shows that for jabon at both altitudes, defoliator attack is more dominant than the stem borer. 70 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

85 Percentage incidence 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% 100% 0% 67% Sukamakmur (410 masl) Megamendung (900 masl) Place (Altitude) 32% Figure 3. Graph the percentage incidence of defoliator and stem borer attack in Sukamakmur and Megamendung Defoliator Attack Rates in Different Age Percentage incidence of defoliator attack on jabon (A. cadamba) ages 7, 11, and 17 months can be seen in Figure 4. Percentage incidence 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 100% 82% 77% 7 month 11 month 17 month Age Figure 4. Percentage incidence of defoliator attack on jabon stands at ages 7, 11, and 17 months In Pamijahan, the magnitude of defoliator attack on jabon varied with plant age. The highest percentage defoliator attack was at the age of 7 months (100%) and the lowest at the age 11 months (77%). Percentage defoliator attack at age 17 months was 82%, which is lower than at age 7 months, but higher than at age 11 months. Thus the magnitude of attack by plant defoliators on jabon varies with plant age. The types of defoliator species found at ages 7, 11 and 17 months at Pamijahan were different (Table 1). Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 71

86 Table 1. The types defoliator found in jabon stands at Pamijahan at ages of 7, 11, and 17 months Age of the plant Species of Defoliator 7 month Arthochista hilaralis, Moduza procis, Daphanis hypothous, and one species not yet identified 11 month Arthochista hilaralis, and one species not yet identified 17 month Arthochista hilaralis, Moduza procis, and Attacus atlas Species diversity of defoliators on jabon in Pamijahan was highest at age 7 months and lowest at age 11 months. At age 7 months there were four types of defoliator Arthochista hilaralis, Moduza procis, Daphanis hypothous, and 1 species that has not yet been identified. At age 17 months there were three types of defoliator (Arthochista hilaralis, Moduza procis and Attacus atlas) and at age 11 months two types of defoliator (Arthochista hilaralis, and one species which has not yet been identified). Arthochista hilaralis was found in stands of jabon of all ages (7, 11 and 17 months). This species was also found in the highest numbers in comparison with the other defoliator species. Pribadi (2010) has observed previouslythat Arthocista hilaris is a defoliator pest that can cause high levels of damage to jabon tree crops. Arthochista hilaralis is a moth which is active at night. During the larval stage, young leaves are attacked and consumed, leaving only the veins. These pests will eat the leaves with a soft silky coated by some sort of way (the net silk). Anggraeni (2010) and Sutrisno (2010) describe the larvae of A. hilaris as reaching 25 mm in length with a translucent green body color and dark brown head. When it reaches its adult stage, the body length reaches 34 mm and has a bluish-green color with an orange-yellow stripe along the front wing. The maxillary and labial palpi of A. hilaris are usually large and orange and brown with a white stripe on the bottom. Figure 5 show the larva and adult forms of A. hilaris. Figure 5. A. hilaris (a) larva stage and (b) adult stage Conclusion Defoliator attacks in jabon stands occurred at altitudes of 410 and 900 m above sea level, while stemborer attacks occurred only in a stand at 900 m above sea level location. The percentage of attacks and the diversity of defoliators were higher at age 7 months than at ages 11 and 17 months. Four species of defoliator Arthochista hilaralis, Moduza procis, Daphanis hypothous, and one yet to be identified were observed. 72 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

87 References ANGGRAENI et al Hama, Penyakit, dan Gulma Hutan Tanaman. Jurnal Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Peningkatan Produktivitas Hutan. Bogor. HOLLOWAY, J.D The Moth of Borneo Part 3. CAB International Intitute of Entomology. London. ITTO Annual review and assessment of the world timber situation 2010, International Tropical Timber Organization. MANSUR, I DAN F. D. TUHETEU Kayu Jabon. Penebar Swadaya. Bogor. PRIBADI, A Pest The Effect of Temperature and Humidity to the Severity Level Caused by Arthrochista hilaralis in Jabon. Bogor: Jurnal Balai Penelitian Hutan Penghasil Serat, Kuok. Vol VII: Riau. SUTRISNO, H and DARMAWAN Kajian Biodiversitas Kupu-Kupu Malam Ternate. Pusat Penelitian Biologi LIPI. Bogor. TSUKUDA, E Butterflies of the South East Asian Island part 5 Nymphalidae. Azumino Butterfile s Research Institute. Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 73

88 WHITEFLIES (HEMIPTERA: ALEYRODIDAE) BREEDING ON Dalbergia latifolia Roxb. IN SOUTH INDIA R. Sundararaj, T.G. Revathi, and K.P. Divya Wood Biodegradation Division, Institute of Wood Science & Technology, 18 th Cross Malleswaram, Bangalore , India Corresponding author: or Abstract The Aleyrodids comprise hemipterous insects of the family Aleyrodidae, and are commonly known as whiteflies. They typically feed mainly on the underside of plant leaves by tapping into the phloem of plants, introducing toxic saliva and decreasing the plants' overall turgor pressure. Since whiteflies congregate in large numbers, susceptible plants can be quickly overwhelmed. Further harm is done by mold growth encouraged by the honeydew whiteflies secrete. Dalbergia latifolia Roxb. is an economically important timber species indigenous to India. The timber is used for fine furniture and cabinet making, musical instruments, turnery and decorative veneers. Medicines and an appetizer are made from tannins in the bark. The species is planted as a shade tree and so far reported to infested by six species of whiteflies viz., Aleurodicus disperses Russell, Aleurolobus cassiae Jesudasan & David, A. dalbergiae Dubey & Sundararaj, A. singhi Regu & David, Aleuromarginatus kallarensis David & Subramaniam, A. pseudokallarensis David & David. In the present study surveys were conducted to identify the whiteflies infesting D. latifolia in south India. The study revealed that in addition to the six reported Acaudaleyrodes rachipora (Singh) was found breeding on D. latifolia and its record form new host record. The finding support the fact that sucking pests increase their host range due to changes in the environment including global warming. This paper deals with the whiteflies breeding on D. latifolia and their host range in south India. Introduction Dalbergia latifolia Roxb is a multipurpose nitrogen-fixing timber tree which yields the valuable Indian rosewood of commercial importance. The tree is commonly called sitsal, beete, shisham or Bombay blackwood in India, and sonokeling or sonobrits in Indonesia. The leaves of the trees are lopped as fodder. Medicines and an appetizer are made from tannins in the bark. (CSIR, 1952). It produces numerous root suckers (Troup and Joshi, 1983) and is a frost-tender species (Tewari, 1995). Trees can tolerate a dry season of about six months with a high saturation deficit (Troup and Joshi, 1983). It is used mainly for high-class furniture, cabinets, panelling, carving, turnery and other decorative applications. Wherever available, it is also used for building construction as posts, rafters, doors, windows, flooring and for cart and carriage building (Pearson and Brown, 1981). Rosewood is in great demand for veneers of decorative plywood and blockboard, and is used for marine and aircraft grade plywood (Ramesh Rao and Purkayastha, 1972). Although technically suitable for railway sleepers, mining and constructional timber, rosewood is too valuable to be used for such purposes (Tewari, 1995). It is one of the best timbers for railway wagon-building, vehicle bodies, boat building, tool handles, agricultural implements and bentwood furniture. Rosewood is also commonly used for musical instruments, novelty items, woodware, toys, brush backs, sports goods, etc. (Ramesh Rao and Purkayastha, 1972). The species also has potential for soil improvement programmes. In Java it is recommended for afforestation of eroded soils (Soerianegara and Lemmens, 1993). In India it is found in the dry deciduous forests 74 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

89 throughout the Indian peninsula. It grows in the sub-himalayan tract from Oudah eastwards to Sikkim, Bihar, Orissa, and throughout central and southern India. Because D. latifolia is relatively slow-growing, it is not much preferred as a forest plantation species at present. However, its potential as one of the most reputed timber species and the flexibility of its ecological requirements makes the species suitable for a range of agroforestry uses in the humid tropics. It has rich complexes of insect fauna and suffers assiduously from insect damage from seed to mature trees with over 60 species of them identified as its pests (Mathur and Singh, 1959). It is reported to be infested by six species of whiteflies viz., Aleurodicus disperses Russell, Aleurolobus cassiae Jesudasan & David, A. dalbergiae Dubey & Sundararaj, A. singhi Regu & David, Aleuromarginatus kallarensis David & Subramaniam, A. pseudokallarensis David & David. In the present study surveys were conducted to identify the whiteflies infesting D. latifolia in south India. It revealed that in addition to the six reported whitefly species two more species Acaudaleyrodes rachipora (Singh) and Viennotaleyrodes megapapillae (Singh) were breeding on D. latifolia and it form new host record for these whiteflies. The present paper deals with the whiteflies breeding on D. latifolia and their host range in south India. Materials and Methods The present study was largely based on the whitefly puparia collected from D. latifolia growing in various localities of south India covering the states of Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu during the period The whitefly infested leaves were collected from D. latifolia plants and permanent mounts of the puparia were prepared by adopting the method of David and Subramaniam (1976). The best mounts were obtained from puparium from which adults have emerged. Observations, micro-measurements and camera lucida drawings were made by using Nikon Optiphot T-2 EFD microscope and the identity of the whiteflies were confirmed. The studied specimens are in the collection of Institute of Wood Science & Technology, Bangalore, India (IWST). Results and discussion The survey revealed the presence of eight species of whiteflies breeding on D. latifolia in south India. They were Aleurodicus disperses Russell, Acaudaleyrodes rachipora (Singh), Aleurolobus cassiae Jesudasan & David, A. dalbergiae Dubey & Sundararaj, A. singhi Regu & David, Aleuromarginatus kallarensis David & Subramaniam, A. pseudokallarensis David & David and Viennotaleyrodes megapapillae. Their distribution and host range are as follows: Aleurodicus dispersus Russell Aleurodicus dispersus Russell, The Florida Entomologist, 48: Material examined. India: Karnataka: IWST campus, one puparium, Dalbergia latifolia, 20.vi.2012, K.P.Divya. Hosts. 481 host plants in the world and 253 host plants from India (Srinivasa, 2000); Actinodaphne angustifolia, Ampelocissus latifolia, Bauhinia purpurea, Cinnamomum malabathrum, Dalbergia latifolia, Eucalyptus teriticornis, Ficus asperrima, Flemingia macrophylla, Lobelia excelsa, Polyalthia longifolia (Dubey and Sundararaj, 2004). Acaudaleyrodes rachipora (Singh) Acaudaleyrodes rachipora Singh, Mem. Dep. Agric. Bull. Minst. Agric. Egypt. Tech. Sci. Serv., 145: 7-8. Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 75

90 Material examined. India: Karnataka, Malleswaram, 2 puparia, Dalbergia latifolia, 15.v.2012, K.P.Divya. Hosts. Bauhinia sp., Dalbergia sissoo, Euphorbia pilulifera (Singh); Cassia auriculata; Tamarindus indicus (Rao, 1958); Abrus precatorius, Delonix elata, Inga dulce, Prosopis juliflora (David and Subramaniam, 1976); Securrinega virosa, Peltophorum ferrugineum, Erythoxylon monogynum, Dodonaea viscosa, Tephrosia purpurea (Jesudasan and David, 1991); Carissa carandas, Dichrostachys cinerea, Acacia pennata, Indigofera sp., Derris elliptica, Phyllanthus sp. (David et al., 1994); Helianthus annus, Cordia myxa, C. gharaf, C. rothii, Tecomella undulata, Cassia alata, C. fistula, C. montana, C. siamea, C. tora, Delonix regia, Parkinsonia aculeate, Euphorbia hirta,cyamopsis tetragonoloba, Sesbania grandiflora, Acacia cavan, A. farnesiana, A. senegal, A. seyal, A. tortilis, Albizia lebbeck, Leucaena leucocephala, Pithecellobium dulce, Ficus racemosa, Morus alba, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Punica granatum, Delonix regia, Rosa chinensis, (Sundararaj et al., 2000); Albizia procera, Berberis sp., Bombax ceiba, Commiphora wightii, Derris indica, Ficus carica, F. religiosa, Hiptage benghalensis, Mimusops hexandra, Tecoma stans, Terminalia arjuna (Pandey and Sundararaj, 2005); Acacia pennata, Albizia amara, Radermachera xylocarpa, Phyllanthus reticulatus, Securinega leucopyrus, Senna auriculata, Zizyphus xylopyrus (Sundararaj and Pushpa, 2011). Aleurolobus cassiae Jesudasan & David Aleurolobus cassiae Jesudasan & David, Oriental Ins., 25: Material examined. India: Andhra Pradesh: Hyderabad, 3 puparia, on Dalbergia latifolia, 3.v.08, R. Pushpa Hosts. Cassia fistula (Jesudasan and David, 1991); Cryptolepis buchanani, Dalbergia sp., Erythrina lithosperma, Vitex negundo (Dubey and Sundararaj, 2006b); Dalbergia latifolia, D. sissoo, Premna sp. (Sundararaj and Pushpa, 2011). Aleurolobus dalbergiae Dubey & Sundararaj Aleurolobus dalbergiae Dubey & Sundararaj, Oriental Ins., 40: Material examined. India: Karnataka: Bangalore, Gottipura, Dalbergia latifolia, 15.ii.2012, R. Sundararaj. Host. Dalbergia latifolia (Dubey and Sundararaj, 2006). Aleurolobus singhi Regu & David Aleurolobus singhi Regu & David, FIPPAT Entomology Series, 4: 46. Material examined. India: Karnataka: Nagarahole Rajiv Gandhi National Park, 8 puparia, on Dalbergia latifolia, 12.iii.09, R. Pushpa. Hosts. Unidentified plant (Regu and David, 1993); Dalbergia latifolia (Sundararaj and Pushpa, 2011). Aleuromarginatus kallarensis David & Subramaniam Aleuromarginatus kallarensis David & Subramaniam, Rec. Zool. Surv. India, 70: 162. Material examined. India: Karnataka: IWST campus, Dalbergia latifolia, 11.ii.2011; Kerala: Kayamkulam, Dalbergia latifolia, 4.xi.2011, T.Sivakumar. Hosts. Pongamia glabra, Pterolobium indicum (David and Subramaniam, 1976); Cassia fistula, Dalbergia lanceolaria, Pongamia pinnata (Jesudasan and David, 1991); Dalbergia latifolia, Dalbergia paniculata (Sundararaj and Pushpa, 2011). 76 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

91 Aleuromarginatus pseudokallarensis David & David Aleuromarginatus pseudokallarensis David & David, 2007b. Oriental Ins., 41: Material examined. India: India: Goa: Volpoi, 2 puparia, on Dalbergia latifolia, 12.iv.2012, R.Sundararaj. Viennotaleyrodes megapapillae (Singh) Trialeurodes megapapillae Singh, Rec. Indian Mus., 34: 86. Moundiella megapapillae (Singh) David, Oriental Ins., 8 (1): 43. Viennotaleyrodes megapapillae (Jesudasan & David) David et al., Hexapoda, 6 (1): Material examined. India: Karnataka: IWST campus, 8 puparia, Dalbergia latifolia, 20.vi.2012, K.P. Divya. Hosts. Cassia fistula, C. timorensis, Tamarindus indicus, Chloris barbata (Jesudasan and David, 1991); Dichrostachys cinerea (David et al., 1994); Blumea mollis (Meganathan and David, 1994); Careya arborea (Dubey and Ko, 2008). Whiteflies are small inconspicuous phytophagous bugs, often overlooked despite their abundance on the lower surface of leaves. They are emerging as major pest species in agriculture, horticulture and forestry in all warmer parts of the world (Sundararaj and Murugesan, 1996). Both nymphs and adults suck the plant sap, and production of honey-dew leading to the development of mould on leaves, adversely affecting photosynthesis. Severe infestation results in death of seedlings and young plants. D. latifolia is an important tree of multifarious uses in India and obviously there is a huge demand of developing nurseries. Hence, the problem of insect pest management needs more attention and investigations on the bionomics and reproductive behavior of whitefly pests particularly in nurseries may lead to efficient management practices. References CSIR The wealth of India - raw materials. Vol. VI. New Delhi, India: Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, p DAVID, B.V Description of new genus Moundiella for Trialeurodes megapapillae Singh, (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) from Burma. Oriental Ins., 8 (1), p DAVID, B.V. KRISHNAN, B. AND THENMOZHI, K A new species of Viennotaleyrodes Cohic (Aleyrodidae: Homoptera) from India. Hexapoda, 6 (1): DAVID, B.V. AND SUBRAMANIAM, T.R Studies on some Indian Aleyrodidae. Rec. Zool. Sur. India, 70, p DAVID, P.M.M. AND DAVID, B.V Descriptions of new species of whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) from south India. Oriental Ins., 41, p DUBEY, A. K. AND KO, C. C Whitefly (Aleyrodidae) host plants list from India. Oriental Ins., 42, p DUBEY, A.K. AND SUNDARARAJ, R Host range of the spiralling whitefly Aleurodicus dispersus Russell (Aleyrodidae: Homoptera) in western ghats of South India. Indian J. Forestry, 27 (1), p DUBEY, A.K. AND SUNDARARAJ, R Key to whiteflies of the tribe Aleurolobini (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) of India with description of five new species and host records. Oriental Ins., 40, p JESUDASAN, R.W.A. AND DAVID, B.V Taxonomic studies on Indian Aleyrodidae (Insecta: Homoptera). Oriental Ins., 25, p Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 77

92 MATHUR, R.N. AND SINGH, B A list of insect pests of forest plants in India and the adjacent countries. Indian Forest Bulletin no. 171 (4), 165 pp. MEGANATHAN, P. AND DAVID, B.V Aleyrodidae fauna (Aleyrodidae: Homoptera) of Silent Valley, A tropical evergreen rain-forest, in Kerala, India. FIPPAT Entomology Series, (5), 66 pp. PANDEY, V.P AND SUNDARARAJ, R Distribution and host range of the babul whitefly Acaudaleyrodes rachipora (Singh) in Indian subcontinent. In Ignacimuthu, s.j, S. and Jayaraj, S. (Eds.): Biodiversity and Insect Pest Management, Narosa Publishing House Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, p PEARSON, R.S. AND BROWN, H.P Commercial Timbers of India, Vol. II. New Dehli, India: AJ Reprints Agency, p RAMESH RAO, K. AND PURKAYASTHA, S.K Indian woods Vol. III. Manager of Publications, Govt. of India, Delhi, India, 262 pp. RAO, A.S Notes on Indian Aleurodidae (Whiteflies) with special reference to Hyderabad. Proc. 10th Int. Cong. Entomol., 1, p REGU, K. AND DAVID, B.V Taxonomic studies on Indian Aleyrodids of the tribe Aleurolobini (Aleyrodinae: Aleyrodidae: Homoptera). FIPPAT Entomology Series, (4), 79 pp. RUSSELL, L.M A new species of Aleurodicus Douglas and two close relatives (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Fla. Entomol., 48, p SINGH, K A contribution towards our knowledge of the Aleyrodidae (whiteflies) of India. Mem. Dept. Agric. India. Entomol. Ser., (12), 98 pp. SINGH, K On some new Rhynchota of the family Aleyrodidae from Burma. Rec. Indian Mus., 34, p SOERIANEGARA, I. AND LEMMENS R.H.M.J Plant resources of South-East Asia No. 5(1), 610 pp. SRINIVASA, M.V Host plants of the spiralling whitefly, Aleurodicus dispersus Russell (Hemiptera: Aleurodidae). Pest Management in Horticultural Ecosystems, 6 (2), p SUNDARARAJ, R., MEETA SHARMA AND AHMED, S.I Aleyrodids infesting Rose (Rosa chinensis) in Indian Arid zone. Hexapoda, 12 (1&2), p SUNDARARAJ, R. AND MURUGESAN, S., 1996: Occurrence of Acaudaleyrodes rachipora (Singh) (Aleyrodidae: Homoptera) as a pest of some important forest trees in Jodhpur (India). Indian J. Forestry, 19 (3), SUNDARARAJ, R. AND PUSHPA, R Aleyrodids (Aleyrodidae: Hemiptera) of India with description of some new species and new host records. In Gupta, Rajiv K. (Ed.): Advancements in Invertebrate Taxonomy and Biodiversity. AgroBios (International), p TEWARI, D.N A Monograph on Rosewood (Dalbergia latifolia Roxb.). Dehra Dun, India: International Book Distributors, 74 pp. TROUP, R.S., and JOSHI, H.B Troup's The Silviculture of Indian Trees. Vol IV. Leguminosae. Delhi, India; Controller of Publications, 344 pp. 78 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

93 EMERGING DISEASE PROBLEMS IN EUCALYPT PLANTATIONS IN LAO PDR Paul A. Barber 1)&2), Pham Q. Thu 3), Giles E. Hardy 2), and Bernard Dell 2) 1) Arbor Carbon Pty Ltd, PO Box 1065 Willagee Central, WA, Australia, 6163; 2) Centre of Excellence for Climate Change, Woodland and Forest Health, Murdoch University, Murdoch, WA Australia; 3) Vietnamese Academy of Forest Science, Dong Ngac, Tu Liem Hanoi, Vietnam Corresponding author: Abstract Surveys of nurseries and plantations of Eucalyptus species were conducted within Lao PDR in A range of pathogens were isolated including species within Phytophthora, Pythium, Fusarium, Colletotrichum, Neofusicoccum, Lasiodiplodia, Pilidiella, Calonectria, Cryptosporiopsis, Corticium and Teratosphaeria. Some diseases caused significant defoliation and loss of stock within nurseries and plantations. The presence of these diseases in combination with a changing climate poses many challenges for the future sustainable and profitable management of plantations in Lao PDR. Introduction Lao PDR is a small landlocked country surrounded by neighbouring countries Thailand, Vietnam, China, Myanmar and Cambodia. The eucalypt plantation industry in Lao PDR is in its infancy when compared to these neighbouring countries, only becoming established over the past decade. With the recent introduction of planting stock from nearby countries comes the risk of entry of pests and diseases with the potential to cause significant losses if not managed correctly. Few surveys have been carried out across plantations throughout Lao PDR to determine the presence and extent of diseases of eucalypt plantations. In 2009 we carried out a survey of 16 nurseries and plantations within Lao PDR. Materials and Methods A total of sixteen nurseries and plantations were surveyed across central Laos PDR along a north-west to south-east gradient during the wet season (June) At each site a survey of signs and symptoms of disease was undertaken, samples collected, and transported back to the laboratory for further analysis. Samples included foliage, soil, stems, roots and water. All samples were collected, transported, examined and fungi and oomycetes isolated using a variety of methods previously described (Barber et al., 2011, Scott et al., 2009, Taylor et al., 2011, Taylor et al., 2009). DNA was extracted, sequenced and phyologenetic analysis undertaken using the methods described previously (Andjic et al., 2011, Scott et al., 2009, Adair et al., 2009). Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 79

94 Results Nurseries The three nurseries surveyed had small to significant losses through plant death and reduced vigour of cuttings and seedlings. Three Phytophthora species and one Pythium species were isolated from irrigation water, soil and diseased roots. The presence of these pathogens combined with sub-optimal hygiene procedures in some nurseries compromised the quality of planting stock and probably increased seedling mortality (Fig. 1). The Phytophthora species were undescribed based on morphological characters and DNA, with alignment based on DNA sequence nearest to Phytophthora alticola, P. parsiana and P. citrophthora. The Pythium species isolated from five separate collections in the same nursery all aligned closely based on DNA sequence with Pythium aff. vexans/chamaehyphon. A range of stem and foliar diseases caused by species within the genera Fusarium, Colletotrichum, Pilidiella, Calonectria, and Teratosphaeria were identified on eucalypts, some causing significant defoliation of seedlings and mother plants. Calonectria and Fusarium species were isolated most frequently, being found in all three nurseries from necrotic lesions occurring on cuttings, causing death and significant losses when the severity of disease was high (Fig. 2). Disease was observed in the clonal cutting gardens and was the likely source of entry into the seedling trays. Poor hygiene and soil media resulted in suboptimal conditions for strong plant growth, but ideal conditions for disease development. Figure 1. Significant losses of nursery stock caused by the presence of root pathogens Phytophthora and Pythium in combination with poor hygiene. Figure 2. Fusarium and Cylindrocladium species were isolated from necrotic lesions on cuttings as indicated by the circles and arrows. 80 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

95 Plantations A range of diseases was observed on stems of eucalypts during surveys of plantations including measle canker disease caused by Teratosphaeria zuluensis (Fig. 3). Severe basal cankers were observed on one clone of eucalypt only (Fig. 3). The following species were isolated and identified during surveys of eucalypts exhibiting symptoms of stem canker diseases: Hypocreales sp., Lasiodiplodia parva, L. pseudotheobromae, Neofusicoccum aff. ribis, Pseudofusicoccum kimberleyense and Valsa fabianae. A number species not previously described based on existing DNA sequence databases were recorded, including Hypocreales sp. and Neofusicoccum aff. ribis. Figure 3. Bark canker symptoms observed on eucalypt clones included measle canker (left) and large basal lesions (right). The bacterial pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum that causes bacterial wilt disease in eucalypts and other tree species, was observed on young (1-2 year old) trees in plantations, but was mostly confined to low-lying sites prone to water-logging. Symptoms observed included streaking within the vascular tissues, bacterial ooze from the wood, necrotic vein-limited lesions on leaves, wilting of foliage, and patches of tree death within plantations (Fig. 4). A number of foliar pathogens were identified from plantations within Lao PDR. One of the most serious was Calonectria quinqueseptata, causing large necrotic blights of foliage (Fig. 5). The two serious eucalypt plantation pathogens, T. destructans and T. epicoccoides were both observed and were widespread throughout the plantations surveyed, causing severe defoliation in some clonal lines during the wet season. Cryptosporiopsis, Pilidiella, Calonectria, and other Teratosphaeria species with Pseudocercospora anamorphs were observed within plantations at low incidence. Cryptosporiopsis was associated with the characteristic dark purple lesions (Fig. 5) and the Teratosphaeria spp. were associated with a range of disease symptoms, dependent upon the species of pathogens causing the disease. Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 81

96 Figure 4. Disease symptoms associated with infection of eucalypts by the bacterial wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum. Figure 5. Foliar disease symptoms associated with infection of eucalypts by the foliar pathogens belonging to the genera Calonectria (A), Cryptosporiopsis (B), and Teratosphaeria (C-E). 82 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

97 Discussion This survey has identified a range of diseases throughout nurseries and plantations within Lao PDR. Based on experience from surrounding countries (Dell et al., 2008, Dell et al., 2012), and the symptoms and disease incidence levels observed, we suspect a number of these diseases are likely to cause economic loss. We can ascertain that many of the diseases present within the plantations are also present within nurseries and mother plants, suggesting these diseases are being introduced into plantations with diseased planting stock. Findings from this study also suggest that disease in the nurseries could be greatly reduced by the improvement of soil media, sterilization of irrigation water, and improved hygiene practices such as sterilization of equipment and removal of seedlings from the ground. Given that industrial eucalypt plantations are recent in Lao PDR, it is likely that the extent of damage, the incidence of particular fungal taxa and their population composition and size will change with time. Hence, it is important that permanent monitoring plots are established for the purpose of monitoring the changes in disease incidence and severity over time. A database of photographs of disease symptoms and herbarium specimens has been initiated during the present study. It is imperative that this is expanded upon to facilitate the ongoing monitoring of these diseases, and assist with the identification of new pathogens. A number of new species were identified during the present study and further research is required to describe them and determine their pathogenicity to clonal lines. Temperatures are likely to increase across Asia as is the frequency of extreme weather events, leading to an increase in the spread and impact of pests and diseases in the region (Dell et al., 2012). It is therefore imperative that abiotic and biotic threats are managed under a prolonged period of climate change, with a focus on matching the species to the site and breeding for optimal growth but also for disease resistance as has been adopted in countries like South Africa and Brazil, and suggested previously for south-east Asian countries like Indonesia (Barber, 2004). References ADAIR, R. J., BURGESS, T., SERDANI, M. & BARBER, P Fungal associations in Asphondylia (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) galls from Australia and South Africa: implications for biological control of invasive acacias. Fungal Ecology, 2, ANDJIC, V., DELL, B., BARBER, P., HARDY, G., WINGFIELD, M. & BURGESS, T Plants for planting: indirect evidence for the movement of a serious forest pathogen, Teratosphaeria destructans, in Asia. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 131, Barber, P. A Forest Pathology: The threat of disease to plantation forests in Indonesia. Plant Pathology Journal, 3, BARBER, P. A., CROUS, P. W., GROENEWALD, J. Z., PASCOE, I. G. & KEANE, P Reassessing Vermisporium (Amphisphaeriaceae), a genus of foliar pathogens of eucalypts. Persoonia, 27, DELL, B., HARDY, G. & BURGESS, T Health and nutrition of plantations eucaylpts in Asia. Southern Forests, 70, DELL, B., XU, D. & THU, P. Q Managing threats to the health of plantations in Asia, new perspectives in plant protection, Pp in: Bandani AR (Ed.), New Perspectives in Plant Protection, Prof. ISBN: , InTech, Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 83

98 SCOTT, P. M., BURGESS, T. I., BARBER, P. A., SHEARER, B. L., STUKELY, M. J. C., HARDY, G. E. S. & JUNG, T Phytophthora multivora sp. nov., a new species recovered from declining Eucalyptus, Banksia, Agonis and other plant species in Western Australia. Persoonia, 22, TAYLOR, K., ANDJIC, V., BARBER, P. A., HARDY, G. E. S. & BURGESS, T. I New species of Teratosphaeria associated with leaf diseases on Corymbia calophylla (Marri). Mycological Progress, 11, TAYLOR, K., BARBER, P. A., HARDY, G. E. S. & BURGESS, T. I Botryosphaeriaceae from tuart (Eucalyptus gomphocephala) woodland, including descriptions of four new species. Mycological Research, 113, Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

99 EMERGING INSECT PEST PROBLEMS ON INDIAN SANDALWOOD (Santalum album L.) UNDER ITS CULTIVATION, A CAUSE OF CONCERN R. Sundararaj, Rajamuthukrishnan and O.K. Remadevi Wood Biodegradation Division, Institute of Wood Science & Technology, 18 th Cross Malleswaram, Bangalore , India Corresponding author: or Abstract Santalum album Linn., commonly known as Indian sandalwood, is indigenous to Peninsular India, and has been the source of highly prized wood and fragrant oil since at least the fifth century B.C. Known in the ancient Sanskrit as Chandana, the wood and its valuable oil traveled from India along the ancient Silk Roads to Persia as Sandal, to Greece as Santalon and to Rome as Santalum. It is a small to medium sized, evergreen tree species occupying a pre-eminent position in Indian forestry. It is a semi root parasite found in association with other trees and parasitises over 300 species of plants and through haustoria obtains their nutrient material. It is distributed all over India but more than 90% lies in Karnataka and Tamil Nadu (accounting for 90% of total area) and the rest distributed in other states. The annual global sandalwood production is estimated to be approximately 5610 tonnes and India contributes 90% of the S. album output of the world, which has declined markedly over the past years. In the context of unsuccessful conservation of sandal in natural areas, ex-situ conservation strategies assume great relevance which includes growing sandal outside forest areas in agroforestry, farm forestry systems etc. Many insect pests of agricultural and horticultural importance were found affecting sandal in outside forest areas. A total of 170 species of insects representing seven orders viz., Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Isoptera, Lepidoptera, Orthoptera and Thysanoptera were reported infesting sandal in nurseries and plantations in varied agri-silvi-horticultural and mixed plantations. It includes 92 species of sapsuckers, 60 species of defoliators, 6 species of stem borers, 5 species of bark/dead wood feeders, 3 species each of seed feeders and dry wood borers and a species of flower feeder. Recent extensive surveys conducted on sandal under cultivation in different agri-silvi-horti combinations indicated the presence of six more new pests in addition to the earlier recorded pests. The new records include three species of sap suckers viz., Coccus viridis (Green), Chrysomphalus sp. and Pulvinaria polygonata Cockerell; two species of defoliators viz., Myllocerus delicatulus Boh. and Peltotrachelus cognatus Marshall and a species of stem borer Derolus volvulus (Fabricius). It confirms the fact that insects are increasing their host range due to change in environment including global warming. In the light these observations the concern on the insect pest problems of sandal on its establishment in areas outside forest is discussed in this communication. Introduction The plant genus Santalum consists of 16 economically important species, which are xylemtapping root hemi-parasites with high valued aromatic heartwood (Anonymous, 1990). Among them the Indian sandalwood, Santalum album L. is a small to medium sized, economically important evergreen tree species. The tree has been synonymous with ancient Indian culture, heritage and has gained importance mainly for its scented heart wood which yields the commercially important East Indian sandalwood oil. Even its sapwood finds utilization in carving and turnery (Parthasarathi and Rai, 1989). It attains maximum Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 85

100 heartwood formation at the age of around 30 to 50 years. It is distributed all over India but more than 90% lies in Karnataka and Tamil Nadu (accounting for 90% of total area) and the rest distributed in other states (Srinivasan et al., 1992). It has also been introduced into other states and has become naturalized in Rajasthan, Orissa, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand. Annual global sandalwood production is estimated to be approximately 5610 tonnes, which has declined markedly over the past years. India contributes 90% of the S. album output of the world. Due to increased demand in internal and external markets and also the decrease in supply, sandalwood prices have skyrocketed. Currently, sandalwood oil is sold in the international market at the rate of Rs.70,000 to 100,000 per kg. India s production during 1930s through 1950s was around 4000 tonnes of heartwood per year which has now decreased to meager 400 tonnes of wood per year due to depletion of sandal in natural forests (Gowda et al., 2008). This bioresource in India, especially its wild populations, is currently threatened mainly because of illicit felling, forest fire and grazing and to certain extent spike disease coupled with heavy domestic and international demand and with inadequate uniform regulation in southern states (Gairola et al., 2008). In the context of unsuccessful conservation of sandal in natural areas, ex-situ conservation strategies assume great relevance, which includes growing sandal in outside forest areas like in agroforestry, farm forestry systems etc. Large-scale plantation programs have been necessitated in different sandal growing states with the relaxation of rule by the Karnataka Forest (Amendment) Act 2001 and the Tamil Nadu Forest (Amendment) Act 2002 which clearly state that, every occupant or the holder of land shall be legally entitled to the sandalwood trees in his land. This is encouraging most of the progressive farmers to take up sandal plantations outside forest areas and large scale plantations are coming up. Nurseries have been established in different states. Sandalwood seedlings and grafted plants often face problems from insect pests and diseases, which take a heavy toll and sometimes the whole stock is wiped out. It is reported that 170 species of insects representing seven orders viz., Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Isoptera, Lepidoptera, Orthoptera and Thysanoptera were found breeding on sandal in nurseries and sandal plantations in varied agri-silvihorticultural modals (Sundararaj, 2011). This paper deals with the insect pest problems of Indian sandal wood under cultivation. Material and Methods Surveys were conducted in nurseries and plantations of Indian sandalwood covering the states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu from 2004 to Insect pest infested sandal plant parts with immature stages and adults were collected. The close-up of natural infestation along with associated insects and symptoms, if any, were photographed with micro-lens. The specimens were preserved for identification and slide mounts for microinsects, were made. The pests, which could not be identified at the institute, were sent to concerned experts and got identified. Based on the identification the insect pest spectrum was documented. Results and Discussion The study revealed the presence of 176 species of insect pests on Indian sandalwood under its cultivation (Table 1). It includes 95 species of sapsuckers, 61 species of defoliators, 7 species of stem borers, 5 species of bark/dead wood feeders, 3 species each of seed feeders and dry wood feeders and a species each of flower feeder and bark/stemborer. The sucking pests comprise 75 species of hemipteran and 20 species of thysanopteran insects. The hemipteran sucking pests include 21 species of Cicadellidae followed by 8 species of Coccidae, 7 species 86 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

101 of Pentatomidae, 6 species each of Margarodidae, Membracidae and Pseudococcidae, 4 species of Aleyrodidae, 3 species of Diaspididae, 2 species each of Alydidae, Coreidae, Delphacidae, Pyrrhocoridae and Scutelleridae and one species each of Cercopidae, Eurybrachidae, Kerridae, and Ortheziidae. Among the hemipteran sucking pests the members of Aleyrodidae, Cicadellidae, Coccidae, Coreidae, Delphacidae, Diaspididae, Eurybrachidae Kerridae, Margarodidae, Membracidae, Ortheziidae. Pentatomidae, Pseudococcidae and Pyrrhocoridae were found highly polyphagous breeding on other host plants. Insects of the orders Coleoptera, Lepidoptera and Orthoptera were found defoliating sandal. There were 16 species of Coleoptera, 28 species of Lepidoptera and 18 species of Orthoptera defoliate sandal. There were 6 species of cerambycid (Coleoptera) stem borers and a species of cossid (Lepidoptera) stem borer and three species of dry wood borers. The bark/dead feeders are mainly termites and Xylocopa latipes Drury and Indarbela quadrinotata Walker. Besides a species of flower feeder was found phytophagous on sandal. Though these pests are not severe in natural forest areas their outbreak is common on sandal grown in areas outside forests. Sundararaj (2011) reported the occurrence of 170 species of insect pests on sandal. The present study revealed the occurrence of six more insect pests on Indian sandalwood. They were three species of sap suckers viz., Coccus viridis (Green), Chrysomphalus sp. and Pulvinaria polygonata Cockerell; two species of defoliators viz., Myllocerus delicatulus Boh. and Peltotrachelus cognatus Marshall and a species of stem borer Derolus volvulus (Fabricius). Among these insect pests, sucking pests particularly scales and mealybugs are deleterious in younger plantations as they affect the normal growth and reproduction of sandal plants (Sundararaj et al., 2008). The new record of pests indicated a continued influx of insect pest on sandal from agricultural and horticultural environments which forms a major threat to conservation and protection of sandal trees. Ananthakrishnan (2007) commented that climate change is expected to bring extension in the host range of many pests and diseases. Besides the change in population structure and growth rate among insect species due to global warming will have profound ecological effect by altering species composition and disrupting food webs. Singh (2010) reported unprecedented rise in drying of many woody tree species due to the invasion of longhorn beetles. The concerns outlined above emphasize the need to develop more integrated insect pest management approaches for sandal insect pests under its cultivation in areas outside forests. Table 1. Pests of Indian sandalwood under its cultivation Sl. No Inset pest species Family Order I Bark feeder/borer 1 Indarbela quardinotata Walker Metarbelidae Lepidoptera II Bark/Dead wood feeders 2 Microcerotermes fletcheri Holmgren & Holmgren Termitidae Isoptera 3 Odontoterms brunneus (Hagens) Termitidae Isoptera 4 O. horni (Wasmann) Termitidae Isoptera 5 O. obesus (Rambur) Termitidae Isoptera 6 O. redemanni (Wasmann) Termitidae Isoptera Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 87

102 III Defoliators 7 Acanthopsyche moorei Heyl. Psychidae Lepidoptera 8 Achaea janata (L.) Noctuidae Lepidoptera 9 Acherontia styx (Westw.) Sphingidae Lepidoptera 10 Acrida turrita (L.) Acrididae Orthoptera 11 Adoretus latirostris Ohaus Scarabaeidae Coleoptera 12 A. nephriticus (Ohaus) Scarabaeidae Coleoptera 13 A. versutus Harold Scarabaeidae Coleoptera 14 Amata passalis (Fabricius) Arctiidae Lepidoptera 15 Amsacta lactinea (Cram.) Arctiidae Lepidoptera 16 Asota sp. Hypsidae Lepidoptera 17 Aspidomorpha miliaris (Fabricius) Chrysomelidae Coleoptera 18 Astycus aurovittatus Heller Curculionidae Coleoptera 19 Cassida circumdata Herbst Chrysomelidae Coleoptera 20 Cataontops sp. Acrididae Orthoptera 21 Ceryx imaon Cramer Syntomidae Lepidoptera 22 Chrotogonus sp. Tettigonidae Orthoptera 23 Clania variegata Snell Psychidae Lepidoptera 24 Crytacanthacris tatarica (L.) Acrididae Orthoptera 25 Dereodus mastos Herbst Curculionidae Coleoptera 26 D. sparsus Boheman Curculionidae Coleoptera 27 D. vigilaus Marshall Curculionidae Coleoptera 28 Diabolocatantops sp. Acrididae Orthoptera 29 Dittopternis vensuta (Walker) Acrididae Orthoptera 30 Duomitus sp. Cossidae Lepidoptera 31 Elimaea securigera (Brunner) Tettigonidae Orthoptera 32 Erebus macrops L. Noctuidae Lepidoptera 33 Eumeta crameri (Westwood) Psychidae Lepidoptera 34 Euproctis sp. Lymantriidae Lepidoptera 35 E. fraterna (Moore) Lymantriidae Lepidoptera 36 Euproctis scintillans (Walker) Lymantriidae Lepidoptera 37 Euthymia kirbyi Finot. Acrididae Orthoptera 38 Gastrimargus africanus (Saussure) Acrididae Orthoptera 39 Glyphodes sp. Pyralidae Lepidoptera 40 Holochlora albida Brunner Tettigonidae Orthoptera 41 H. biloba Stål Tettigonidae Orthoptera 42 H. indica Kirby Tettigonidae Orthoptera 43 Indomias cretaceous (Faust.) Curculionidae Coleoptera 44 Letana inflata Brunner Tettigonidae Orthoptera 45 Mecyna gilvata Fabricius Pyralidae Lepidoptera 46 Mocis frugalis (Fabricius) Noctuidae Lepidoptera 47 Myllocerus delicatulus Boh. * Curculionidae Coleoptera 48 M. dorsatus Fabricius Curculionidae Coleoptera 49 M. laetivirens Marshall Curculionidae Coleoptera 50 M. tranamarinus (Herbst) Curculionidae Coleoptera 51 Orthacris sp. Tettigonidae Orthoptera 52 Oxya sp. Acrididae Orthoptera 53 Parasa lepida Cram. Limacodidae Lepidoptera 88 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

103 54 Peltotrachelus cognatus Marshall * Curculionidae Coleoptera 55 Pericallia dentata Walker Arctiidae Lepidoptera 56 P. ricini Fabricius Arctiidae Lepidoptera 57 Phaneroptera sp. Tettigonidae Orthoptera 58 Platyptilia pusillidactyla (Walker) Pterophoridae Lepidoptera 59 Semiothisa sp. Geometridae Lepidoptera 60 Spathosternum prasiniferum (Walker) Acrididae Orthoptera 61 Speiredonia suffumosa (Guene) Noctuidae Lepidoptera 62 Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) Noctuidae Lepidoptera 63 Sterrhopterix sp. Psychidae Lepidoptera 64 Syntomis passalis Fabricius Syntomidae Lepidoptera 65 Trigonocorypha unicolor (Stoll) Tettigonidae Orthoptera 66 Thyridipteryx sp. Psychidae Lepidoptera 67 Unidentified Pyraustidae Lepidoptera IV Dry wood borers 68 Sinoxylon? indicum Lesne Bostrichidae Coleoptera 69 Xyloborus sp. Scolytidae Coleoptera 70 Xylocopa latipes (Drury) Anthophoridae Hymenoptera V Flower feeder 71 Mylabris pustulata Thun. Meloidae VI Sap suckers 72 Aduncothrips asiaticus (Ramakrishna and Aeolothripidae Thysanoptera Margabandhu) 73 Aleurocanthus martini David Aleyrodidae Hemiptera 74 Aleurodicus dispersus Russell Aleyrodidae Hemiptera 75 Aleurolobus burliarensis Jesudasan &David Aleyrodidae Hemiptera 76 Amritodus atkinsoni (Leth.) Cicadellidae Hemiptera 77 Aonidiella orientalis (Newstead) Diaspididae Hemiptera 78 Batracomorphus sp. Cicadellidae Hemiptera 79 B. brunomaculatus (Evans) Cicadellidae Hemiptera 80 Calodia kirkaldyi Nielson Cicadellidae Hemiptera 81 Cardiococcus bivalvata (Green) Coccidae Hemiptera 82 Ceroplastes actiniformis Green Coccidae Hemiptera 83 C. ceriferus (Fabricius) Coccidae Hemiptera 84 Chrysocoris sp. Scutelleridae Hemiptera 85 Chrysomphalus sp. * Diaspididae Hemiptera 86 Cletomorpha sp. Coreidae Hemiptera 87 Coccus viridis (Green) * Coccidae Hemiptera 88 Cofana spectra Dist. Cicadellidae Hemiptera 89 C. unimaculatus (Sign.) Cicadellidae Hemiptera 90 Crotonothrips davidi Ananthakrishnan Phlaeothripidae Thysanoptera 91 Dialeurodes icfreae Sundararaj & Dubey Aleyrodidae Hemiptera 92 Dinothrips sumatrensis Bagnall Phlaeothripidae Thysanoptera 93 Dolichothrips indicus (Hood) Phlaeothripidae Thysanoptera 94 Dysdercus sp. Pyrrhocoridae Hemiptera 95 D. koenigii (Fabricius) Pyrrhocoridae Hemiptera 96 Elaphrothrips chandana Ramakrishna Idolothripidae Thysanoptera 97 Eocanthoecona furcellata (Wolff.) Pentatomidae Hemiptera Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 89

104 98 Erthesina fullo (Thunberg) Pentatomidae Hemiptera 99 Ethirothrips agasthya (Ramakrishna) Idolothripidae Thysanoptera 100 E. beesoni (Moulton) Idolothripidae Thysanoptera 101 Eurybrachys tomentosa (Fabricius) Eurybrachyidae Hemiptera 102 Exitianus indicus (Dist.) Cicadellidae Hemiptera 103 Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell) Pseudococcidae Hemiptera 104 Fiorinia fioriniae (Targioni-Tozzetti) Diaspididae Hemiptera 105 Halyomorpha picus (Fabricius) Pentatomidae Hemiptera 106 Halys dentatus Fabricius Pentatomidae Hemiptera 107 Haplothrips ceylonicus Schmutz Phlaeothripidae Thysanoptera 108 H. ganglbaueri Schmutz Phlaeothripidae Thysanoptera 109 H. (Trybomiella) ramakrishnae (Karny) Phlaeothripidae Thysanoptera 110 Hecalus albomaculata Dist. Cicadellidae Hemiptera 111 Hemaspidoproctus cinereus (Green) Margarodidae Hemiptera 112 Homoeocerus sp. Coreidae Hemiptera 113 Icerya aegyptiaca (Douglas) Margarodidae Hemiptera 114 I. formicarum Newstead Margarodidae Hemiptera 115 I. purchasi Maskell Margarodidae Hemiptera 116 I. seychellarum (Westw.) Margarodidae Hemiptera 117 Idioscopus clypealis (Leth.) Cicadellidae Hemiptera 118 I. nagpurensis (Pruthi) Cicadellidae Hemiptera 119 Kola paulula (Walker) Cicadellidae Hemiptera 120 Lankacoccus ornatus (Green) Pseudococcidae Hemiptera 121 Ledra mutica Fabricius Cicadellidae Hemiptera 122 Leofa truncata Viraktamath and Viraktmath Cicadellidae Hemiptera 123 Leptocorisa acuta (Thunb) Alydidae Hemiptera 124 Leptocentrus longispinus Dist. Membracidae Hemiptera 125 L. taurus (Fabricius) Membracidae Hemiptera 126 Macropsis nigrolineata Viraktamath Cicadellidae Hemiptera 127 Mecynothrips simplex Bagnall Idolothripidae Thysanoptera 128 Megalurothrips usitatus (Bagnall) Thripidae Thysanoptera 129 Megapulvinaria maxima (Green) Coccidae Hemiptera 130 Mesargus albimaculata Dist. Cicadellidae Hemiptera 131 Me1sothrips manii Ananthakrishnan Phlaeothripidae Thysanoptera 132 Neodartus penthimioides (Dist.) Cicadellidae Hemiptera 133 Neosmerinthothrips fructuum Schmutz Phlaeothripidae Thysanoptera 134 Nephotettix virescens (Dist.) Cicadellidae Hemiptera 135 Nezara viridula (L.) Pentatomidae Hemiptera 136 Nilaparvata lugens (Stall) Delphacidae Hemiptera 137 Nipaecoccus filamentosus (Cockerell) Pseudococcidae Hemiptera 138 N. viridis (Newstead) Pseudococcidae Hemiptera 139 Orthezia insignis (Browne) Ortheziidae Hemiptera 140 Otinotus oneratus Walker Membracidae Hemiptera 141 Oxyrhachis taranda (Fabricius) Membracidae Hemiptera 142 O. rufesens Walker Membracidae Hemiptera 143 Paracritheus trimaculatus (Le& Serr.) Pentatomidae Hemiptera 144 Parasaissetia nigra (Niet.) Coccidae Hemiptera 145 Paratachardina silvestri (Mahdihassan) Kerridae Hemiptera 90 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

105 146 Parayasa elegantula Dist. Membracidae Hemiptera 147 Penthimia compacta Walker Cicadellidae Hemiptera 148 Perissopneumon phyllanthi (Green) Margarodidae Hemiptera 149 Petalocephala sp. Cicadellidae Hemiptera 150 P. nigrilinea (Walker) Cicadellidae Hemiptera 151 Plautia fimbriata (Fabricius) Pentatomidae Hemiptera 152 Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni-Tozzetti) Pseudococcidae Hemiptera 153 Pulvinaria polygonata Cockerell. * Coccidae Hemiptera 154 Ptelys sp. Cercopidae Hemiptera 155 Ramakrishnaiella nirmalapaksha Ramakrishna Phlaeothripidae Thysanoptera 156 Rastrococcus iceryoides (Green) Pseudococcidae Hemiptera 157 Recilia dorsalis (Motsch.) Cicadellidae Hemiptera 158 Riptortus sp. Alydidae Hemiptera 159 Saissetia coffeae (Walker) Coccidae Hemiptera 160 Scutellera sp. Scutelleridae Hemiptera 161 Sogatella furcifera (Horvath) Delphacidae Hemiptera 162 Trybomiella ramakrishnae Karny Phlaeothripidae Thysanoptera 163 Taeniothrips balsaminae Priesner Thripidae Thysanoptera 164 Thrips florum Schmutz Thripidae Thysanoptera 165 Thrips palmi Karny Thripidae Thysanoptera 166 Thrips subnudula (Karny) Thripidae Thysanoptera VII Seed feeders 167 Callosobruchus sp. Bruchidae Coleoptera 168 Pachymerus sp. Bruchidae Coleoptera 169 Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) Tenebrionidae Coleoptera VIII Stem borers 170 Aristobia octofasciculata Aurivillius Cerambycidae Coleoptera 171 Aeolesthes holosericea (Fabricius) Cerambycidae Coleoptera 172 Blepephaeus modicus Gahan Cerambycidae Coleoptera 173 Capnolymma cingalensis Gahan Cerambycidae Coleoptera 174 Derolus volvulus (Fabricius) * Cerambycidae Coleoptera 175 Purpuricenus sanguinolentus Oliv. Cerambycidae Coleoptera 176 Zeuzera coffeae Nietn. Cossidae Lepidoptera * indicates new record on Indian sandalwood References ANANTHAKRISHNAN, T.N Insects and Climate. Entomology Academy of India Base Paper No. 1, 27 pp. ANONYMOUS USDA Forest Service, General Technical Report. Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Berkeley, 122 pp. GAIROLA, S., RAVIKUMAR, G AND AGGARWAL P Status of production and marketing of sandalwood (Santalum album L.). In GAIROLA, S., RATHORE, T.S., JOSHI, G., ARUN KUMAR, A.N. and AGGARWAL, P. (eds.) Proceedings of the National seminar on Conservation, Improvement, Cultivation and Management of Sandal (Santalum album L.). Brilliant Printers, Bangalore, p.1-8. GOWDA, S.V. V, PATIL, K.B. AND ANILKUMAR, B.H Natural sandalwood industrypresent scenario and future prospects. In GAIROLA, S., RATHORE, T.S., JOSHI, G., ARUN KUMAR, Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 91

106 A.N. AND AGGARWAL, P. (eds.) Proceedings of the National seminar on Conservation, Improvement, Cultivation and Management of Sandal (Santalum album L.). Brilliant Printers, Bangalore, p PARTHASARATHI, K. AND RAI, S.N Physiology, chemistry and utilization of sandal (Santalum album Linn). My forest, 25(2), p SINGH, M.P Signals of climate change: the growing menace of cerambycids in the arid regions. In RAMAKRISHNA, CHANDRA, K., BOHRA, P., SHARMA, G and SEWAK, R. (eds.) Abstracts of the National Seminar on Impact of climate change on biodiversity and challenges in Thar desert, Desert Regional Centre, Zoological Survey of India, p SRINIVASAN, V.V., SIVARAMAKRISHNAN, V.R., RANGASWAMY, C.R., ANANTHAPADMANABHA, H.S. AND SHANKARANARAYANA, K.H Sandal (Santalum album Linn). Institute of Wood Science and Technology, Bangalore (ICFRE),. 233 pp. SUNDARARAJ, R Biological control of insect pests of Indian sandalwood, Santalum album L., an imperative in the present scenario. In DUNSTON P. AMBROSE (ed), Insect Pest Management, A Current Scenario, Director, Entomology Research Unit, St. Xavier's College, Palayamkottai Tamil Nadu India, p SUNDARARAJ, R., KARIBASAVARAJ, L.R., SHARMA G. AND MUTHUKRISHNAN, R Hemipteran fauna (Insecta) infesting sandal Santalum album Linn. in southern India. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 105(2), p Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

107 Streblote lipara (LEPIDOPTERA: LASIOCAMPIDAE) OUTBREAK IN SEVERAL MANGROVE REHABILITATION SITES IN PENINSULAR MALAYSIA Ong S.P. 1), Che Salmah M.R. 2), Khairun Y. 2&3), and Kirton L.G. 1) 1) Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Kepong, Selangor, Malaysia, 2) School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Penang, Malaysia, 3) Centre for Marine and Coastal Studies (CEMACS), Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia Corresponding author : Abstract The devastating 2004 tsunami caused a high rate of casualties and property destruction in the Indian Ocean coastline where there were no coastal forests. This highlighted the importance of coastal forests as a natural protection for the coastline. Malaysia has initiated large scale mangrove rehabilitation throughout the country. Mangrove replanting is a challenging task, as the survival of the seedlings is affected by various factors including attack by various insect pests. The outbreak of the snout moth, Streblote lipara, was observed on several rehabilitation sites in the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. The larvae had caused severe defoliation on the planted Rhizophora apiculata and R. mucronata seedlings. Percentage of seedlings infested with S. lipara was 80% 90% in Perak, 40% in Penang and 3% 10% in Selangor. The low population of S. lipara in the replanted site in Selangor was due to parasitism by scelionid wasps and tachinid flies. Damage on mangrove seedlings by S. lipara is a new record in peninsular Malaysia. The moth has a life cycle of up to 72 days from egg to adult. Keywords: Streblote lipara, outbreak, mangrove rehabilitation, parasitism, life cycle Introduction Coastal forests such as mangrove and beach forests play important roles in mitigating the impact of natural disasters such as storms, cyclones and tsunamis besides providing a livelihood for fishermen. Plantations of pine in Japan and casuarinas in India, Sri Lanka and Thailand have proved effective against tsunami (Forbes & Broadhead, 2007). However, the coastlines of many Asian countries are heavily populated and most have been converted to aquaculture ponds, therefore they are exposed to strong winds and waves. Severe destruction and loss of life due to the strong force of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami were evident in areas devoid of coastal forests. After the tsunami episode, Malaysian government has initiated large scale mangrove rehabilitation throughout the country. Some of the species commonly used for replanting are Avicennia alba, Rhizophora mucronata and R. apiculata. Successful establishment of mangrove seedlings often depends on various factors such as soil characteristics, tidal inundation and predation by animals. Insects are known as major seed eaters (Robertson et al., 1990) and important consumer in the tropical rainforests (Coley & Barone, 1996). However herbivorous insects in the mangrove forests have often been overlooked (Macnae, 1968; Murphy, 1990; Tong et al., 2006) though they are important in ecosystem functioning (Anderson & Lee, 1995; Cannicci et al., 2008). High levels of herbivory during outbreak period may alter community structure and affect the survival of mangrove seedlings (Anderson & Lee, 1995; Robertson et al., 1990). Pest outbreaks are usually associated with changes in weather patterns, quality of the host plants and regulation of natural enemies. Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 93

108 In this paper, we reported on the incidence of pest outbreak on replanted mangrove seedlings and its biology in Peninsular Malaysia. Outbreak of snout moth, Streblote lipara was observed at mangrove replanting sites in Penang and Perak in 2009 and Selangor in This species was discovered feeding on the needles of Casuarina equisetifolia in Selangor in However, no mention was made about the severity of defoliation. The genus Streblote is distributed in Africa but has a number of species in Middle East, India and Southeast Asia (Holloway, 1987). Methodology Study site A half day site survey was conducted for each mangrove replanting site infested with S. lipara following reports from Forestry Department Peninsular Malaysia (FDPM) and Penang Inshore Fishermen Welfare Association (PIFWA). All the sites were located on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia namely Byram Forest Reserve, Penang (N E ), Lekir, Perak (N E ) and Kuala Bernam Forest Reserve, Selangor (N E ) (Figure 1). The planted seedlings were between 1 to 2 years old. The landward side of Byram Forest Reserve has been converted into shrimp ponds and landfill site and what is left of the mangrove forest is now retained as buffer zones. Rhizophora apiculata and R. mucronata seedlings were planted in 2007 at the seafront and a small road extending all the way out into the seafront was built to protect the seedlings. In Lekir and Kuala Bernam Forest Reserve, R. apiculata and R. mucronata seedlings were planted at the landward side of the mangrove forests in 2008 and 2007 respectively. Figure 1. Mangrove rehabilitation sites in Peninsular Malaysia infested with Streblote lipara Levels of herbivore damage Levels of herbivore damage in each site were estimated using five damage classes (Table 1). A visual assessment on the defoliation level at each study site was conducted on 100 seedlings. The defoliation level for each leaf was determined by dividing the leaf into four parts. For example, if defoliation was not more than one quarter of the whole leaf, then it will 94 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

109 be categorised under low defoliation level. The defoliation levels of each leaf were averaged to estimate the defoliation level for the whole seedling. Table 1. Five classes of leaf defoliation level for a quick assessment of herbivory damage Leaf defoliation level Percentage of defoliated area None 0 Low 1-25% Moderate 26-50% High 51-75% Severe % Biology of Streblote lipara Eggs of S. lipara were collected and reared in the laboratory under room temperature at 25 C 28 C and 60% 80% relative humidity. After the eggs hatched, larvae were reared on fresh leaves of the host plant and were replaced every two days until they pupated. Duration of each stage was recorded. Results and Discussion Biology of Streblote lipara The eggs of S. lipara are laid on the upper and underside of leaves in masses of up to 60 eggs in the field. The eggs measure 2 mm in length and are white in colour with mottled brown markings. In the laboratory they hatched within 9 to 14 days. Lasiocampids are social caterpillars and they often forage together as a strategy to avoid predation. Larvae have greyish body with distinct brown diamond-shaped markings on each abdominal segment. Their bodies are covered with spiny hairs and short setae. When they are provoked, they will raise their black setae on their thorax, which can embed into the skin when touched (Holloway, 1987). After each moult, the larvae consumed their shed skins and sometimes their head capsules. Mature larvae were 60 mm in length. Larval stages took days before pupation in the laboratory. Pupae measured 25 mm in length and were enclosed in pale yellow cocoons. Adults took days to emerge from pupation. A complete life cycle of this species took days. Adult moths were brown in colour and have a wingspan of mm. Females were usually larger and their wings were more rounded compared to the males. An adult female could lay 241 eggs over the span of 5 days in the laboratory. The climate in Peninsular Malaysia is rather uniform throughout the year with temperature ranging from 23 C 34 C and 78% 98% relative humidity. This range of temperature and humidity provides an optimum environment for the growth and development of S. lipara and many other pests in the tropics. Studies by Calvo & Molina (2005) showed that Streblote panda had short development time when reared at 28 C and 31 C. Levels of herbivore damage About 80% 90% of Rhizophora seedlings in Lekir were infested with S. lipara and had varying degrees of leaf damage (Figure 2). Some of the seedlings were missing from the replanting plots and could have drifted away during tidal inundation. In Byram Forest Reserve, 40% of the seedlings were attacked by S. lipara, and half of the seedlings were severely defoliated (Figure 3). In the Kuala Bernam Forest Reserve, only 3% 10% of the seedlings were infested by S. lipara (Figure 4). All the samples of S. lipara from the Kuala Bernam Forest Reserve (with low pest incidence) were parasitized; scelionid wasps and tachinid flies emerged from the parasitised eggs and Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 95

110 pupae respectively when reared in the laboratory. A braconid and an unidentified wasp were also obtained from the pupae of S. lipara in Lekir. No parasitoid was recorded from Byram Forest Reserve where significant pest damage was observed. These results show that parasitoids of S. lipara are present in the area but indicate that the parasitoid population may not always be sufficient to suppress the pest. No. of seedlings Site 1 Defoliation level Figure 2. Defoliation levels for R. apiculata and R.mucronata seedlings in Lekir 80 No. of seedlings None Low Moderate High Severe Defoliation level Figure 3. Defoliation levels for R. apiculata and R.mucronata seedlings in Byram Forest Reserve No. of seedlings Defoliation level Figure 4. Defoliation levels for R. apiculata and R. mucronata seedlings in Kuala Bernam Forest Reserve Seedlings of Rhizophora apiculata and R. mucronata seedlings in Lekir and Kuala Bernam Forest Reserve were stunted and unhealthy at the time of survey. Man-made drainage channels were created for entry of seawater into these sites which were planted at the landward side of the mangrove forests; however the sites were only fully inundated during high spring tide. Inundation at least twice daily is vital for these seedlings not to suffer Site 1 96 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

111 prolonged water stress. The high rate of seedling mortalities at these sites could be attributed to the direct effects of water-stress especially at Kuala Bernam Forest Reserve or its indirect effects such as the increased susceptibility of droughted seedlings to pests (Coley 1998). This association between pest damage and water stress is further supported by the fact that the outbreak of S. lipara in the mangrove replanting plots was first noted during the dry season. The nutritional quality of leaves such as their carbon/nitrogen ratio, tannin content (Awmack & Leather, 2002) and leaf toughness (Coley, 1983) influence the performance of herbivores. Water stress not only reduces tree vigour but may increase the levels of leaf nitrogen, thus making plants more susceptible to pests such as S. lipara (Speight & Wylie, 2001; Mattson & Haack, 1987). This theory does not always stand up as healthy seedlings (such as in the Byram Forest Reserve) were also attacked by S. lipara. However seedlings were only 1-2 years old. Higher nitrogen level in young leaves is highly preferred by herbivores compared to mature leaves (Bernays & Chapman, 1994; Coley & Barone, 1996). This preference was also reported in the mangroves of Hong Kong where young leaves of Kandelia obovata with a higher nitrogen content compared to older leaves had a higher level of attack by herbivorous insects (Tong et al., 2006). Conclusion Within the Malaysian climate, S. lipara took 2 2 ½ months to complete its life cycle on mangrove species. Long term monitoring of S. lipara will be useful to predict population fluctuations in S. lipara and to understand the underlying ecological and environmental factors triggering severe outbreaks. Increasingly frequent and prolonged periods of drought under a changing climate, especially during El Nino events, will most likely increase herbivore populations but reduce the parasitoid populations. The presence of natural enemies is important to keep pest populations in check. Acknowledgements We would like to thank the State Forestry Department of Perak, Selangor and Penang for cooperation and assistance in the field. Thanks also to Dr. Mohd Farid Ahmad and Patahayah Mansor for suggestions and guidance in the field. This study was funded by Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (NRE) and Forestry Department Peninsular Malaysia (FDPM). References ANDERSON, C. & LEE, S.Y Defoliation of the mangrove Avicennia marina in Hong Kong: cause and consequences. Biotropica 27(2): AWMACK, C.S. & LEATHER, S.R Host plant quality and fecundity in herbivorous insects. Annual Review of Entomology 47: BERNAYS, E.A. & CHAPMAN, R.F Host-plant selection by phytophagous insects. Chapman and Hall, United States of America. 312 pp. CALVO, D. & MOLINA, J.M Developmental rates of the lappet moth Strblote panda Hubner (1820) (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) at constant temperatures. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research 3 (3): CANNICCI, S., BURROWS, D. FRATINI, S., SMITH III, T.J., OFFENBERG, J. & DAHDOUH-GUEBAS, F Faunal impact on vegetation structure and ecosystem function in mangrove forests: A review. Aquatic Botany 89: Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 97

112 COLEY, P.D Herbivory and defensive characteristics of tree species in a lowland tropical forest. Ecological Monographs 53: COLEY, P.D Possible effects of climate change on plant/herbivore interactions in moist tropical forests. Climatic Change 39 (2 3): COLEY, P.D. & BARONE, J.A Herbivory and plant defences in tropical rainforests. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 27: FORBES, K. & BROADHEAD, J The role of coastal forests in the mitigation of tsunami impacts. Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, Bangkok. 30 pp. HOLLOWAY, J.D The moths of Borneo: Superfamily Bombycoidea: families Lasiocampidae, Euterotidae, Bombycidae, Brahmaeidae, Saturniidae, Sphingidae. Kuala Lumpur: Southdene. 199 pp. MACNAE, W A general account of fauna and flora of mangrove swamps and forests in Indo-West-Pacific region. Advances in Marine Biology 6: MATTSON, W.J. & HAACK, R.A The role of drought stress in provoking outbreaks of phytophagous insects. Pp in Barbosa P. & Schultz, J.C. (Eds.) Insect outbreaks. Academic Press Inc., United Kingdom. 578 pp. MURPHY, D.H The natural history of insect herbivory on mangrove trees in and near Singapore. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 38(2): ROBERTSON, A.I., GIDDINS, R. & SMITH, T.J Seed predation by insects in tropical mangrove forests: extent and effects on seed viability and the growth of seedlings. Oecologia 83: SPEIGHT, M.R. & WYLIE, F.R Insect pests in tropical forestry. CABI publishing, United Kingdom. 307 pp. TONG, Y.F., LEE, S.Y. & MORTON, B The herbivore assemblage, herbivory and leaf chemistry of the mangrove Kandelia obovata in two contrasting forests in Hong Kong. Wetlands Ecology and Management 14: Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

113 AN OUTBREAK OF BAGWORMS ON Falcataria molluccana: A CASE STUDY IN CENTRAL JAVA Neo Endra Lelana & Illa Anggraeni Centre for Forest Productivity Improvement Research and Development, Jl. Gunung Batu No. 5 Bogor 16610, Indonesia Corresponding author : Abstract Falcataria molluccana (Miq) Barbeny and JW Grimes (Sengon) is one of the most dominant plants in community forests, especially on Java Island, Indonesia, providing wood for both existing industries and new wood processing industries. In recent years serious outbreaks of bagworms have been reported in sengon plantations. The identities of the causal agents were, however, not known since previously outbreaks were low and they were not considered to be of economic importance. he increasing number of outbreaks, however suggest an increasing importance for these insect. This study aimed to identify the bagworm species attacking sengon and to determine the levels of bagworm infestation in the Province of Central Java. Surveys were conducted using a purposive random sampling method in two districts. Results showed there were three species of bagworm causing outbreaks, i.e. Pteroma sp., Cryptothelea sp. and Amatissa sp., with Pteroma sp. being the most dominant species. The level of infestation of bagworm varied, from low to heavy. Heavy infestation mainly occured in the area with an altitude below 500 m above sea level (asl). Keywords: bagworm, province of Central Java, Falcataria moluccana Introduction Over the last decade, community forests in Indonesia has grown rapidly and currently it covers about 3.5 million hectares (ha) with 2.7 million ha located on Java Island. Community forests are important suppliers of wood for the wood industry, creates jobs and increases foreign exchange through exports. The development of community forests is predicted to increase significantly in the future due to millions of hectares of suitable land that has not yet been utilized. One of the most dominant species planted in community forest areas is Falcataria moluccana (Miquel) Barneby & Grimes, locally known as sengon. This tree is exceptionally fast growing, native to the eastern islands of the Indonesian archipelago and New Guinea (Nair and Sumardi, 2000). Sengon currently dominates the community forests in Indonesia and is already cultivated in 13 provinces with the largest area occurring on the Island of Java. According to the Ministry of Forestry and Central Bureau of Statistics (2004), sengon plantations on Java comprises 83.69% of the total plantation areas of sengon in Indonesia with a total area of more than 1.2 million hectares. Sengon plantation areas have steadily increased over recent years and currently successfully supplies the wood for the existing industry or new wood processing industry. Wood from sengon plantations can be utilized for various purposes, such as building materials, particle board, raw material for pulp, and container. Bagworms (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) are important insect pests that defoliates trees. The bagworm family includes approximately 1000 species, all of which complete larval development within a self-enclosing bag (Rhainds et al., 2009). Bagworms have many host Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 99

114 plants, including F. mollucanna, Acacia mangium, A. auriculiformis, Leucaena leucochepala, Tamarindus indicus, Shorea spp, and Rhizophora sp. (Suharti et al., 2000). These pests are typically sporadic pests, which usually occurs repeatedly in endemic patches. Repeated heavy infestation may result in tree dieback. Previously bagworm has not been considered an important pest of sengon due to low infestation levels. In recent years, however, the frequency of bagworm attack has increased on sengon and there has been an increase in their impact. The outbreaks of bagworms, especially in sengon and acacias, have been recorded in several places, including Lampung, South Sumatera, West Java and Banten (Zulfiah, 1998; Suharti et al., 2000; Sumardi & Nair 2000). In the last few years, bagworms have also become a problem in sengon plantations in the Province of Cetral Java. Since 2008, many reports have been received from the Local Office of Forestry of outbreaks of these insects. For that reason, this preliminary study to identify the bagworm species and to determine how sengon farmers have been managing the problem was considered important. Materials and Methods The survey was conducted by using purposive random sampling in two districts, the Wonosobo District and the Batang District. In Wonosobo district, the survey was conducted in three sub-districts, namely Wadaslintang, Kaliwiro and Kepil Sub-district, whereas in Batang surveys were conducted in two sub-districts, namely Batang and Warungasem Subdistrict. Geographically, Wonosobo District is located in the centre of the Province of Central Java (7 o S and 190 o o E). This district is dominated by mountainous areas. Meanwhile, Batang District is located along the north coast of Central Java (6 o 51' 46" - 7 o 11' 47" S and 109 o 40'19" o 03'06"E). Batang District is dominated by hilly and mountainous areas. The level of bagworm infestation was determined based on the level of sengon crown damage. It was ranked from healthy to very heavy, spanning five levels (Table 1). Table 1. Classification level of crop damage due to bagworm infestation Level of infestation Damage on crown trees Healthy Damage 5% Low Damage between 5% < x 25% Moderate Damage between 25% < x 50% Heavy Damage between 50% < x 75% Very heavy Damage between 75% < x 100% Identification of bagworms collected from sengon plantations were carried out at the Laboratory of Pest and Disease, Centre for Forest Productivity Improvement Research and Development. To obtain information of how sengon farmers manage bagworms, interviews were conducted with farmers during the surveys. Results and Discussion Sengon plantations at all surveyed locations were infested with bagworms, with the level of infestation varying from low to very heavy (Table 2). In Batang District, bagworm infestations in Batang and Warungasem Sub-District respectively covered 189 and 28 ha. 100 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

115 Meanwhile in Wonosobo District, bagworm infestation in Wadaslintang, Kaliwiro and Kepil Sub-district respectively reached 37, 21 and 30 ha. Table 2. Bagworm infestation per surveyed area. Altitude (m District Sub-district asl) Batang Wonosobo Area Infestation Level Infestation Batang ± ha moderate-heavy Warungasem ± ha moderate-heavy Wadaslintang ± ha moderate-heavy Kaliwiro ± ha moderate-very heavy Kepil ± ha low-heavy Generally, the level of infestation ranged from moderate to heavy. The lowest bagworm pest infestation was found in Kepil Sub-district, while the highest was found in Kaliwiro district. High levels of infestation resulted in tree defoliation (Figure 1). All of surveyed locations were at an altitude below 500 m asl. This was in contrast to the perception of some people who think the attacks frequently occur in areas with an altitude above 500 m asl. a b Figure 1. Damage of sengon tree due to bagworm attack: a. moderate infestation in Batang Sub-District; b. very heavy infestation in Kaliwiro Sub-District Bagworm is a general term for the larvae of certain moth species. These larvae construct a case around themselves to protect them from predators. Three types of bagworm were found to attack sengon trees in Central Java. These were Pteroma sp., Amatissa sp., and Cryptothelea sp. (Figure 2). Pteroma sp. has a small conical case, no more than 6 mm high and cover the mosaic of leaf particles. This species has a distribution in Java and Sumatera. When pupation approaches, the cases are modified into an ellipsoidal form and hang on threads from the under sides of branches. Amatissa sp., is bigger than Pteroma sp. and has long, narrow cases (about 36 mm high). In Java, besides attacking sengon, this species has also been reported to attack Pinus merkusii, Rhizophora sp. and Camellia sinensis (Refs). The third bagworm species identified, Cryptothelea sp., has a wide distribution throughout Indonesia and a wide host range. This species cases of more than 30 mm long which are covered with pieces of longitudinally placed twigs. Cryptothelea sp not only attack the leaves but also attack bark if there is no more leaves (Kalshoven, 1981). Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 101

116 a b c Figure 2. The type of bagworm species: a. Pteroma sp; b. Amatissa sp; c. Cryptothelea sp. Bagworm outbreaks have a correlation with the dry season. Suharti et al. (2000), noted that when shrubs become dry because of drought, the bagworms move to other green plants, often plantation trees, to survive. This was also supported by information gained from interviews with sengon farmers that bagworms began to attack trees when there was no rain. If bagworm attack occurred at times when there was no rain for a long period, it could cause plant death. Interviews of sengon growing farmers indicated that although most knew that damage to their trees are caused by bagworms, most did not have a solution to the problem (Table 3). Based on interviews, only a few farmers have carried out bagworm control programmes. Some farmers knew about the use of chemical application against bagworms, but they did not do anything because of economical factors. Most hoped for rain to reduce bagworm infestation and favour plant growth. In Warungasem, some farmers have conducted bagworm pest control using stem injection methods regularly. Pest control was done after periods of no rain to prevent bagworm attacks. The types of insecticides used included those with e dimethoate, carbofuran and lambda sihalotrin active ingredients. Table 3. Sengon farmer perception about bagworm attack and control methods applied by them District Sub-district Knowing Control bagworms method Pesticide used Batang Batang Warungasem Lambda sihalotrin Wadaslintang Wonosobo Kaliwiro Dimethoate, carbofuran, lambda sihalotrin Kepil Notes: level of perception: + = fair, ++ = good, +++ = very good Conclusions Sengon plantations at all surveyed locations were infested with bagworms. Infestation levels ranged from low to very heavy. In Batang District, bagworm infestations in Batang and Warungasem Sub-District respectively reached 189 and 28 ha. Meanwhile in Wonosobo District, bagworms infestation in Wadaslintang, Kaliwiro, and Kepil Sub-District respectively reached 37, 21 and 30 ha. The lowest bagworm pest infestation was found in Kepil Subdistrict, while the highest was found in Kaliwiro Sub-district. Although most sengon farmers knew that sengon damage was caused by bagworms, but most of them did nohing to control the problem. 102 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

117 References KALSHOVEN, L.G.E Pests of Crops in Indonesia. Revised by P.A van der Laan. Ichtiar Baru-Van Hoeve. Jakarta. MINISTRY OF FORESTRY AND CENTRAL BUREAU OF STATISTICS Potency of Community Forest in Indonesia Jakarta NAIR, K.S.S. AND SUMARDI Insects pests and diseases of major plantation species. In Nair, K.S.S (ed). Insect Pests and Diseases in Indonesian Forests: an assessment of the major threats, research Efforts and literature. CIFOR, Bogor, Indonesia. RHAINDS, M., D.R. DAVIS, AND P.W PRICE Bionomics of bagworms (Lepidoptera: Psychidae). Annu. Rev. Entomol. 54: SUHARTI, M., I.R SITEPU, W. DARWIATI AND I. ANGGRAENI Effication study of several biological, floral and chemical control afents to bagworms pest. Buletin Penelitian Hutan 624: Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 103

118 SURVIVAL MECHANISM OF THE TEAK DEFOLIATOR, Hyblaea puera DURING THE DRY SEASON IN EAST JAVA, INDONESIA ENGGAR APRIYANTO Forestry Department, Bengkulu University Corresponding author: Abstract Global warming is beginning to influence the distribution and behaviour of many organisms. Insects have a marked capacity to adapt to changing climatic conditions. This study investigated the survival mechanisms of the teak defoliator in the dry season. This research was conducted from 2005 to 2008 in the teak plantations of East Java, Indonesia. Surveys were conducted in teak stands with trees with new flushes. The teak defoliator survives during the dry season by maintaining small patches of low level populations and by short range migration. The distances observed between one infestation and another ranged between 44 to 3608 m. The pupal stage was not been found during the surveys. Eggs were laid singly on near veins on young soft leaves close to the soil surface thus providing some protection from high temperatures and dehydration. Keywords: teak defoliator, infestation, dry season, population dynamics, diapause Introduction Plantations of teak (Tectona grandis) were first established in Java, Indonesia around the 1880s (Cordes 1881). Mixed plantations of teak with other tree species are generally less susceptible than pure teak plantations to soil erosion and pest and disease risks. Pure teak plantations are susceptible to defoliating pests, particularly when understorey growth is suppressed and site conditions are suboptimal. Hyblaea puera Cramer (Lepidoptera: Hyblaeidae) commonly known as the teak defoliator, is a moth native to southeast Asia. There are five larval instars. The first and second instars mainly feed on the leaf surface. Starting with the third instar, the larva cuts out a leaf flap, usually at the edge of the leaf, folds it over, fastens it with silk, and feeds from within. The entire leaf, excluding the major veins of tender leaves, is eaten, but more veins are left in older leaves. Under the optimal conditions, the larval period lasts days and the entire life cycle approximately 3 weeks. Outbreaks of this insect pest can lead to near total defoliation (Apriyanto, 2010). The teak defoliator is present the year round in teak plantations, but in varying population densities. Teak in Java is semi- deciduous and, during the period of natural defoliation in the dry season, populations of the teak defoliator are low and difficult to observe compared to the wet season (Sulthoni, 1970 and 1991). The wet season in Java usually falls between October and April, and the dry season falls between May and September. This study investigated the survival mechanisms of the teak defoliator during the dry season. 104 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

119 Materials and Methods The study was conducted in a teak plantation in the forest of Walikukun, Ngawi ( BH Walikukun, KPH Ngawi ). Teak trees were planted at a spacing of 2.5 m x 3 m. The research was conducted during August and September 2005, April to May 2006, July to October 2007, and May to October Teak defoliators prefer younger leaves so the study was carried out in one to two year old young teak stands in flush. The population density of teak defoliator is very low in the dry season and therefore sampling had to be purposive. Two plots were established when an insect infestation was detected. A larger survey plot consisted of 256 to 300 trees, and within this 16 trees were selected for sampling. Four flushes per tree, each with 2-3 pairs of young leaves, were very carefully selected and removed with pruning equipment to count the number and type of larvae. Low numbers of larvae acquired from randomly selected foliage samples may introduce a sampling error that is too great to provide accurate data to study population dynamics (Raimondo et al., 2004). Results and Discussion Low level infestations of teak defoliator (Figure 1) occurred spatially in small patches within the teak plantations, feeding on tender leaves of new flushes. In August 2007 the distance between patches ranged from approximately 112 to 685 m, in August 2008 from 95 to 3608 m, in September 2007 from 346 m to 3000 m, and in October 2007 from 44 m to 1615 m. The adult moth of teak defoliator can migrate about 5 20 km (Vaishampayan & Bahadur, 1983 cited in Baksha & Crawley, 1998). Shorter distances in the dry season in Java suggest short migration or even non-migratory behaviour. Higher temperatures and lower rainfall experienced in the dry season increases fire risk. Teak is fire resistant and fire stimulates new shoot on stumps and in standing teak trees (Heddy, 1986; Anonymous, 1979). In October 2007 fire in teak resulted in new shoots and heavier infestations of the teak defoliator. In the ensuing wet season (October up to February 2008) the teak defoliator was widespread and populations high. Moving into the dry season these populations decreased and the teak defoliator moved to new flushes on young teak or stumps. The maintenance of low populations of teak defoliator indicates that these insects are well adapted to teak forest ecosystems during the dry season in Java, surviving with a limited food supply of tender leaves. Single eggs were observed in the dry season near veins on young soft leaves close to the soil surface. Teak defoliators deposit approximately 700 eggs on the lower surface of young leaves (Apriyanto, 2010), but lay eggs singly different leaves thus greatly increasing the survival chances of eggs and larvae. Laying eggs (usually on the underside) of leaves low in the canopy protects from both sunlight and larval parasites. Temperatures in the teak stands reach more than 40 C in the dry season and could significant stress to the pest (Huges et al. 1984). All five stages of larvae were observed at the same time during a generation (Figure 2) supporting reports that the teak defoliator does have a diapause stage (Nair et al., 1985; Baksha & Crawley, 1998). No pupae were observed. Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 105

120 A. First instar Second instar Third instar Proportion of population (%) Fourth instar Fifth instar Population of larva Density (larvae/shoot) Date Proportion of population (%) B First instar Second instar Third instar Fourth instar Fifth instar Population density Density (larvae/shoot) Date Figure 1. The larval population structure of the teak defoliator (Hyblaea puera) observed in teak forest from July October 2007 (A) and May August 2008 (B) Percentage of larval stage (%) First instar Third instar Fifth instar Figure 2. The laval population structure of the teak defoliator (Hyblaea puera) observed in teak forest from July to October 2007 Date Second instar Fourth instar 106 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

121 Conclusion Infestations in the dry season are distributed in discrete patches. These populations survive on a small but continuous supply of tender leaves prevalent due to phenological variation of teak and new flushes stimulated by fire. Until the next flushing event or season the population of teak defoliator in the dry season remains small, with short migratory behaviour but active. When general flushing of teak occurs in the wet season the population starts building up generation by generation. References APRIYANTO, E Dinamika Populasi ulat jati Hyblaea puera Cramer di Hutan Jati KPH Ngawi (thesis S3). Forestry Department, Gadjah mada University ANONYOMOUS, Eucalypts for planting. FAO. Roma. Forestry Series No.11: 678 pp.cordes, J.W.H Hutan jati di Jawa dengan alam, penyebaran, sejarah dan eksploitasinya; Terjemahan oleh Yayasan Manggala Sylva Lestari. Biro Jasa Konsultan Perencanaan Hutan. Malang. 403 pp. (Not Published). BASKHA, M.W. & CRAWLEY, M.J Population dynamics of teak defoliator, Hyblaea puera Cramer (Lepidoptera: Hyblaeidae) in teak plantations of Bangladesh. J. of App. Entomol. 122(2/3): HAQUE, M.A., Site, Technology and Productivity of Teak Plantations in Bangladesh. pp FORSPA Publication No.24/2000, Teak Publication No. 3, Bangkok, Thailand HEDDY, S Hormon tumbuhan. CV. Rajawali, Jakarta. 98p. MARSONO, D Keharusan Konservasi Dalam Pengelolaan Hutan.Dipresentasikan dalam seminar rehabilitasi dan keras menuju pengelolaan hutan masa depan, Yogyakarta 2-3 Sepetember Fakultas Kehutanan Yogyakarta. Fakultas Kehutanan Yogyakarta. MARSONO, D Keharusan basis ekosistem dalam pengelolaan hutan dan lahan. Pidato dies natalis lustrum IX Fakultas Kehutanan, Universitas Gadjah Mada. Fakultas kehutanan, UGM. Yokyakarta. 19p. SULTHONI, A Diktat ilmuhama/penyakithutan. Didalam Cakrawala Perlindungan Hutan. Kumpulan tulisan sepanjang karir. Fakultas Kehutanan Universitas Gadjah Mada. Yogyakarta SULTHONI, A Pengendalian hama dan penyakit hutan secara terpadu. Proseding seminar nasional pengendalian hama-penyakit HTI secara terpadu, Fak. Kehutanan IPB Dalam:Cakrawala Perlindungan Hutan. Kumpulan Tulisan sepanjang karir. Fakultas Kehutanan Universitas Gadjah Mada. Yogyakarta RAIMONDO, S., STRAZANAC, J. S., & BUTLER, L Comparison of sampling techniques used in studying lepidoptera population dynamics. Environ. Entomol. 33(2): Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 107

122 AN INSECT AND A FUNGUS IMPENDING INVASION THREAT TO INDIA K.V. Sankaran and T.A. Suresh Kerala Forest Research Institute, Peechi , Kerala, India Corresponding author: Abstract This paper reports two potential invasive alien species threats to the Indian subcontinent, viz., Brontispa longissima- the coconut leaf beetle and Puccinia psidii - the eucalypt rust fungus. The coconut leaf beetle, a native of Indonesia and Papua New Guinea, is one of the most damaging pests of coconut and 20 other palm species-coconut being the most favored host. Larvae of the beetle chew on large areas of the surface of leaflets still in the throat of the palm (the spear leaf) which causes death of underlying tissues. Severe attacks destroy unopened leaves, affect the growth of the palm and reduce its productivity. In most cases, all the central leaves of the affected palms appear brown and fruit shedding occurs in such palms. Damage caused to millions of palms and substantial yield loss has been reported from countries infested by the beetle. A study commissioned by the FAO showed that, if left uncontrolled, the damage due to coconut leaf beetle could be the tune of US$ 1 billion in Vietnam alone. Coconut leaf beetle is now distributed in more than 11 countries in the Asia-Pacific region. India, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh, the major coconut growers, are at high risk since neighboring countries such as Maldives and Myanmar are already infested. The beetle spreads mostly through the movement of infested plant material. Its natural spread is very slow since the beetles cannot fly long distances. Shipment of ornamental palms from infested countries is the main source of spread within the Asia-Pacific region. It is necessary to raise awareness and capacity building to contain the problem. To avoid further spread, noninfested countries should adopt strict quarantine measures to control the import of plant materials, soil and any organic matter from infested countries. The eucalypt rust fungus was first recorded on Eucalyptus citriodora in Brazil in It has a wide host range in the family Myrtaceae which include guava and cloves. The pathogen attacks the foliage, inflorescence and young fruits resulting in significant yield loss in seedlings and young trees of all the susceptible host plants, especially eucalypts. The countries currently infested include Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Jamaica, Paraguay, Puerto Rico, Trinidad, Uruguay, USA (south of Florida) and Venezuela. Despite tight quarantine efforts and precautions the rust has already spread to Australia (2010) affecting not only eucalyptus but the native Melaleuca and Agonis. The pathogen has also spread to Japan (2007) and China (2011). It is shown that contaminated pollen, seeds, and eucalypt planting material, personal items such as foot wear, clothes, spectacles and baggage aid in spread of the pathogen. Countries such as India which is currently free of infestation should adopt strict bio-security measures to prevent incursion. Key words: Coconut leaf beetle, Puccinia psidii, eucalypt rust fungus, invasion, India 108 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

123 Introduction Of the several invasive species which pose a threat of invasion into the Indian subcontinent, two species, an insect and a fungus viz., Brontispa longissima (the coconut leaf beetle) and Puccinia psidii (the eucalypt rust fungus) are considered as the most risky due to the huge economical and ecological damage they can cause. This paper reviews the distribution, host range, symptoms of attack and mode of spread of these invasive species and examines how the impending invasion could be thwarted. It is hoped that this review will stir up urgent action against the incursion of these species into India and other unaffected countries in the Asia-Pacific region. Coconut leaf beetle The coconut leaf beetle (Brontispa longissima Gestro), native to Indonesia (Aru Islands, Maluku Province and Papua Province) and Papua New Guinea, including Bismarck Archipelago is one of the most damaging pests of coconut and other palms (Appanah et al., 2007). Biology of the beetle The adult beetle is with a flat body that is black in colour and with orange head and shoulders; 7.5 to 10 mm long and mm wide. Females are generally larger than males. The larvae and adults of the beetle are nocturnal in habit and remain in unopened leaves, moving outside only to infest nearby palms or for mating. The eggs are brown and flat (1.4 mm long and 0.5 mm wide) commonly laid in longitudinal rows in the unopened leaflets of palms. The eggs hatch in 3-7 days for form larvae ( 8-10 mm long) that are white in colour with two pincer-like spines at the rear end of the body. Host range The hosts of the beetle include more than 20 species of palms. These include coconut (Cocos nucifera), Royal palm (Roystonea sp.), Alexandra palm, (Archontophoenix alexandrae), Sago palm (Metroxylon sagu) California fan palm (Washingtonia filifera) Mexican palm (W. robusta), Bottle palm (Hyophorbe lagenicaulis) Chinese fan palm (Livistonia chinenesis) Madagascar palm (Chrysalidocarpus lutescens) and Areca nut palm (Areca catechu). Of these, coconut is the most favoured host of the beetle (APFISN, 2008). Distribution The beetle is currently distributed in Australia (Darwin, Broome, Moa Island, Cooktown, Cairns, Innisfail, Marcoola and Townsville), Malaysia, Singapore, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam, the Maldives, Philippines, Myanmar, and Peoples Republic of China (Hainan, Guangdong and Taiwan provinces) and several Pacific islands. Symptoms of attack The beetle attacks both seedlings and mature palms, but young palms are more susceptible to infestation. The heart leaves of older palms are firmer and less suitable as breeding grounds for the beetle and hence they are generally avoided. Larvae of the beetle chew the surface of leaflets which are still in the throat of young palms (the spear leaf) which kills the underlying tissues. Photosynthesis is reduced to zero in the affected leaflets which can be identified by the presence of longitudinal white streaks. As the leaf emerges, the leaflets curl and turn brown which gives a characteristic burned and ragged appearance. As the spear unfurl, the beetle moves on to other palms or the next emerging spear. The beetle does not attack leaves that emerge un-damaged. Severe attacks destroy unopened leaves, reduce amount of reserves Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 109

124 available to the plant to grow and produce reproductive structures and ultimately nut production is significantly reduced. Infested palms will appear stunted and become more susceptible to drought and incidence of fungal diseases. Severe infestations will result in nut fall, defoliation and death, especially if the palms are young (APFISN, 2008). Economic impact Coconut production loss due to the leaf beetle is to the tune of 30-50% in Vietnam and 50-70% in Samoa. It has affected livelihood of people depended on coconut farming in some countries in South-east Asia and the Pacific. In several cases, coconut processing factories had to be closed down due to non availability of nuts and thousands of workers lost their job. A study by FAO has shown that, if left uncontrolled, beetle infestation can cause in excess of US$ 1 billion damage in Vietnam alone. Beetle infestation affects the tourism industry also since dying or dead palms degrade landscapes and become unattractive to tourists (ISSG Database, 2009). Mode of spread The beetle is capable of only short flights, only a few hundred meters, and hence its natural spread is slow. Spread is mostly through movement of infested palm seedlings or palm produce. Shipment of infested ornamental palms is the main source of spread within the Asia- Pacific region. Strategies to avoid spread Since the neighbouring countries like Maldives and Myanmar are already infested, India should tighten its quarantine measures by controlling import of plant material, soil and any organic material from infested countries. It is also necessary to help containing the population of the beetle in Maldives through adoption of biological and other control measures, since it is easy for the beetle to spread from Maldives to Southern India. Sri Lanka is equally under threat. Incursion of the beetle will seriously affect coconut cultivation in Kerala and the neighbouring states in South India where coconut is the only source of livelihood for a large section of the society. Since beetle affected palms and palm products are the main source of spread, these should be checked to make sure that they are beetle free before movement from infested areas to uninfested areas. Phytosanitary measures in plantations and nurseries also need be encouraged. Potential spread through animals and human beings who can carry eggs, larvae or beetle on their bodies cannot be ruled out. Passengers who travel from infested countries should be directed to examine their baggage for the presence of beetle or eggs or larvae of the beetle. Raising awareness of the beetle problem and capacity building among all stakeholders will also help to prevent further spread. Eucalyptus rust Puccinia psidii Winter, the eucalyptus rust fungus, is an autoecious rust native to South and Central America and the Caribbean region which causes serious leaf and shoots disease in seedlings and young trees of several species of the family Myrtaceae. It is a serious threat to eucalypt cultivation in several countries wherever the fungus has spread (Coutinho et al., 1998). 110 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

125 Description of the fungus The fungus produces different types of spores such as aeciospores, urediniospores, teliospores and basidiospores and all stages of its life cycle occur on a single host. Aecia and aeciospores are morphologically identical to uredinia and urediniospores. The fungus produces abundant urediniospores under field conditions which disperse through air and aid in the quick spread of the disease. High humidity, leaf wetness and darkness for a minimum of six hours are pre-requisites for successful germination and infection. Teliospores and basidiospores are comparatively rare although teliospores are common on some hosts such as Syzygium jambos ( Ferreira, 1983). A full description of the fungus can be found in Glen et al., (2007). Host range The fungus has a wide host range unlike other rust fungi. The hosts include several species of Eucalyptus and species under the genera Abbivillea, Acca, Angophora, Agonis, Callistemon, Calycorectes, Campomanesia, Corymbia, Eugenia, Jambosa, Kunzea, Marlierea, Melaleuca, Myrcia, Myrcianthes, Myrciaria, Myrtus, Phyllocalyx, Pimenta, Pseudomyrcianthes, Psidiopsis, Psidium Syphoneugena, Syncarpia and Syzygium - all belonging to the family Myrtaceae (Simpson et al., 2006 ; Glen and Mohammed, 2012). It causes a severe disease in guava infecting leaves, stem and fruits causing defoliation and mummification of fruits. The full host range of the fungus is still unknown. It is possible that all genera of Myrtaceae are potentially susceptible. Recent reports indicate that the rust causes disease in Metrosideros polymorpha ( ohi a), a dominant tree species in the Hawaiian forests (Killgore and Heu, 2007). The only non Myrtaceous host so far known is Heteropyxis natalensis in South Africa (Alfenas et al., 2005).. Distribution Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Jamaica, Paraguay, Puerto Rico, Trinidad, Uruguay, USA (south of Florida), Venezuela, Japan and Australia. It has recently been reported from China (2011). Symptoms of the disease The fungus attacks foliage, inflorescence and young, succulent twigs of the hosts. The first evidence of infection is the appearance of pale yellow powdery eruptions on the leaf or stem surface. Within a few days, these eruptions deepen in colour to a characteristic egg-yolk yellow which shows the presence of uredenia and urediniospores. Infected areas coalesce with age. Secondary infections occur within a few days on primordial leaves, petioles, fruits and branch tips. In severe cases, the main and secondary branches of young plants are attacked and the infected parts of the tree shrivel and die. Deformation of leaves, defoliation, dieback and stunted growth are other symptoms. Economic impact Since Eucalyptus occupy around 5 million ha in India and it is one of the major species under forest plantations, the rust fungus will impose huge economic loss in the forestry/agroforestry sector. Eucalyptus grandis, one of the widely cultivated species of Eucalyptus in India, is reported to be one of the species most susceptible to the pathogen. Infestation on other economically important plants of the family Myrtaceae such as guava and clove will impact the agricultural sector significantly. Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 111

126 Mode of spread Movement of infected plant material is the main pathway of spread of the pathogen. Contaminated pollen, seeds and personal items such as foot wear, clothes and baggage also aid in new incursions across countries and continents. Urediniospores are produced in large quantities during the infection cycle which will get wind dispersed over large distances helping the fast spread of the disease. Potential for insect, bird or mammal-vectored spread is also reported (Glen et al., 2007). Strategies to avoid spread The wide host range and the occurrence several races and biotypes of the pathogen makes it a potential threat the world over. The spores of the fungus are capable of travelling long distances making early detection of spread a formidable task. It may be noted that despite stringent quarantine measures and other precautions, the pathogen has spread to Australia in 2010 where it affects other members of the family Myrtaceae such as Agonis and Melaleuca. The source of the incursion has been tentatively identified as North America (Glen and Mohammed, 2012). It has already spread to Japan (2007) and more recently to China (2011). There is an impending threat of its spread to India and other countries in the Asia-Pacific region. Countries which are free from infestation should strengthen their quarantine measures and implement these scrupulously to avoid incursion of the pathogen. Import of nursery stock, cut-vegetation products and seeds from infested countries should be done with extreme caution. Bio security measures and disease surveillance also need to be done on a continuous basis. Reports indicate that the pathogen continues to spread irrespective of all human efforts. Since the pathogen is next door, unless the quarantine officials, foresters, agriculturists and pathologists wake up and work hard, it will stealthily enter and undermine the ecological stability and economy of all countries in the Asia-Pacific region. Acknowledgement The authors thank the IUFRO and APFISN for kind support to K.V. Sankaran to participate in the workshop. References ALFENAS, A.C., ZAUZA, E.A.V.,WINGFIELD, M.J., ROUX, J., AND GLEN, M Heteropyxis natalensis, a new host of Puccinia psidii rust. Australasian Plant Pathology 34, p APFISN Coconut leaf beetle, Invasive Species Fact Sheet, Asia-Pacific Forest Invasive Species Network Secretariat, Kerala Forest Research Institute, Kerala, India, 2pp. APPANAH, S., SIM, H.C. AND SANKARAN, K.V Developing an Asia-Pacific strategy for forest invasive species: The coconut beetle problem bridging agriculture and forestry. Report of the Asia-Pacific Forest Invasive Species Network Workshop, RAP Publication 2007/02, FAO, Bangkok, 142 pp. COUTINHO, T.A., WINFILED, M.J., ALFENAS, A.C.AND CROUS, P.W Eucalyptus rust: A disease with the potential for serious international implications. Plant Disease, 82, p GLEN, M., ALFENAS, A.C., ZAUZA, E.A.V., WINGFIELD, M.J. AND MOHAMMED, C Puccinia psidii: a threat to the Australian environment and economy. Australasian Plant Pathology, 36, p Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

127 GLEN, M. AND MOHAMMED.C Puccina psidii? What next? Abstract of paper presented at the 3 rd meeting of IUFRO Working Unit Alien invasive species and international trade, University of Tokyo, Japan, June 10-16, ISSG Database Ecology of Brontispa longissima. IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group, 3pp. KILLGORE, E.M. AND HEU, R.A Ohia rust: Puccinia psidii Winter. New Pest Advisory No Honolulu, Hawaii Department of Agriculture, 5pp. SIMPSON, J.A., THOMAS, K. AND GRGURINOVIC, C.A Uredinales species pathogenic on species of Myrtaceae. Australasian Plant Pathology, 35: p Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 113

128 INVASIVE ALIEN PLANT PESTS IN INDIA, THEIR IMPACTS AND OPTIONS FOR MITIGATION Kavita Gupta and P. C. Agarwal National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, Pusa Campus, New Delhi Corresponding author : or Abstract The Indian subcontinent is the home to several centers of plant biodiversity, supporting valuable local species, but these centers are under considerable threat from invasive alien species (IAS). Introduction of seed, plants and planting material over the past several decades without proper inspection for associated pests has resulted in introduction of several alien pests into new areas and has proved disastrous to the economy as well as the environment. Two types of negative effects of invasions have been identified which are not mutually exclusive-one is that the colonizing species becoming a pest, and/ or the colonizing species leads to extinction of native species. The main impact of alien invasive plant pests include reduction in yields and quality of produce, increase in labour costs and the secondary impacts from the management methods used for their control include environmental pollution and health hazards. Several alien species were introduced on various crops in India which have since become serious pests and continue to cause damage year after year. The San Jose scale (Quadraspidiotus perniciosus), a pest of apple (1930s) and causes enormous losses in apple orchards in Himachal Pradesh. The fluted scale (Icerya purchasi), a serious pest of citrus and native of Australia was introduced into India before 1928 from Sri Lanka to later become a serious pest on citrus in south India. A large-scale campaign was organized in south India from 1946 to 1950 to check the spread of this pest. Heavy losses in grain yield of Cicer arietinum crop in states of Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab and adjoining areas occurred during due to the introduction of virulent biotype of Aschochyta blight from the Middle East. Bunchy top of banana caused by Banana bunchy top virus entered India from Sri Lanka and causes loss to banana of over Rs 40 million annually. The dreaded Golden nematode (Heterodera rostochiensis) introduced from UK along with exotic seed material in 1960s has been causing severe infestation of potato tubers in the Nilgiris region. The noxious weed Parthenium hysterophorus introduced into India along with wheat import from Mexico in 1956 has invaded the entire country and causes losses to the tune of Rs 6 million annually. In order to develop a step-wise operational procedure for management of IAS, it is vital to understand their status, which can be classified as introduced and established, recently introduced, or not yet present but with potential to be introduced. For the IAS already established in India (e.g. Parthenium, Lantana, Mikania, etc.), there is a need for an intensive official control programme through integrated pest management with special emphasis on biological control. In addition, management of established IAS also requires habitat restoration to be accorded importance. In the case of recently introduced IAS (e.g. whitefly biotype B ), there is a need for early detection, which necessitates extensive surveys that may be site specific or species specific, or both as the case may be. Based on its status as revealed by the survey, further actions to mitigate its effects may be decided upon. Quarantine is critical to prevent the ingress of alien pests and identifying the pathways that lead to harmful invasions and addressing the gaps in plant quarantine measures would help in building the national capacity to prevent IAS. 114 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

129 In India, at the national level, various aspects of IAS problems are being directly or indirectly dealt with by the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) as the nodal agency to deal with IAS for negotiations with Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). The Ministry of Commerce and Industry in cooperation with the Ministry of Agriculture is the nodal ministry for implementation of the sanitary and phytosanitary measures of the WTO Agreements which deals with quarantine norms and standards to be set up at national level as per international requirements for minimizing the risks associated with the transboundary movement of pests along with agricultural commodities. So far, there is no clear cut emphasis on IAS though the subject is dealt from time to time in several Departments of these Ministries. However, the National Biodiversity Strategic Action Plan of India highlights the actions to be taken for management of IAS. Besides, the need for a cohesive policy to deal with IAS at the ground level has also been highlighted in the Conference of Parties (CoP) and the Subsidiary Body of Scientific Technical and Technological Advice (SBSTTA) meetings of CBD. Introduction The Indian subcontinent is the home to several centers of plant biodiversity, supporting valuable local species, but these centers are under considerable threat from invasive alien species (IAS). Introduction of seed, plants and planting material over the past several decades without proper inspection for associated pests has resulted in introduction of several alien pests into new areas and has proved disastrous to the economy as well as the environment. Two types of negative effects of invasions have been identified which are not mutually exclusive- one is that the colonizing species becoming a pest, and/ or the colonizing species leads to extinction of native species. The main impact of invasive alien plant pests include reduction in yields and quality of produce, increase in labour costs and the secondary impacts from the management methods used for their control include environmental pollution and health hazards. Plant quarantine is a government effort enforced through legislative measures to regulate the introduction of planting materials, plant products, soil, living organisms etc. in order to prevent inadvertent introduction of pests, pathogens and weeds harmful to the agriculture of a country/state/region and if introduced, prevent their establishment and further spread. The present day definition of a pest is any species, strain or biotype of plant, animal or pathogenic agent injurious to plants or plant products. While discussing IAS it is important to first clarify certain definitions. A quarantine pest as per the internationally accepted definition is a pest of potential economic importance to the area endangered thereby and not yet present there, or present but not widely distributed and being officially controlled ( IAS are, however, generally considered as plants and animals that are introduced into new areas where they are not part of the native flora and fauna, and because they no longer face the natural enemies or competition they do in their areas of origin, they spread or reproduce prolifically. Hence, it may be noted here that all IAS qualify to be called as quarantine pests while all quarantine pests are not necessarily invasive. IAS have serious economic and environmental implications in a wide range of ecosystems. History has witnessed that due to trade and exchange of plant material, several countries suffered enormous losses due to the inadvertent introduction of exotic pests along with planting material of crops. The Irish potato famine of 1845 is well known example of total devastation of potato crop caused by late blight fungus (Phytophthora infestants) introduced Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 115

130 from Central America. Potato being a staple food for the people, caused starvation and mass migration of Irish people to America and other parts of the world. Likewise, the vine industry of France in the middle of 19th century was virtually destroyed due to introduction of powdery mildew (Uncinula necator) and downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) of grapes from America. The outbreak of citrus canker disease in Florida, USA, caused by bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. citri cost 6 million US dollars for eradication and when the disease reappeared in Florida in 1984, the control efforts have thus far cost more than 70 million US dollars (Khetarpal and Gupta, 2008). Several pests were introduced on various crops in India too which have since become serious pests and continue to cause damage year after year. Some of them have been listed below: The San Jose scale (Quadraspidiotus perniciosus), a pest of apple (1930s) and causes enormous losses in apple orchards in Himachal Pradesh. The woolly aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum), a serious pest of apple also introduced into India causes substantial losses in apple growing states of north India. The fluted scale (Icerya purchasi), a serious pest of citrus and native of Australia was introduced into India before 1928 from Sri Lanka probably on wattles (Acacia sp.) to later become a serious pest on citrus in south India. A large-scale campaign was organized in south India from 1946 to 1950 to check the spread of this pest. Heavy losses in grain yield of Cicer arietinum crop in states of Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab and adjoining areas occurred during due to the introduction of virulent biotype of Aschochyta blight from the Middle East. Bunchy top of banana caused by Banana bunchy top virus entered India from Sri Lanka and causes loss to banana of over Rs 4 Crores annually. The dreaded Golden nematode (Heterodera rostochiensis) introduced from UK along with exotic seed in 1960s has been causing severe infestation of potato in the Nilgiris. All these examples clearly demonstrate that imported seed/ planting material, especially bulk imports, without proper quarantine may result in introduction and establishment of alien pests into new areas which may severely damage the crop production and economy of a nation. Legislation to address IAS in India With the trade in agricultural commodities brought under the WTO Agreement on Agriculture, plant quarantine and phytosanitary measures assume greater importance as it could serve as a mode of transport for exotic pests and diseases among trading countries. Plant quarantine is critical to protect the agriculture from the ingress of alien pests. The policy of using government authority to prevent entry of dangerous exotic pests is based on the principle that it is preferable to undergo some inconvenience in an effort to exclude pests than to later bear the expense of controlling them. The Government of India passed the first Act in 1906 under the Sea Customs Act of 1878 to stop the entry of the Mexican cotton boll weevil Anthonomus grandis and ordered compulsory fumigation of imported cotton bales. The first quarantine law in India was enacted in 1914 as the Destructive Insects and Pests (DIP) Act. A gazette notification entitled Rules for Regulating the Import of Plants etc. into India was published in Over the years, the DIP Act was revised and amended several times to meet the changing global requirements. Even today, A. grandis is a regulated pest and import of cotton seed or bales are required to be free of this pest. After the coming of New Policy on Seed Development in 1988, and the WTO Agreements in 1995, import of agricultural commodities was being allowed more freely. Thus, the Plant Quarantine (Regulation for Import into India) Order 2003 came into force as there was an urgent need to: 116 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

131 Fill-up the gaps in existing PFS order viz., regulating import of germplasm/gmo s/ transgenic plant material; live insects/fungi including bio-control agents etc. Protect the interest of the farmers of the country by preventing the entry, establishment and spread of destructive pests, vectors and alien species and also safeguard the national biodiversity from threats of invasion by alien species Under this order, the need for incorporation of additional/special declarations for freedom of import commodities from quarantine and alien pests, on the basis of standardized pest risk analysis (PRA), particularly for seed/ planting materials is also taken care of. Apart from the PQ Order 2003, the Indian Biodiversity Act 2000 has been drafted in line with the obligations under the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). In addition, the Environment (Protection) Rules (1989) empowers the government to prohibit or restrict the handling, export and import of living creatures, plants, etc. because of its damage causing potential to the environment. Although IAS are covered under the Environment Protection Act (EPA), it does not state clearly the modality for their restriction and prohibition. All the above mentioned legislative measures cover diverse aspects of IAS including quarantine, environment protection and trade (Gupta and Khetarpal, 2006). As such the usage of the term Invasive Alien Species is not very popular at present and IAS are dealt in under the guise of exotic-organisms or pests. These need to be reviewed in order to streamline the approach for managing the IAS. Mitigation of IAS Management of invasive species has three broad approaches, exclusion of IAS from the area to be protected (e.g. by quarantine or physical barriers), eradication and control. Control in this context assumes that the invasive is established but can be managed at undamaging population levels. These options are influenced by the extent of the invasion, the nature of the ecosystem invaded and particularly by the type of the invader. While it is possible to establish general principles and tools for invasive species management, practical management strategies differ greatly between the various organisms and these need to be developed on a case-to-case basis by identifying the best options, tools and integrated strategies for eradication or long term management. The officials dealing in IAS need to establish long term programmes, arrange funding, establish cooperation between government agencies (and often between governments where IAS are trans-border problems) and involve the public at large. The appropriate legal and regulatory frameworks must also be in place to drive this process. All of these factors play a role in management of invasive species at the national level (Khetarpal and Gupta, 2006). The 15 Guiding Principles for the Prevention, Introduction and Mitigation of Impacts of Alien Species that Threaten Ecosystems, Habitats or Species were adopted by CoP 6 of CBD in These serve as broad guidelines for management of IAS. Besides these, a comprehensive toolkit on prevention and management practices of IAS has been brought out by CABI on behalf of GISP which proposes three major management options, prevention, early detection and eradication, and control (Wittenberg and Cock, 2001). Prevention of introductions is the first and most cost-effective option. This lesson has been learned the hard way from several cases of highly destructive and costly invasive organisms such as Ascochyta blight of chickpea, late blight of potato, whitefly biotype B in India. Exclusion methods based on pathways rather than on individual species provide a way to focus efforts on pathways along which pests are most likely to enter national boundaries and to intercept several potential invaders linked to a single pathway. Three major possibilities to prevent further invasions exist: 1) Interception based on regulations enforced with inspection and fees 2) Treatment of material suspected to be contaminated with non-indigenous species Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 117

132 3) Prohibition of particular commodities in accordance with international regulations. All this calls for stringent quarantine measures to be adopted. To meet this challenge, the PQ Order 2003 has given a list of >700 plant species/ type of materials given in its schedules IV, V and VI which are either prohibited for import or require additional declarations regarding freedom from specific pests or can be imported by specific organizations only (Plant Quarantine Order, 2003) (Figure I). Deliberate introductions of non-indigenous species need to be subject to pest risk assessment/invasiveness risk assessment. Based on the invasive/non-invasive nature of the species within its geographic distribution and taking into account its adaptability/suitability in the new ecosystem it would be possible to assess its potential invasiveness. The species posing no or negligible risk can be immediately cleared for import but those with moderate risk should be tested on a trial basis under controlled conditions to assess invasive potential. The cost and time involved in understanding such studies is fully justified and would be much less than any eradication/control strategy adopted in case it becomes invasive. The import of high risk species should be strictly prohibited. Special care should be taken for import of biocontrol agents to verify and ensure its host specificity (Gupta and Khetarpal, 2004). Over the years, during quarantine processing, a large number of pests have been intercepted in imported bulk consignments and in germplasm and other research material (Khetarpal et al., 2006). Table 1. Category of pest intercepted of pest/host/source of countries No Category of pest intercepted Pest/ host/ source country 1. Not known to occur in India Uromyces betae/ Sugarbeet/ USA and Italy Fusarium nivale/ Wheat/ UK Cowpea mottle virus/ Cowpea/ Philippines Heterodera schachtii/ Sugarbeet/ Denmark Anthonomus grandis/ Cotton/ USA Quadrastichodella eucalyptii/ Eucalyptus/ Australia 2. Known to occur but the race/ biotype/strain intercepted is not known to occur 3. Intercepted on a host on which it was never reported before 4. Intercepted from a source country from where it was never reported before 5. A new species hitherto unreported 6. Known to occur in India but possess a wide host range Helminthosporium maydis/ race T/ Sorghum/ USA Pea seed-borne mosaic virus/ Broadbean Burkholderia solanacearum biovar 3/ Groundnut/ Australia Alternaria zinniae/ Tobacoo/ Japan Pseudomonas syringae pv syringae/ Hibiscus cannabinus/ Bangladesh Aphelenchoides besseyi/ Stylosanthes hamata/ Australia Merobruchus columbinus/ Samanea saman/ UK Bruchus ervi/ Acacia brachustachva/ Australia Pachymerus lacerdae/ Orbygnya phalerata/ Italy Peronospora manschurica/ soybean/ Malaysia Heterodera zeae/ Vetiveria zizanioides/ Tanzania Bruchus ervi/ Acacia brachustachva/ Australia Drechslera pluriseptata/ Eleusine coracana/ Zambia Tylenchorhynchus neoclavicaudatus on potato tubers from USA Polenchus minutus/ Palm plants/ UK Collectotrichum graminicola, Drechslera turcica and Gloeocercospora sorghi/ Sorghum/ Nigeria Drechslera siccans/ Soybean/ USA Claviceps purpurea/ Avena sativa/ USA (After Khetarpal and Gupta, 2007, 2008) 118 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

133 These interceptions, especially of pests and their variability not yet reported from India signify the importance of quarantine in preventing the introduction of destructive alien pests. The third and fourth category of pests are not expected in the sample as per the risk analysis which is literature based and since no records are available on the pest/ host their presence is unexpected and hence, important from quarantine view point. The last category - pests with a wide host range are critical and could become invasive in case they find suitable environmental conditions. This category of intercepted pests is highly dangerous because of their potential invasiveness. Ug99- immediate attention needed! Another potential IAS threat by a fungal pathogen Ug99 looms large on our nearly 50 million wheat farmers in India. If introduced, farmers in Gangetic plains are likely to lose over 7 million tons of wheat and wheat products annually due to a virulent race Ug99 of wheat stem rust pathogen (Puccinia graminis tritici), first reported in Uganda in Ug99 has subsequently spread from Uganda and to Kenya (1999), to Ethiopia (2003); to Yemen and Sudan (2003); and to Iran (2008). Its arrival in Iran means that it is a matter of time when the spores of Ug99 would move over to Pakistan which then will serve as a entry point to the adjoining Punjab (India) from where it would hit other wheat producing areas of India. Presently, the Indian government is trying to identify resistant Indian genotypes in disease hotspots like Kenya and Uganda to be prepared to deal with the pest if/when it arrives in India. Early detection and eradication of a potential invasive species is often crucial in determining the possibility of eradication or at least of effectively containing a new colonizer. Early detection in the form of surveys may focus on a species of concern or on a specific site. Species-specific surveys are designed, adapted or developed for a specific situation, taking into consideration the ecology of the target species. Site-specific surveys are targeted to detect invaders in the vicinity of high-risk entry points or in high value biodiversity areas. In this regard, India needs to have specific programmes to detect invaders at an early stage. Eradication is successful and cost-effective only in response to early detection of a nonindigenous species. However, a careful analysis of the costs and likelihood of success must be made, and adequate resources mobilized, before eradication is attempted. Most eradication programmes need to employ several different methods. Each programme must evaluate its situation to find the best methods in that area under the given circumstances. Successful eradication programmes in the past have been based on 1) mechanical control, e.g. handpicking of snails, 2) chemical control, e.g. using pesticides or irradiation methods, and 3) habitat management, (e.g. grazing and prescribed burning). Island ecosystems are particularly amenable to eradication as the area is defined due to the presence of natural water barrier. The Sterile Insect Technique used in Japan and Mauritius for eradication of certain species of fruit flies, a serious pest of several fruits and vegetables, is a good example. Control is the last step in the sequence of management options of an invasive species when eradication is not feasible. The aim of control is to reduce the density and abundance of an invasive organism to keep it below or at an acceptable threshold. There are several specific methods for controlling invasive species. Many of the control methods can also be used in eradication programmes. Mechanical control is highly specific to the target, but always very labour-intensive. In countries where human labour is costly, the use of manual methods is limited mainly to volunteer groups. Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 119

134 Chemical control is often very effective as a short-term solution. The major drawbacks are the high costs, the adverse effects on non-target species, and the possibility of the pest species evolving into resistant strains and environmental pollution. Biological control in comparison with other methods, when successful, is highly cost effective, permanent, self-sustaining and ecologically safe because of the high specificity of the agents used. Biological control is particularly appropriate for use in nature reserves and other conserved areas because of its environmentally friendly nature and the increasing instances of prohibition of pesticide use in these areas. Integrated pest management (IPM), combining several approaches, will often provide the most effective and acceptable control. Invasive Alien Species Pests/ Biocontrol Agents Introduction Accidental Import Risk Analysis (CBD/ WTO/ DIP Act/ PQ Order) Intentional (Smuggling) PREVENTION Harmful Sch. IV (PQ Order) Harmless Sch. VII (PQ Order) Strict legislation/ Inspection Entry prohibited Import under strict quarantine EARLY DETECTION Periodical Monitoring/ Surveillance Not detected Fail to establish Periodic survey Detected- Invasive Not established Eradication feasible Official control IPM Habitat restoration Established Eradication not feasible Control methods No adverse impact detected No control Adverse impacts ERADICATION CONTROL Harmless Fig 1 Flow Chart for Management of IAS 120 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

135 Finally, there are situations where the current techniques for management of IAS are simply inadequate, impractical or uneconomic. In such situations the only way is to specifically tailor ways to reduce their impact on habitats and other species (Gupta and Khetarpal, 2010). The way forward The 15 Guiding Principles for the prevention, introduction and mitigation of impacts of alien species adopted after the VI CoP meeting invited the international organizations to further develop standards and devise new or revise agreements existing standards and Agreements, including for pest risk assessment/analysis and to consider incorporating criteria related to the threats to biological diversity posed by IAS. With these Guiding Principles as the base, the Department of Agriculture and Cooperation (DAC), Ministry of Agriculture has proposed a National Policy for the Control of IAS keeping in view that the national IPM Programme under the DAC as the mechanism to prevent and control the threat posed by IAS within the country. This would include the involvement of State Governments, NGOs, private sector, research institutions and farmer self-help groups for surveillance and detection of pests/diseases and for taking eco- friendly corrective action within the IPM scheme. Locust watch- guarding our borders from locust invasion Migratory Locust is a menace for the Asian region and an active coordination with FAO and neighboring countries for surveillance, early detection and control measures for the same is already in place. Locust survey and control are under the Ministry of Agriculture in India. There are also several regional locust organizations that assist with survey and control operations. FAO operates a centralized Desert Locust Information Service and transmits locust data to FAO, Rome who analyze it along with weather and habitat data and satellite imagery to assess the current locust situation, provide forecasts and issue warnings on an ad-hoc basis. Domestic Quarantine rules promulgated for nine invasive pests (Fluted scale, San José scale, coffee berry borer, codling moth, banana bunchy top and mosaic viruses, potato cyst nematode, potato wart and apple scab) with limited distribution exist in the DIP Act, 1914 and needs to be more stringently implemented. In the past, huge economic losses have been incurred due to introduction of IAS like Ascochyta blight (from Middle East). There is an urgent need to check not only spread of above pests but also to promulgate domestic quarantine against certain important alien pest species which have been introduced/detected in the country in the recent years and which are likely to spread fast. The important examples of reports of such pests are American serpentine leaf miner (Liriomyza trifolii) from Karnataka in 1991, spiraling white fly (Aleurodicus dispersus) recorded from Tamil Nadu in 1993, papaya ring spot virus from Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh in 1994, sunflower downy mildew (Plasmopara halstedii) recorded for the first time from Maharashtra in 1984 and Peanut stripe potyvirus initially recorded at Raichur in Karnataka in 1987 are now being reported from certain other states. In 1999, a new biotype B of the white fly Bemisia tabaci which is an efficient vector for Tomato leaf curl virus has been reported in Kolar taluk of Bangalore and is suspected to have been introduced with imports of horticultural crops. All these introduced pests have caused and are still causing enormous loss to human health, environment and biodiversity. Presently, greater emphasis is being laid on research being conducted to study impact of climate change on threat of IAS. Substantial crop damage and serious losses were incurred in parts of peninsular India in 2002 due to white woolly aphid infestation of sugarcane crop. This pest had previously never infested sugarcane in India. The task of research, future prevention and control measures is being handled by Ministry of Agriculture in coordination Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 121

136 with other Central Government Departments, concerned State Governments, ICAR, other research institutions and Agriculture Universities, Private Sector and Sugar Factories. This is one example of an attempt to manage IAS. National strategy for management of IAS 1. Identify a cross-sectoral group to develop an invasive species programme. This group would assess and present the case studies of invasive species that are a major threat to biodiversity in the country for which action needs to be taken. This would include developing an inventory/database invasive species, their ecological and economic impacts, and the ecosystems invaded. 2. Identify and involve all stakeholders to address the IAS problem. Key persons need to be strategically involved, and conspicuous invasive species problems in the country used to generate public awareness to educate the public about the problems caused by invasive species and the options available for solving or preventing the problem. 3. Formulate a national strategy after the initial assessment and identification of stakeholders. Ideally, a single nodal agency should be identified. If however, many agencies are involved, the responsibilities and work needs to be clearly defined and allocated between the agencies and each allocated with complete administrative and technical powers. The goals and objectives for the national strategy should be realistic and result oriented. 4. Develop legal framework for prevention and management of IAS needs to be considered. Effective management requires appropriate national laws as well as coordinated international action based on jointly agreed standards. Many international Agreements address components of the IAS problem, but national legislation is needed for implementation in each country. In India the Ministry of Environment and Forests is the nodal agency for matters related to biodiversity and deals and negotiates with CBD. The Ministry of Commerce and Industry in cooperation with the Ministry of Agriculture is the nodal ministry for implementation of the sanitary and phytosanitary measures of the WTO Agreements which deals with quarantine norms and standards to be set up at national level as per international requirements for minimizing the risks associated with the transboundary movement of pests and pathogens along with agricultural commodities. So far, there is no clear cut emphasis on IAS though the subject is dealt from time to time in several Departments of these Ministries. With increases in trade, transport, travel and tourism there is greater movement of people and commodities both domestically and internationally and consequently greater risk of spread of IAS. Identifying and, where possible, quantifying the importance of the pathways that lead to harmful invasions and addressing the gaps in plant quarantine measures will help in building the national capacity to tackle with IAS (Rana et al., 2004). In fact, the fifteen Guiding Principles of the sixth Conference of Parties of the CBD give a very comprehensive approach that can be modified and adopted to suit our national action plan. The recently developed National Biodiversity Strategic Action Plan of MoEF highlights the actions to be taken for management of IAS. Hence, a holistic approach with an interministerial working groups and compliance to the norms of WTO and CBD for trade without compromising with environmental issues would be the only way to effectively tackle the issue of invasive alien plant pests and diseases. 122 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

137 Acknowledgement The authors sincerely acknowledge the contributions of Dr R K Khetarpal, Former Head, Plant Quarantine Division, who was instrumental in initiating work on policy issues related to invasive alien species at NBPGR and in shaping our understanding of the subject. References GUPTA, K. AND KHETARPAL, R. K Concept of regulated pests, their risk analysis and the Indian scenario. Annual Review of Plant Pathology, 4, GUPTA, K. AND KHETARPAL, R. K A Strategy for Management of Invasive Alien Species in India: A Case Study for Developing Countries In: Gautam et al., (eds) Proceedings of the 3 rd International Conference on Parthenium, December 8-10, 2010, Division of Entomology, IARI, New Delhi, India. p GUPTA, K. AND KHETARPAL, S Regulatory Measures dealing with Invasive Alien Species: Global and National Scenario. In: (eds.) Rai, L.C. and Gaur, J. P. Invasive Alien Species and Biodiversity in India, Banaras Hindu University, Department of Botany, Centre of Advanced Study, Varanasi, p KHETARPAL, S. AND GUPTA, K Management of Invasive Alien Species: National Strategy. In: (eds.) Rai, L.C. and Gaur, J. P. Invasive Alien Species and Biodiversity in India, Banaras Hindu University, Department of Botany, Centre of Advanced Study, Varanasi, p KHETARPAL, R, K, AND GUPTA, K Plant quarantine in India in the wake of international agreements: A review. Scientific Publishers (India), Jodhpur, Review of Plant Pathology 4, KHETARPAL, R. K. AND GUPTA, K Plant Biosecurity in India- Status and Strategy. Asian Biotechnology and Development Review 9(2), KHETARPAL, R. K., LAL, A., VARAPRASAD, K. S., et al Quarantine for Safe Exchange of Plant Genetic Resources. In: Singh A. K., Saxena S., Srinivasan K. and Dhillon B.S. (eds) 100 years of PGR Management in India National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, New Delhi, India, p RANA, R. S., DHILLON, B. S. AND KHETARPAL, R. K Invasive Alien Species: The Indian Scene. Indian Journal of Plant Genetic Resources 16(3): WITTENBERG, R. AND COCK, M. J. W. (eds.) Invasive Alien Species: A Toolkit of Best Prevention and Management Practices. CABI Publishing, UK, 228 p. Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 123

138 ABUNDANCE OF PREDATORY ANTS IN WANAGAMA EDUCATION FOREST, GUNUNG KIDUL, YOGYAKARTA Musyafa, H. Supriyo, and W.H. Pamungkas Faculty of Forestry Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia; Corresponding author: Abstract Tree species such as Acacia mangium, eucalypt (Eucalyptus spp.) and teak (Tectona grandis) planted at Wanagama Education Forest are often attacked by insect pests. Predatory ants may have an important role in controlling insect pest populations. This aim of this study was to identify predatory ants and quantify their abundance in stands of A. mangium, eucalypt and teak at Wanagama. Ants were sampled using pitfall traps set up in both dry and wet seasons. Environmental factors such as litter water content, soil water content, litter thickness were determined. Five species of predatory ants were found in A. mangium, six species in eucalypts and four species in teak. The abundance of ants in the wet season was higher than in dry season. Odontoponera sp. was the most dominant species in A. mangium and eucalypt stands, while Oecophylla sp. was the most abundant in the teak stand. Introduction Tree species planted at Wanagama Education Forest, Gunung Kidul are often attacked by insect pests in the field and nursery. Important pests of teak are Hyblaea puera, Paliga damastesalis and Neotermes tectonae. Hyblaea puera is known as the teak defoliator and usually eat the young leaves at the beginning of the rainy season. Severe defoliation can reduce teak growth. Paliga damastesalis (teak leaf skeletonizer) eats the soft parts of the leaves (mesophyll) and leaves the veins. These pests have caused widespread severe damage to mature trees in Mantingan, Randu Blatung, Cepu and Blora and Kendal (Husaini, 2001). Other pests of teak are Xyleutes ceramicus, Xyleborus destruens and Zeuzera coffeae. The latter pest is known to attack young plants tissue culture propagated in Kendal, Central Java. Locusts also sporadically attack teak. Seedlings of A. mangium in the nursery are often attacked by bagworms and grasshoppers. Helopeltis theivora causes dieback on young shoots. Eucalypt seedlings are also often attacked by several insects in the nuresey; tea mosquito bug, Helopeltis spp, leaf roller and shoot borer, In Hutan Persada plantation, Supangkat (1998) reported that 1000 ha of 2-3 yearold Eucalyptus deglupta was attacked by the borer Agrilus sexignatus. Reliance on chemical insecticides is undesirable due to negative impacts on the environment. Predatory ants may play an important role in controlling insect pests and providing an environmentally friendly biocontrol. Mostly they have been shown to be effective insect pest control agents in agricultural crops; cashew in Australia (Ozaki et al 2000, Offenburg et al, 2004). In Indonesia predatory ants are reported to reduce insects pests in citrus, cocoa, rambutan in Indonesia; Subagiya et al. (2009) reports that Oecophylla smaragdina is eefective in citrus orchards and a Forestry Research report (2009) states that in cocoa Dolichoderus thoracicus reduces fruit borer and Iridomirmex (a genus of ants that belongs to the subfamily Dolichoderinae) controls Holopeltsis antonii. Predatory ants are seldom envisaged as biocontrol agents for forest plantations especially in in Indonesia although they have been shown to reduce pests in mangrove (Peng et al 1995, Peng et al. 1997). The 124 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

139 objective of this study is to identify and quantify the abundance of predatory ants in A. mangium, eucalypt and teak during both the wet season and dry season. Materials and Methods The study was carried out in stands of A. mangium, eucalyptus and teak stands in Compartment 17 of the Education Forest Wanagama operated by Gadjah Mada University. It is located in Gunungkidul Yogyakarta, 202 m above sea level.. Rainfall in Wanagama is 1900 mm per year. The study was conducted in February (wet season) and August (dry season) in Ants were collected from the floor of each stand using pitfall traps. These traps were constructed from plastic cups with a diameter of 5 cm and height of 7 cm. Twenty traps were established for each stand and left over a period of two days. The ants collected were preserved in 70% alcohol for identification in laboratory. The moisture content of both the soil and the litter were determined during the study. Results and Discussion Individual numbers of predatory ants are shown in Figure 1. The number of ants trapped in A. mangium and eucalypt stands during the wet season were much higher than during dry season. These results are similar to those of Musyafa (2002) in A. mangium stands in which the numbers of soil macrofauna in the wet season were much higher than those in the dry season. The moisture content of soil and litter in wet seasons is significantly higher than the dry season (Table 1) this favouring build-up of ant populations mangium eucalypt teak dry season wet season Figure 1. Individual number of ants collected from the plantation floor in A. mangium, eucalypt and teak stands in the Education Forest Wanagama, Gunungkidul Yogyakarta (average of individuals/trap) Table 1. Soil and litter water content, litter thickness in stands of A. mangium, eucalypt and teak in Education Forest Wanagama, Gunungkidul Yogyakarta Stands Soil water content (%) Litter water content (%) Litter thickness (cm) dry wet dry wet dry wet A. mangium eucalypt teak Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 125

140 Table 2. Abundance of predatory ant species in A. mangium, eucalypt and teak stands in the Education Forest Wanagama, Gunungkidul, Yogyakarta No. Species Acacia mangium eucalypt teak 1 Pheidologeton sp Oecophylla smaragdina Componatus sp Odontoponera sp Pachycondyla sp Odontomachus sp Iridomyrmex sp Five species of predatory ants were found in A. mangium, 6 in eucalypt and 4 in teak stands. In A. mangium stands Odontoponera sp., Oecophylla smaragdina and Odontomachus sp. were the most commonly encountered predatory ant species. In eucalypt stands the predatory ant community was different to that in A. mangium with greater numbers of predatory ants in the genera Odonoponera, Paedologeton and Pachycondila. The ant community in teak had overall lower numbers but was more similar in composition to A. mangium with Odontoponera sp and O. smaragdina as the most dominant species (Table 2.). Oecophylla smargdina has the potential to protect A. mangium and teak from insect pest attack and are the same ants that effectively control insect pests in citrus, mangrove, cashew plantation (Peng et al 1995, Peng et al. 1997, Ozaki et al 2000, Offenburg et al, 2004, Subagiya 2004). The number of ants belonging to Odontoponera was also high in the stands and the role of this species in controlling insect pest should be studied. References HUSAINI, E.A Hama hutan di Indonesia. Fakultas Kehutanan IPB. Bogor. Indonesian NAIR.K.S.S. & SUMARDI Insect pests and diseases in Indonesian Forest.CIFOR. Bogor. Indonesia OFFENBERG, J., HAVANON, S., AKSORMKOAE, S., MAINTOSH, D.J., NIELSON, M.G Observation on the ecology of weaver ants (Oecophylla smaragdina ) in Thai mangrove ecosystem and their effect in herbivory of Rhizopora mucronata. Biotropica 36 (3): OZAKI, K., TAKSHIMA, S., SUKO, S Ant predator suppress population of scale insect Aulacapsis sp. in natural mangrove forest. Biotropica 32: PENG, R.K., CHRISTIAN,K. AND GIBB, K The effect of green ant, Oecophylla smaragdina (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) on insect pests of cashew trees in Australia. Bull Entomol. Res. 85: PENG, R.K., CHRISTIAN,K. AND GIBB, K Distribution of green ant in relation to native vegetation and insect pests in cashew plantation in Australia. J. Pest Management 43: SUBAGIYA, HIMAWATI, M.K., & WIDONO, S Efektifitas pelepasan semut predator Oecophylla Smaragdina terhadap hama-hama pada pertanaman jeruk. LPPM UNS. 126 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

141 RETROSPECTIVE ON FOREST INSECT PESTS OF NEPAL WITH REFERENCE TO CLIMATE CHANGE Sanjaya Bista 1) and Hasta B. Thapa 2) 1) Entomology Division, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, Khumaltar, Lalitpur, Nepal.; 2)Department of Forest Research and Survey, Babar Mahal, Kathmandu, Nepal. Corresponding author : or Abstract Nepal experiences a wide range of climatic conditions ranging from sub-tropical in the lowlands to arctic in the high mountains. The economy is predominantly characterized by a large rural sector where subsistence farming is the mainstay, with strong dependency on forest resources for basic need fulfillment and additional income. Nepal is experiencing a noticeable rise in temperature along with changes in rainfall patterns and these are predicted to continue in years to come. These changes in climate may result in changes in the dispersion and survival of pests and pathogens and thus the forest ecology. The effects of climate change on forest health in Nepal is not clear because it. is very difficult to predict changes due to the complex interactions among climatic conditions, insect pest habitat and the existing forest ecosystem. However, there is consensus in the fact that climate change already has, and will continue to have an impact on the frequency and intensity of pest outbreaks as well as their distribution to new ecological ranges. Different authors have reported a number of forest insect pest outbreaks in Nepal, but studies on their linkages with climate change components are lacking. Trade of forest plant products is another major concern as they carry a high risk of non-native species invading the forest areas. Recently the non-native gall chalcid, Leptocybe invasa (Fisher & Lasalle) has resulted in epidemics on Eucalyptus camaldulensis Under the changing climatic conditions, similar patterns may exist in other natural and plantation forests in the future. Measures to protect forests from insect pests and diseases are an integral part of sustainable forest management. Effective pest management requires accurate information on the biology and epidemiology of pests and their possible management methods. Although some qualitative information exists at local level, reliable quantitative information is still lacking for Nepal. The aim of this study is to review knowledge and management strategies for forest insect pests in Nepal, under different climatic predictions for the future. Keywords: climate change, insect pests, forest ecosystems, forest health, research and management Introduction Nepal is situated on the southern slopes of the central Himalaya Mountains and occupies a total area of 147,181 km 2. The average length of the country is 885 km from east to west and its width varies from 145 to 241 km with a mean of 193 km north-south. About 86% of the total land area is covered by hills and high mountains, and the remaining 14% are the flat lands, Terai, less than 300 m in elevation. Altitude varies from some 67 m asl in the southeastern Terai to 8,848 m at the peak of the world s highest mountain, Mount Everest (MoFSC, 2009). There is, therefore, extreme spatial climate variation in Nepal, from tropical to arctic within a very short geographic distance. The physiographic and ecological zone extends in an east-west direction and varies in altitude, climate and geology (Table 1). Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 127

142 Table 1. Physiographic zones and climate of Nepal Physiographic zone Surface area (%) Elevation (m) Climate Lowlands (Terai) 14 Below 500 Hot monsoon/tropical Lowlands (Siwalak) Hot monsoon/sub-tropical Middle Mountain Lower: Warm temperate monsoon, Higher: Cool temperate monsoon High Mountain Sub-Alpine Alpine High Himalaya 24 Above 5000 Tundra type, Arctic The latest physiographic information indicates that Nepal comprises around 4.27 million ha (29% of total land area) of forest, 1.56 million ha (10.6%) of shrub land and degraded forest, 1.76 million ha (12%) of grassland, 3.09 million ha (21%) of farmland, 0.38 million ha (2.6%) water bodies, 1.03 million ha (7%) of uncultivated inclusions and 2.61 million ha (17.8%) classified as other (MoFSC, 2009). The immense bio-climatic diversity in Nepal supports more than 35 forest types, distributed across the five major geographic regions. These forest types are further categorized into ten major groups, which are: Tropical forest (below 1000 m; predominantly composed of Shorea robusta in the southern parts and Acacia catechu/dalbergia sissoo replacing S. robusta along streams and rivers); Sub-tropical broadleaved forest ( m; Schima wallichii-castanopsis indica in the central and eastern parts); Sub-tropical pine forest ( m; Pinus roxburghii forests on the southfacing slopes of the mid-hills and Siwalak); Lower temperate broadleaved forest ( m in the west and m in the east with Alnus nitida, Castanopsis species, Lithocarpus pachyphylla and several species of Quercus); Lower temperate mixed broadleaved forest ( m; confined to north and west facing slopes, which especially include the Lauraceae family); Upper temperate broadleaved forest ( m; Quercus semecarpifolia forests widespread in the central and eastern parts on south-facing slopes); Upper temperate mixed broadleaved forest ( m; occurs in the central and eastern parts, mainly on north and west-facing slopes, Acer and Rhododendron are prominent species); Temperate coniferous forest ( m; Pinus wallichiana, Cedrus deodara, Cupressus torulosa, Tsuga dumosa and Abies pindrow characterize the temperate conifer forest type); Sub-alpine forest ( m; Abies spectabilis, Betula utilis and Rhododendron forests occur in subalpine zones, the latter in very wet sites; and Alpine scrub (above 4100 m; Juniper-Rhododendron associated with Ephedra gerardiana, and Hippophae tibetana in inner valleys) (MoFSC, 2011). Water and forests are the major natural resources of Nepal. Nepal s wide climatic and topographic variation includes 118 ecosystems, 75 vegetation and 35 forest types. Nepal has a very high species diversity falling in the 25 th position globally and 11 th position regionally, although it covers only about 0.3 percent of the landmass of Asia and 0.1 percent of the World. Species richness among floral diversity comprises 465 lichen species (2.3% of the global diversity); 1,822 fungal species (2.4%); 687 algal species (2.6%); 853 bryophyte species (5.1%); 534 pteridophyte species (4.71%); 27 gymnosperm species (5.1%); and 5,856 angiosperm species (2.7%). Faunal diversity includes 168 platyhelminthe species (1.4%); 144 spider species (0.2%); 5,052 insect species (0.7%); 640 butterfly species and 2,253 moth species (together 2.6%); 182 fish species (1.0%); 77 amphibians (1.84%); 118 reptile species (1.87%); 863 bird species (9.53%); and 181 mammal species (4.52%) (MoFSC, 2009). 128 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

143 In terms of ownership rights, all of Nepal s forests, except that on private land are state owned national forests. Under national forests there are five major categories: government managed, protected forests, community forests, leasehold forests and religious forests. The amount of forest cover on private land is increasing: from the perspective of communities rights, nearly 22% of the country s forests are now governed by communities, and the remaining 78% is still controlled by the state (Pokharel and Byrne, 2009). The forestry sector used to cover more than 45% area of the country during 1964; this area was 43% around 1979 and 37.4% in 1986; and a survey report in 1998 shows that the forest area is around 40% of the total land area, which also includes 10.6% shrub area. The rate of deforestation in the country is 1.7% per year between 1978 and It is 1.3% in the Terai, but 2.3% in the hills and mountains (MoFSC. 2009). The majority of the Nepalese live in rural areas and forests are the largest natural resources for basic need fulfillment, as well as additional sources of income. A significant percentage of the local communities sustain their livelihoods by direct use of forest ecosystem goods and services for household consumption, including food, fodder, fuel wood and medicinal plants. Nearly 88.3% of the population depends on the forests for daily fuel wood supply and 42% population for fodder for livestock. They also generate income from the trade of many forest goods, especially non-timber forest products (NTFPs). In addition to supporting local communities the forests also contribute to the national economy of the country, especially through timber and NTFPs exports. Overall the forestry sector contributes a major source of government revenue, foreign exchange and employment. The direct contribution is up to 9.45% of total GDP whereas the indirect contribution is estimated 27% of national GDP of the country (DoF, 2009). Temperature and precipitation changes The climate of Nepal is primarily influenced by the Himalayan mountain range and the South Asian monsoon. It experiences a wide range of climates varying from the sub-tropical in the south to the alpine type in the north within a short north-south span. Nepal has four distinct climatic seasons (Table 2): pre-monsoon (Mar-May), monsoon (June-Sept), post-monsoon (Oct-Nov) and winter (Dec-Feb) in its different ecological/physiographic zones (MoEnv, 2010). Table 2. Climate characteristics in different ecological belts of Nepal Physiographic Zone Ecological Belt Climate Average Annual Precipitation Mean Annual Temperature High Himalaya High Mountain Arctic/Alpine Snow/ < 3 10 ºC High Mountain Middle Middle Cool/Warm mm 275 2,300 mm ºC Mountain/Hills Mountain Siwalaks Churia/Terai Tropical/Subtropical 1,100 3, ºC Terai mm Nepal s average maximum temperature has shown an increase (Figure 1) of 1.8 C during the last 32 years (Malla, 2008). The national mean temperature of the country is approximately 15 C, and increases from north to south, with an exception in the mountain valleys. The studies carried out by the Department of Hydrology and Meteorology show that the average temperature in Nepal is increasing at the rate of approximately 0.06 degrees Celsius per year. The maximum temperature of the year occurs in May or early June and starts decreasing rapidly from October and reaches a minimum in December or January. Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 129

144 Temperature data indicate that the rise in temperature was greater at the higher altitudes; and increase in temperature was more observed during the cooler months ( C per year from October February, for all of Nepal) than for the warmer months ( C per year for March September). Studies also indicate that the observed warming is not uniform across the country and is more pronounced in high altitude regions compared to the Terai and Siwalak regions (MoEnv, 2010). Figure 1: Average annual maximum temperature trend for Nepal ( ) The temperature varies with topographic and orographic variations. The maximum recorded temperature during summer varies from 25 C to 46 C and the minimum temperature during winter varies from minus 26 C to nearly freezing point. Deforestation, industrialization and urbanization have influenced the rise in temperature in recent years. Aspect also has an important influence on vegetation. In general, moisture is retained more on north and west faces, while south and east faces are drier due to their longer exposure to the sun. Nepal falls within the monsoon region and the national average rainfall is about 1,500 mm, with rainfall increasing from west to east. About 80% of rain falls between June to September in the form of summer monsoon. Most of the winter rainfall occurs during December to February. Nepal receives abundant rainfall, but the distribution throughout the year is of great concern with regards to the occurrence of floods, landslides and other extreme events. Most floods occur during the monsoon season when heavy precipitation coincides with snowmelt in the mountains. Rainfall also varies by altitude; areas over 3,000 m experience a lot of drizzle, while heavy downpours are common below 2,000 m (Gaire et al., 2008). 130 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

145 Figure 2: Trend in total precipitation ( ) for Nepal. Unlike temperature trends, precipitation data for Nepal does not reveal any significant trends and is erratic in pattern (Figure 2). Erratic rainfall events (i.e. higher intensity of rains but less number of rainy days and unusual rain) with no decrease in total amount of annual precipitation have, however, been experienced. Such events increases the possibility of climatic extremes such as irregular monsoon patterns, droughts and floods (Malla, 2008). The projection of temperature and precipitation changes using various Global Climate Model analyses revealed that there is a significant and consistent predicted increase in temperatures for the years 2030, 2050 and 2100 in Nepal (Table 3). Increases in temperatures are somewhat larger for the winter months (December to February) than the summer months. The models also project an overall increase in annual precipitation with more rainfall during summer monsoon months (June to August). Thus, based on these analyses there is a reasonably high probability that the warming trend already observed in recent decades will continue through the 21 st century. There is also a moderate probability that the summer monsoons might intensify, thereby increasing the risk of flooding and landslides with subsequent impacts on agriculture and livelihoods. Table 3. Projection of temperature and precipitation changes for Nepal ( ) Year Temperature ( C ) Precipitation (%) Annual Dec Feb Jun Aug Annual Dec Feb Jun Aug Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 131

146 Insect pests of forest trees: A review Insect pests are one of the major ecological components of forest ecosystems. A large number of forest pests are reported to damage both natural and plantation forests in Nepal. Although some published and unpublished literatures exist, most of the studies are concentrated on the incidental outbreaks of forest pest epidemics and listing of insect pests associated with affected trees. Regular monitoring or surveillance efforts have not been employed in any type of forest programme. Insect pest incidence are sometime reported from government plantations but no information for private forests exists. Though some information on the biology and ecology of insect pests are provided. especially in extension materials, these findings are based on secondary information and review work. The management practices suggested in these materials are based on technology developed against the insect pests of cultivated crops. The foremost published report on the occurrence of insect pests of forest plants in Nepal was made by Jackson (1987) who reported different forest pests and insects of plantation trees. Sissoo (Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.), is one of the most commonly planted trees in Nepal but has suffered from a serious die-back problem A number of species of insects and other pests have been listed in association with these trees. Tuladhar (1996a), mentioned three major insect pests namely pinhole insect borers as xylem feeders, heartwood borer destroying the xylem system and termite feeding upon the bark of stems and roots. The other insect pests of Sissoo reported by various authors and reviewed by Tuladhar (1996a) gave an account of thirty six insect pests. Among them the most common were a defoliator, Plecoptera reflexa Guenee (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae); leaf binder, Dichomeris eridantis; grasshopper, Brachytrypes portentosus Lichtenstein (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) and termite, Odontotermes parvidens Holmgren & Holmgren (Isoptera: Termitidae). Some of these pests were reported earlier by White (1988) where he mentioned eight major insect pests of Sissoo in the Terai region. These were Dasychira sp. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), Euproctic sp. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), P. reflexa, D. eridantis, Lithocollectidae sp. (Lepidoptera: Lithocollectidae), Aspidiotes orientalis Newstead (Homoptera: Coccidae), Perissus dalburgiae (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) and Cyclotermes obesus (Rambur) (Isoptera: Termitidae). Similarly, a longhorn beetle, Aristobia horridula Hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae as a severe pest infesting and killing young Sissoo trees. A loss assessment study performed by Karki et al. (2000) of the die-back problem in Sissoo in almost all Terai districts showed the highest proportion of dying trees was 26.4% (Bara district), with an estimated total loss of about 5000 million NRs nationwide. Likewise, KC (2007) reported a massive loss of plantations (up to 30-50%) caused by dieback in Sissoo. He observed ten species of insects, with the most common and destructive insect pests being P. reflexa and Apoderus sissoo Marshal (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). The occurrence of leucaena psyllid, Heteropsylla cubana Crawford (Homoptera: Pauropsyllidae), a destructive insect pest of ipil ipil, Leucaena spp. in Nepal was first accounted by Joshi (1992). This pest was first observed during mid-june of 1989 in eastern Nepal, but has since been reported from various parts of Nepal. Several insect pests of Teak in Nepal has been reported. White teak, Gmelina arborea Roxb., is native to Nepal and is consistently affected by carpenter worm Prionoxystus sp. which bores into stems of saplings (Dhakal, 2008). The other insects damaging teak is canker grub, Dihammus cervinus Hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), which bores longitudinal galleries into the cambial layer of saplings, and the larvae of Calopepla leayana (Latreille) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and Glenea indiana (Thomson) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Another damaging insect of white teak is the ozola minor (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), a small moth whose larvae feeds on the leaves. Dhakal (2008), observed attack of some insects in another species of teak, Tectona grandis Linn., which is non-native to Nepal. Insect pests, 132 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

147 like the defoliator Hyblaea puera Cramer (Lepidoptera: Hyblaeidae); leaf feeding Eutectona machaeralis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae); stem boring Sahyadrassus malabaricus (Moore) (Lepidoptera: Hepialidae); mealy bugs (Hemiptera); leaf feeding Planococcus sp. (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae); stem boring Zeuzera coffeae Neitner (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) and leaf/terminal shoot feeding Helicoverpa armigera Hubner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) has been reported by the author. Among these insect pests, H. puera, E. machaeralis and S. malabaricus were identified as major pests, while Z. coffeae and H. armigera were regarded as recently recorded emerging problems. The incidence of teak defoliator, H. puera in Nepal as a major pest is also mentioned in the FAO global review of forest pests (FAO, 2009). Neupane (1992) reported six insect pests from Paraserianthes spp. Of them, two species, namely, B. portentosus and Oxycarenus sp. (Homoptera: Membracidae), were serious in the nursery and grown-up plants respectively. He also found B. portentosus as an important pest in the nurseries of china berry, Melia azedarach and Acacia auriculiformis. Many scarabaeid beetles were also reported from these multipurpose trees. Dhakal (2008), reported Arthroschista hilalaris attacking Kadam, Anthocephalus chinensis Lam. Other insect pests reported from Kadam were larvae of the polyphagous scarabid beetles Euchlora viridis Fab.; Holotrichia constricta Burmeister, Holotrichia helleri Brenske, Lepidiota stigma Fab. and Leucopholis rorida Fab. They also found nematodes (Meloidogyne javanica, Hemicriconemoides, Tylenchorhynchus and Hoplolaimus) associated with the roots and a fungus, Scytalidium lignicola with the branches. The same author in his observations on the exotic plantation tree, Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. Reported polyphagous pests like termites, aphids and rodents damaging the plants. Likewise, a bagworm (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) was reported by Tuladhar (1996b) in Pinus roxburgbii plantations. Sal trees, Shorea robusta Roth. are affected by the Sal heartwood borer, Hoplocerambyx spinicornis Newman (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) (Bist 2011). Climate change impact on forest insect pests Limited studies and lack of research data are the major constraints on addressing climate change issues on forest ecosystems in Nepal. Several studies confirm that Nepal is among the highly vulnerable countries to the climate change issues, but due to the lack of reliable information, it is very difficult to identify key climatic risk and vulnerable areas for necessary mitigation and adaptation programs. Nepal Biodiversity Strategy (2002) has identified five ecosystems in Nepal, which is variously affected by climate change. This is probably related to higher temperatures in lower altitudes, upward shifting of vegetation, encroachment of invasive species and thereby colonization, and increased prevalence of insect pests and disease along with other natural calamities. It is difficult to predict the impacts of climate change on forest insect pests because of the complexity of the interactions between insects and forest ecosystems. This overall response is dependent on the impacts of climate change on the insect tree host natural enemy relationship. However, some generalized predictions can be made, based on current pest distributions and the severity of insect outbreaks in different regions. Lives of insects are highly dependent on climatic components such as temperature, precipitation and relative humidity. A simple change in any of these parameters can subsequently alter the insect behavior and ultimately their population. Research findings have suggested that temperature has broad effects on the physiology and behavior of all insects and their developmental stages. Temperature influences metabolic rate, flight activity, reproduction capacity, nutrition, development and survival rate of the insect pests. All these parameters will result in increased insect populations as well as more generations per year. In brief, most of the studies so far conducted, have agreed that the expected climatic changes are going to promote the life cycle, growth and development of the majority of forest insect pests. Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 133

148 Although climate change impacts on forest insects has not been studied in Nepal, one of the most pronounced impacts might be their upward movement towards the high altitude forest habitats. The presence of scarabaeid beetles in Utis (Alnus nepalensis) plantations at higher altitudes has already been reported. Similarly, the spread of insect borne diseases such as malaria, Japanese encephalitis and Kalazar (transmitted by sand fly bite) to the sub-tropical and foot-hill regions of Nepal has also been documented. The effect of climate change will not only result in the shift of present distributional ranges, but also the increased probability of the establishment of exotic species The chances of pest introductions through global trade are very likely in Nepal where the quarantine system is very poor. Several non-native tree species are grown in Nepal. These include Eucaplytus and Leucaena species from Australia, Cryptomeria species from Japan and many more from India including Tectona grandis, Dalbergia sissoo, and Acacia catechu. Many insect species are already reported to damage these plantations, such as recent epidemics of the gall chalcid, Leptocybe invasa in nurseries and plantations of E. camaldulensis. Similarly, cosmopolitan and polyphagous defoliating insect pests such as Spodoptera spp., Helicoverpa spp., scarabaeid beetles, hairy caterpillar, semi-looper, grasshoppers and many more has been reported to damage different forest trees. Similarly in cultivated crops, aphid, mealy bug, white fly and mite has intensified (References). Some of these pests are also reported to damage tree in forest nurseries. Likewise, an outbreak of the secondary insect pest, the leaf miner fly, Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard) in potato was observed recently, and all these reports are related with climatic variations (References). Measures to protect forests from insect pests and diseases are an integral part of sustainable forest management. The development of effective pest management practices, however, requires accurate information on the different aspects of pests,pathogens and forest ecosystems. Regular monitoring of insect pests, studies on their ecology, biology, host and distribution patterns, their impacts on forest ecosystems and interaction with natural enemies needs to be carried out on a regular basis. The practice of using chemical pesticides, especially in forest nurseries should be replaced with more eco-friendly management methods. Although some qualitative information exists at local level, reliable quantitative information is still lacking in Nepal. It is impossible to generate mitigation and adaptation programs without this information. So, it is necessary to develop an effective research and development plan to deal with climate change issues in the future. Conclusion Climate change is not only of international or regional concern, but is gradually becoming a national problem in Nepal. The existing forest types, farm-forestry cultivation practices and high dependency of rural people in forest resources has made Nepal one of the most vulnerable countries to climate change. Many reports have shown people living in rural areas have already experienced unexpected changes in weather, water supply, upward shifting of plant species and increased incidence of insect pests, disease and forest fires. Despite the damage caused by insect pests in plantations and forests, no attention has been given to better understanding the ecology and biology of these organisms in Nepal. A simple, regular insect pest monitoring and surveillance system in different forest ecologies should be established to address this lack of information. This will help in the formation of sustainable insect pest research and management options inside the country. The co-ordination and co-operation from all concerned sectors in Nepal to resist against climate change issues is an utmost necessary. 134 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

149 References BIST, H.R Heart wood borer: a potential threat to Sal forest in Nepal. Forestry Nepal, DHAKAL, A Silviculture and productivity of five economically important timber species of central Terai of Nepal. International Tropical Timber Organization, Yokohama, Japan and Nepal Agroforestry Foundation, Kathmandu, Nepal. p. viii+96. DoF Records of the Department of Forest. Department of Forest, Babar Mahal, Kathmandu, Nepal. FAO Global review of forest pests and diseases. FAO Forestry Paper 156. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. p. ix+222. GAIRE, D., M. SUVEDI AND J. AMATYa Impact assessment and climate change adaptation strategies in Makawanpur district, Nepal. Action Aid, Nepal; Department of International Development, UK; Women and Children Development Forum, Kathmandu, Nepal. p. 33. JACKSON, J.K Manual of afforestation in Nepal. Nepal-UK Forestry Research Project, Kathmandu, Nepal. p JOSHI, L The leucaena psyllid arrives in Nepal. Banko Jankari, 2 (3), p KARKI, D., H.B. THAPA; G.B. JUWA; J.R. TULADHAR; G. MANANDHAR AND A.N. DAS Sissoo dieback: its cause and effect on plantation management. Banko Jankari, 10 (2), p KC, R Insects, pests and diseases of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. Forestry Nepal, MALLA, G Climate change and its impact on Nepalese agriculture. The Journal of Agriculture and Environment, 9, p MoEnv National adaptation program of action (NAPA). Ministry of Environment, Government of Nepal, Kathmandu, Nepal. MoEnv Mountain environment and climate change in Nepal. National report prepared for the international conference of mountain countries on climate change, 5-6 April 2012, Kathmandu, Nepal. Ministry of Environment, Government of Nepal. p. xvi+38. MoFSC Nepal fourth national report to the convention on biological diversity. Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation, Government of Nepal, Singha Durbar, Kathmandu, Nepal. p. vi+88. MoFSC Role of forest on climate change adaptation. Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation, Government of Nepal, Singha Durbar, Kathmandu, Nepal. p. iv+58. NEUPANE, F.P Insect pests associated with some fuel wood and multipurpose tree species in Nepal. Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 5 (1), p POKHAREL, B.K. AND S. BYRNE Climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies in Nepal s forest sector: how can rural communities benefit? NSCFP Discussion Paper No. 7. Nepal Swiss Community Forestry Project, Ekantakuna, Lalitpur, Nepal. p. iv+43. RIJAL, A Climate change mitigation in the forestry sector of Nepal. UNDP. p. iv+30. Tuladhar, J.R a. Insect pests of Dalbergia sissoo. FORESC Monograph 2/996, Forest Research and Survey Center, Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation, Government of Nepal, Singha Durbar, Kathmandu, Nepal. p. v+50. TULADHAR, J.R b. A preliminary observation on psychidae damaging Pinus roxburghii plantations in Kathmandu valley. Banko Jankari, 6 (2), p. 87. Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 135

150 INTEGRATED FOREST HEALTH MANAGEMENT WILL ASSIST IN ADAPTING TO A CHANGING CLIMATE Simon Taka Nuhamara and Haryono Semangun Magister Biology Study Program Satya Wacana Christian University Jl. Diponegoro Salatiga Corresponding author: Abstract This concept of disease decline is explored and proposed as being better able to represent the possible changes in forest health status under a changing climate. Forest health management is complex and requires consideration of silvicultural practices, environmental factors especially soil and tree genetics. Integrated forest health management (IFHM) is discussed as an approach to forest health management. Key words: climate change, etiology, decline disease, integrated forest health management Introduction Forest stakeholders no longer consider only the silvicultural determinants of productivity, but are also very cognizant of the influence that forest health has on productivity. We are urged to reformulate or redefine our needs in a changing future (Meadows et al 1972; Schumacher, 1973). Climate change will have a dramatic influence on both the status and the way that we manage forest health. Climate change and forest health Recent extensive tree death events in North America have been associated with climate change (Kurz et al. 2008; and van Mantgen et al. 2009). Many authors discuss the influence of climate change on forest health e.g. Boland et al. 2004; Desprez-Loustau et al. 2007; Sturrock, 2007; La Porta et al. 2008; Moore and Allard, 2008; Dukes et al. 2009; Kliejunas et al. 2009; Tuby and Weber, Predictions about the impact of climate change on forest health are similar and summarised in Sturrock et al. 2011; 1. Most plant diseases are strongly influenced by environmental conditions, climate change will affect the pathogen, the host and the interaction between them, resulting in changes in disease impact, 2. Abiotic factors such as temperature and moisture affect host susceptibility to pathogens and pathogen growth, reproduction and infection, changes in interactions between biotic diseases and abiotic stressors may represent the most substantial drivers of disease outbreaks, 3. The distribution of hosts and diseases will change. Increases in temperature and changes in precipitation may allow the ranges of some species to expand, perhaps whilst contracting elsewhere, but models frequently predict a reduction in potential geographic distribution of tree species as a result of climate change. 4. Pathogens that typically affect water-stressed hosts are likely to have an increased impact on forests in regions where precipitation is reduced, 5. The roles of pathogens as disturbance agents will probably increase, as their ability to adapt to new climatic conditions will be greater than that of their long-lived hosts, 136 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

151 6. Most pathogens will be able to migrate to locations where climate is suitable for their survival and reproduction at a faster rate than tree species, and 7. Climate change will affect the life cycles and biological synchronicity of many forest trees and pathogens, resulting in changes in the distribution and phenology of events such as bud break in tree hosts, spore release by pathogens, and activities of insects that serve as vectors of pathogens; this may significantly alter disease incidence and severity. Concepts of the disease triangle versus decline and responding to climate change What lessons can we learn from those seven predictions summarized by Sturrock et al. 2011? Francl 2001 states that one of the educational paradigms in plant pathology is the disease triangle i.e. the existence of a disease caused by a biotic agent absolutely requires the interaction of a susceptible host, a virulent pathogen, and an environment favorable for disease development. Sturrock s seven points however clearly demonstrate that the complexity of interactions between biotic and abiotic factors operate in such a way that the simplistic disease triangle concept does not hold (Semangun 1996). Decline disease suggested by Manion in 1981 is probably more appropriate to shifts in forest health status under changing climatic conditions. Manion defines a decline disease as caused by the interaction of a number of interchangeable, specifically ordered abiotic and biotic factors to produce a gradual general deterioration, often ending with the death of trees (Manion 1981). A decline disease has the following characteristics (Manion 1991): 1. a usually slow, progressive deterioration in health and vigor 2. primarily affects a mature cohort of trees 3. decreased growth and increased twig and branch dieback (applies more to hardwoods than to conifers) 4. the etiology is complex and may involve important contributions from abiotic and biotic factors. The hierarchy of interactions between abiotic and biotic factors can be considered as follows: Predisposing factors: These are long term and associated with climate, site, age, and the genetic predisposition of the host. These long term factors make trees more susceptible to inciting factors. Inciting factors: These are short term triggers such as defoliation, frost damage, and drought. If not for these short term predisposing factors, trees would recover quickly, but predisposed tree go into decline and are vulnerable to contributing factors. Contributing factors: Opportunistic fungi and insects like bark beetles, and root rot disease. These factors administer the coup de grace but would not necessarily have this impact if the trees were not in decline. The strength of this decline disease concept is that the key words underlying the concept are interactions between abiotic and biotic factors which promotes a clearer understanding of etiology (causation). With such an understanding in mind, especially with the pressure of climate change, there will be an improvement in the planning, organizing, and carrying out of forest health management. Strategies for improving forest health must be integrated into every stage of forest production. Forest health management may need to be different if a plantation is established for pulp and paper or for solid wood if the silvicultural regimes are not the same. Tree species should be Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 137

152 matched to sites i.e. trees should be genetically and physiological adapted to the soils and environment. The most appropriate silvicultural regime for the tree species, site and endproduct should be adopted. This approach is known as integrated forest health management (IFHM), a refinement of integrated pest management (IPM). Examples from Indonesia where IFHM is required - especially under a changing climate In Indonesia, over the last two to three decades, forest companies have developed large areas of forest plantations for pulp and paper production. The major forest species planted are exotic fast growing species of eucalypt and acacia. An integrated forest health management approach should consider the long term effect on forest health of multiple and short rotations of plantation trees i.e. will there be irrevocable soil degradation? While disease tolerant clones have been developed, this resistance is not always expressed e.g. the fungal pathogen Kiramyces destructans can cause severe damage. A changing climate may significant impact disease the expression of resistance especially if there are climate induced shifts in land preparation and planting times. Low water retention, boron and copper deficiency are common in sandy soils and, if the dry season is longer than usual, predispose certain eucalypt clones to bud damage and shoot dieback. Botryosphaeria canker contributes to damage during a prolonged dry season. Not all clones recover in the rainy season. The incorrect use of herbicides and fertilisers inhibit the symbiotic benefits of mycorrhizal associations making recovery more difficult. Species of Ganoderma are serious root-rot pathogens of hardwood plantation trees, especially Acacia mangium. The particular host species and type of soil may predispose the trees to root-rot disease which will be triggered by the presence of inoculum from stumps and favourable environmental conditions. Many forest companies are propagating plantation eucalypts by cuttings. Trees developed from cuttings are reported to develop poor root systems. A poor root system, especially in sub-optimal soil conditions will make trees more susceptible to the negative impact of unfavourable climatic conditions and more likely to be attacked by fungal pathogens such as Ganoderma. Recommendations for IFHM 1. Develop genotypes for forest tree crops that are specifically adapted to known climatic and soil conditions and which are vigorous and pest/disease tolerant. 2. Evaluate site-species suitability. 3. Reduce as much as possible the unnecessary use of both inorganic fertilisers and herbicides. 4. Improve nursery propagation techniques to ensure good rooting in the field. 5. Increase the number of trained staff who can adopt an IFHM approach. 138 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

153 References BOLAND, GJ, MELZER, MS, HOPKIN A, HIGGINS V, NASSUTH A Climate change and plant diseases in Ontario. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology 26: Desprez-Loustau, M-L, Robin C, Reynaud G Simulating the effects of a climatechange scenario on the geographical range and activity of forest pathogenic fungi. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology 29: DUKES, JS, PONTIUS J, ORWIG D et al., Responses of insect pests, pathogens, and invasive plant species to climate change in Responses of insect pests, pathogens, and invasive plant species to climate change in the forest of northeastern North America: What can we predict? Canadian Journal of Forest Research 39: KLIEJUNAS, JT, GEILS BW, GLAESER JM et al Review of Literature on Climate Change and Forest Diseases of Western North America. Albany, CA, USA: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station: General Technical Report PSW-GTR-225. LA PORTA, N, CAPRETTI P, THOMSEN IM, KASANEN R, HIETALA AM, VONWEISSENBERG K Forest pathogens with higher damage potential due to climate change in Europe. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology 30: MANION, P.D Tree Disease Concepts, 1st edn. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA: Prentice- Hall. MANION, P.D Tree Disease Concepts, 2nd edn. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA: Prentice-Hall. MEADOWS, D.H, DENNIS L. MEADOWS, JORGEN RANDERS AND WILLIAM W. BEHRENS III, (1972) Limits to Growth, New York: New American Library. MOORE B, ALLARD G Climate Change Impacts on Forest Health. Rome, Italy: Forestry Department, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: Working Paper FBS 34E. SCHUMACHER, F.E Small is Beautiful. Economics as If People Mattered London: Blond & Briggs SEMANGUN, H Pengantar ilmu penyakit tumbuhan. Gajah Mada University Press. STURROCK, R.N, Climate change effects on forest diseases: an overview. In: Jackson MB, ed. Proceedings of the 54th Annual Western International Forest Disease Work Conference. Missoula, MT, USA: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Health Protection, STURROCK, R.N., S. J. FRANKEL, A. V. BROWN, P. E. HENNON, J. T. KLIEJUNAS, K. J. LEWISE, J. J. WORRALL, AND A. J. WOODS Climate change and forest diseases. Plant Pathology 60: TUBBY, KV, WEBBER J.F Pests and diseases threatening urban trees under a changing climate. Forestry 83: Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 139

154 FOREST PEST DETECTION SYSTEMS IN FIJI Binesh Dayal & Sanjana Lal Fiji Forestry Department, Silviculture Research & Resource Development Division, P. O. Box 2218, Government Buildings, Suva, Fiji Islands Corresponding author: Abstract The overall objectives of the program Forest Pest Detection Systems in Fiji include the identification of suitable static traps for target pest groups at high hazard sites, appropriate species for sentinel plantings to be deployed near high hazard sites, training of staff in trapping techniques, sentinel plant surveys, collection and identification of major insect orders and efficient communications within the region and between relevant national and international agencies. The impacts of the program have been multi-fold in that the forest protection section of the Fiji Forestry Department has been upgraded with skills, capacity, equipment and confidence. This upgrading process has formed a platform from which staff can continue with the development of activities as part of their business plan and budgeted from our research operational funds. Forest Health can now deliver better and more sustainable outcomes for Fiji. Introduction Fiji is geographically located in the southern Pacific Ocean, northeast of Australia and about 1500 kilometers directly north of New Zealand. Some 110 of the country's 332 islands are inhabited. The two largest islands, Viti Levu and Vanua Levu, account for more than 85% of the country's 18,270 square kilometers of land area. Fiji being located in the hub of the Pacific and a transit point, has a huge risk of pests and diseases entering the country if proper monitoring and surveillance programs are not in place. Fiji s natural forests and plantations are often affected by extreme climatic conditions (approximately four cyclones pass through the country s maritime zones each year particularly during the wet season, November to April). Fiji s total forest cover is approximately 1,014,000 hectares in relation to the total landmass of 18,376 km2. About 1,014,000 ha or 55.5% of Fiji is forested. Of this 17.5% (177,000 ha) is classified as primary forest, the most bio-diverse and carbon-dense form of forest. Fiji had 177,000 ha of planted forest e.g. mahogany and Caribbean pine. Fiji Forest Policy clearly stipulates the need for strengthening forest health protection due to increased levels of threats from invasive alien species and the impacts it will have on the forest resources and forest plantations thus affecting the country s economy and trade. Forest pests and diseases are common in indigenous forests and plantations, however extensive research studies have not being undertaken, unlike for food crop plants in agricultural land as the Agriculture sector is one of the major sector s contributing to the country s economy. Literature by the Research Staff of Fiji Forestry Department on certain pests and diseases has not been published for reference nationally or internationally. Fiji experienced a serious incident in 2010 when there was an outbreak of the Asian subterranean termite Coptotermes gestroi damaging wooden built structures and stressing standing trees in natural forests and plantations. The introduction of this species was only detected at the time it began to cause 140 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

155 obvious damage. The outbreak of Asian subterranean termite Coptotermes gestroi in 2010 caused severe damage to wooden built structures in the western parts of the two main large islands of the group. Hundreds of households and schools buildings were severely affected by this termite. Government funds needed to be sourced for the amount of FJ$500,000 (US$279,330) that was used for the control and containment exercise and for the restoring households and school buildings severely affected. The Forest Pest Detection Systems in Fiji program was introduced in 2006 with assistance from the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Australia. Program Objectives Develop forest health surveillance in Fiji and consider management options Improve forest health surveillance techniques in Fiji Develop capacity in taxonomic expertise, and specimen handling, curating and housing Establish a web-based mechanism for data sharing and access to other information resources Compile a priority list of damaging pests and diseases in Fiji. Program Outcomes Improved pest detection systems In-country visits by ACIAR staff were important in providing training on timber and insect Quarantine entomology, and how to curate a forest insect collection especially under tropical conditions. An insect laboratory now houses a great diversity of insects (mostly identified up to family level) and rearing facilities are established in the insect lab. Insect identifications are carried out locally by staff or visiting entomologists and may be sent to Australia for authentication. Traps have been established in forest plantations and their use is on-going. A major component of the program was the testing of different lure/trap combinations to better suit use in tropical/subtropical climates. Other findings are that trap placement, site effects and the type of vegetation have a strong influence on catches of wood-boring insects. Trap silhouette influences the catch even in the absence of lures/attractants. The type of lure used is significant in the catch of individual species. This research with traps and lures is still in progress. Poor preservation of specimens in the traps has remained an issue due to heavy and intense rainfall diluting preservation fluid. In addition, in Fiji, electricity outages due to severe weather conditions resulted in partial decomposition of samples stored in the freezer. Many samples contained only fragmented insects which could not be identified. Despite this, in Fiji the surveys have yielded 43 target group species that have been positively identified, with about 10 species awaiting identification. Insect trap surveys have yielded records of two new species in Fiji. One is Xylosandrus crassisculus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) which has been recorded for the first time in Fiji and Sinoxylon sp. (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) which was collected in a trap set up in Viti Levu, Fiji. The status of the genus in Fiji is not clear, Sinoxylon is not included in the Bishop Museum list 'Checklist of the Coleoptera of Fiji' (Evenhuis 2008); however several specimens of S. anale collected in the early 1980's were found recently in Fiji. It is not clear if they were from a quarantine intercept. Significantly, Erythrina gall wasp, Quadrastichus erythrinae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), one of the target insects identified at the inception of the program in 2006, was discovered in Fiji in September The insects caught in static traps from are shown in Table 1. Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 141

156 Table 1. Insects caught in static traps from Static Insect Traps Placement (locations/sites) Nurseries, forest plantations of Pine, Mahogany, Teak & Agar wood, Sandalwood trial plots, Pine seed stands, Sandalwood clonal seed orchard, forest park, container depot, logged and unlogged mahogany forest plantations and major ports of entry (wharf) Insect species No. of Insect Collected (Year) & No. of Assessments assessments assessments Ambrosia Beetle 8,224 1, Ants Bostrichid 26-8 Bugs Butterfly Carabidae Cerambycidae Chrysomelidae Cicada Cicindelidae Cleridae Click beetle Cockroaches - 1 Crickets Curculionidae Elateridae Flies 33-8 Grasshoppers Hemiptera Homoptera Ladybirds 4-2 Laminae Mantids Mosquitoes Moth 5-2 Platypus 28-9 Ratelida Scarabaeidae Scarab beetle Scolytid Spiders Staphylinidae Tenebrionidae Termites Tree Fog Wasps 2-3 Water Beetle Weevil Xylothrips religious assessments Total 8,606 1, Source: Silviculture Research Insect Collection Data 2009 to Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

157 Improved forest health surveys The Silviculture Research & Resource Development Division is involved with surveys of pests (and diseases) in second rotation mahogany plantations, exotic and indigenous species trials, pine plantations, mahogany plantations, teak plantations, agar wood plantations and nurseries. The results of surveys in mahogany, sandalwood and teak from are show in Table 2. Table 2. Surveys in mahogany, sandalwood and teak from Number Type of stands Tree species of Year surveyed assessments Sandalwood Trial Plots. Sandalwood Trial Plot Sandalwood Trial Plots & Sandalwood in-situ gene conservation stands. Sandalwood Trial Plots & Sandalwood Seed Production Areas Mahogany plantation, Sandalwood research plots, Sandalwood SPA and Pine trial plots. Sandalwood trial plots, Sandalwood ex-situ gene conservation plot, Mahogany and Teak plantations Santalum yasi, Santalum album & Swietinia macrophylla. Santalum yasi, Santalum album & Eleocarpus grandis. Santalum yasi & Santalum album. Santalum yasi, Santalum album & hybrid sandalwood Swietinia macrophylla, Santalum yasi and Pinus caribea Santalum yasi, Swietinia macrophylla and Tectona grandis Results of survey Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics Defoliation, algae stains on foliage & discoloration of foliage Defoliation, algae stains on foliage, discolouration of foliage, termite infestation, fungal attack (Armillaria & Phellinus), severe chewing of foliage and presence of beetle species on foliage. Defoliation, algal stains on foliage, discolouration of foliage, termite infestation, fungal attack (Armillaria & Phellinus) and chewing of foliage. Discolouration and chewing of foliage Infestation by Ambrosia beetles, fungal attack (Phellinus), chlorosis and chewing of foliage Foliage defoliation, white flies and foliage discoloration. Two major insect pests have been detected in the natural forests and mahogany plantations in Fiji (see Table 2). The ambrosia beetles of the family Platypodidae and Scolytidae are nonselective beetles with regard to plant families. These have been recorded from 69 tree species belonging to 42 plant families in natural forest, mahogany plantations as young as 8 years,

158 and in 2 year old potted mahogany seedlings in the nursery. At present, 5 species of platypodids and 104 species of scolytids have been identified. Evidence of fresh attack by ambrosia beetles is always associated with interference or actual destruction of the vegetation matrix; more common on marginal trees of the compartment and nearly always related to some forest logging, thinning, pruning or clearing. Hurricanes and cyclones in Fiji also leave behind large quantities of materials suitable for breeding. Occurrences are within 1 to 3 weeks after disturbance and evident for up to 5 months. Saplings in the nursery were found to be highly susceptible when stressed physiologically, dying or diseased. As can been seen from Table 2 termites are common in forest plantations. Three species of termites of the genus Neotermes (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae) have been identified attacking mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) in Fiji Neotermes spp, Neotermes papua Desneux and Neotermus samoanus Holmgren. The mean percent incidence was 7.7 and loss in wood volume, and consequently the economic value, was 8.0% of the total volume/value. No correlation was observed between the sites and the nature and rate of spread of infestation and virtually nothing is known on the diversity, distribution, abundance, mode of entry and colonization in the trees and relationship between attack and site or tree condition. Occasionally, infestation occurred in combination with heart-rot caused by the fungi Armillaria spp (mellea complex) or Phellinus noxius (Table 2). These termites are highly unselective and responsible for damage to economically important native trees as well. A total of 23 indigenous tree species belonging to 17 botanical families were found termite positive out of 48 species in 25 families. Although mean percent incidence was found to be 7%, 7 obligatory tree species were found to be more prone to severe damage: Cleistocalyx spp/syzygium spp (Myrtaceae), Callophyllum vitiense (Clusiaceae), Terminalia luteola (Cconbretaceae), Palaquium hornei (Sapotaceae), Dysoxylum richii (Meliaceae) and Myristica castaneifolia (Myristicaceae). Thirteen species of termites are reported from Fiji, six of which are considered as forestry pests: Coptotermes acinaciformis, Prorhinotermes inopinatus, Crytotermes spp, Crytotermes domestticus, Glyptotermes taveuniensis, Incisitermes repandus, Neotermes spp, Neotermes papua, Neoptermes samoanus, Procryptotermes spp., Nasutitermes olidus and Nasutitermes spp. Improved border security For border security against invasive and trans-boundary pest and diseases, port survey at the two major ports of Fiji, the Timber Utilization Division of the Forest Department has Timber Inspectors who are involved in inspections of timber and timber products imports and exports at the wharf. Timber Inspectors also inspects sawmills and hardware facilities when they raise concerns regarding their products, especially imported timber or timber products having insect or fungal damage. An important outcome of the training component on timber pests, in addition to the training itself, was the establishment of an improved working relationship between Fiji Quarantine and Forestry Department staff in regard to early detection of forest invasive species. Quarantine are now aware of the excellent forest insect reference collection held with Forestry Department at its facility with the Silviculture Research & Resource Development Division and with the help of Forestry utilize this resource for identification of potential pest species. 144 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

159 Challenges to ongoing forest health surveillance and pest detection A major constraint in carrying out systematic surveillance throughout forests and plantations is the lack expertise, specifically a forest entomologist and trained field personnel (caused by the promotion of trained staff to other positions). Most insect pests and diseases encountered are referred for identification to an agricultural entomologist The cost required and the availability of resources (such as vehicles) to undertake the activities Determining which pest is attacking a particular tree species and the level of damage it is causing Prolonged wet weather severely affects the quality of the insects trapped in static traps. Institutional commitment and long term strategies The Forestry Department is committed to conservation and the sustainable management of Fiji s natural resources and the development of its plantation. Biosecurity pest traps established at trade borders and plantations allow detection and monitoring of pests and diseases. Forest health and surveillance for pest and diseases remains an integral to the development of forest plantations. Strategic plans are in place to continue and improve border security against invasive and trans-boundary pests and diseases, setting up insect traps in natural and plantation forests both in logged out and un-logged areas to monitor insect populations and developing appropriate measures for forest protection and forest health surveys in forest plantations. The program initiated in 2006 has enabled the Department to understand and comprehend that early detection systems at borders as well as regular forest health surveillance is an essential component of forestry for the long term protection of the forest resources and the ease of trade of commercial species from a country fortunate in having only small numbers of timber pests. Through this program, the Forest Protection component of the Forestry Department in Fiji has been enhanced in capacity and technical expertise, such that forest health and border surveillance has been incorporated in the corporate and business plans of the Ministry with funding provided from the research divisions operation budget for future work. The government will take all efforts to protect natural and plantation forests and their biodiversity from forest fires, pests, natural disasters and invasive species. It will also ensure that commercialized forest entities take all reasonable steps to reduce the occurrence of unplanned fire in plantations and minimize damage from wildfire. Resource owners and cane farmers will be encouraged to use fire safely. Furthermore the government will ensure that commercialized forest entities take all reasonable steps to plan for mitigation of impacts of natural disasters such as cyclones and outbreaks of disease, pest or invasive species. Recommendations The program greatly benefited the Fiji Forestry Department; in particular it assisted Forest Health staff with establishing effective insect trapping methods, sorting, classification and identification of insects. In addition, the technical expertise and advice provided by the two ACIAR projects which were part of the program built the skill and knowledge of the Forest Health staff. The continuation of such a program would allow the detection and monitoring of pests and diseases affecting our forest resources and establish a proper system to ensure that our environment is preserved and protected and our timber trade enhanced due to pest free status to some extent. Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 145

160 Our recommendation is to establish a network with relevant agencies such as CSIRO, ACIAR, the Secretariat of Pacific Communities, Biosecurity Authority Fiji, and the University of the South Pacific. More capacity should be built through workshops. In addition, the development and implementation of strategic action plans is crucial for controlling and containment of pests and diseases in the country. It would be ideal now to have a project which would add value to and enhance the outcomes of the Forest Pest Detection Systems in Fiji program. Training is needed on how to carry out Pest Risk Analysis (PRAs). Training is also needed in the rapid control or containment of invasive pests and pathogens, should one be intercepted at ports of entry (Biosecurity Authority Fiji has in place the above strategic plans but geared more towards agricultural pests and diseases). Climate change can affect forests by altering the frequency, intensity duration, and timing of fire, drought, hurricanes, storms, landslides, introduced species, insect pests and pathogen outbreaks. Climate change is high on Fiji s agenda and requires vigorous awareness and capacity building to ensure that possible impacts on forest pests and diseases can be reduced. Climate variability and change may affect a pest species in a particular environment and involve the migration of a pest species population to more suitable environments for their survival. There is an urgent need therefore to consider how climatic fluctuations will influence forest health status in Fiji. The reduction of forest degradation, afforestation, conservation and maintaining biodiversity, increasing forest cover would be an excellent way forward to mitigate the impacts of climate change on forest pests and diseases. 146 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

161 OCCURRENCE, CHARACTERIZATION AND SPECIFIC DETECTION OF BROWN ROOT DISEASE PATHOGEN IN PENINSULAR MALAYSIA FOREST PLANTATIONS USING INTERNAL TRANSCRIBED SPACER (ITS) SPECIFIC PRIMERS Mohd Farid A. 1), Maziah Z. 3), Lee S.S. 1) and Mohd Rosli H. 2) 1) Pathology Laboratory, Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM) Kepong, Selangor, Malaysia; 2) Genetic Laboratory, Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM) Kepong, Selangor, Malaysia; 3) School of Biological Sciences Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) Minden, Penang, Malaysia Corresponding author: Abstract Brown root disease (BRD) caused by Phellinus noxius is lethal due to its capacity to kill trees irrespective of species, health status, age and locality. There is very little information on its incidence in Malaysian forest plantations due to lack of disease surveys. Therefore, surveys were conducted in selected forest plantations to assess incidence and severity of BRD. The pathogen was identified and described morphologically and species-specific primers were also used to detect the fungus present. In general, occurrence of BRD in forest plantations was relatively low (<5%). All fungal isolates obtained from the plantations were similar culturally and morphologically. Primer PNOX02 paired with ITS4 was sensitive in detecting the pathogen in pure culture, from fruiting bodies and from diseased tissues. Keywords: Brown root disease, forest plantation, morphology and specific primer Introduction Brown root disease caused by Phellinus noxius is well known as one of the most destructive root diseases in the tropics together with red root rot and white root rot caused by Ganoderma philippii and Rigidoporus microporus, respectively. Brown root rot is often reported to cause mortality in agricultural crops such as Hevea brasiliensis, tea, cocoa, jackfruit as well as in forest species either in plantations or in natural habitats (Holiday 1980; Hodges & Tenorio 1984; Wood & Lars 1985; Nandris et al. 1987; Old et al. 2000; Ann. et al. 2002). The disease was also documented to kill trees of all ages (Ann et al. 2002) starting as early as 1-2 years old (Browne 1986). Usually, trees affected by the disease exhibit rapid disease development starting from yellowing of leaves followed by wilting and finally defoliation (Ann et al. 1999). In the field, affected trees are often recognized by the presence of a characteristic brown mycelial mat or black mycelial crust on the surface of infected roots and a collar-like layer around the base of the stem. At present, control of the disease is difficult and application of fungicides is often ineffective, especially in the field. In Peninsular Malaysia, brown root disease incidence is also reported to occur on forest plantation species, especially Acacia mangium (Old et al. 2000). However, there is little information about the incidence and severity of the disease on other forest tree species in the country. Even though planted forest species such as Azadirachta excelsa, Tectona grandis and the timber latex clone (H. brasiliensis) have been reported to be very susceptible to the disease (Mohd Farid et al. 2006), the disease severity remains unclear due to lack of systematic disease surveys. In most cases, identification of the brown root disease pathogen is based on morphological characteristics of cultures (Stalpers 1978) and fruiting bodies (Nunez & Ryvarden 2001). Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 147

162 However, due to the recent upsurge in DNA technology, identification of fungal pathogens can be done more rapidly and accurately up to species levels, especially by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using species-specific primers. This approach has been reported to successfully detect the presence of mycorrhizal fungi in roots (Christoph et al. 2003), soil borne pathogens, Macrophomina phaseolina (Bandamaravuri et al. 2007) and Microbotryum violaceum anther-smut disease (Akhter & Antonovics 1999). Thus, we believe that development of species-specific primers can also be used to rapidly detect the presence of brown root disease. In this study, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of ribosomal DNA was used as a target region for taxonomic studies due to its high polymorphism within species (Chillali et al. 1998). These regions have proven to be useful for generating primers for a species-specific detection of pathogenic fungi in naturally infected plant tissue (Lovic et al. 1995). In the present study, surveys for brown root disease incidence in forest plantations of Peninsular Malaysia were carried-out to determine the severity of root disease infection, to characterize the causal organism and to evaluate a species-specific primer developed for rapid and accurate identification of the pathogen. Disease surveys Materials and Methods Disease assessment Surveys for brown root disease were carried out between 1998 and 2004 in 33 forest plantations in Peninsular Malaysia (Figure 1). Legend: Figure 1. Map of surveyed forest plantations in Peninsular Malaysia: A: Azadirachta excels; M: Acacia mangium; T: Tectona grandis; I: Hevea brasiliensis. These included A. excelsa (sentang), T. grandis (Teak), K. ivorensis (Khaya) and A. mangium as well as interplanted plantations of T. grandis with rubber and A. excelsa with rubber. These species were selected because they are among the major forest tree species recommended for plantation in the country. Two types of disease assessment, random sampling conducted on blocks of trees established in large-scale plantations (>0.4 ha) with 3 replications and complete sampling conducted in small scale plantations (<0.4 ha), 148 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics I M T A = A. excelsa x H. brasiliensis plantation = A. mangium plantation = T. grandis plantation = A. excelsa plantation

163 were made. Previous history of the plantations, techniques of plantation establishment and year of planting were documented. In the field, diseased trees were diagnosed based on above- and below-ground symptoms. Above-ground symptoms were yellowing and wilting of leaves, dieback, sparse foliage, defoliation, death of trees in patches and the presence of fruiting bodies. For below-ground symptoms, roots of diseased trees were excavated and symptoms and signs such as rusty brown encrustations of fungal mycelia intermingled with sand and soil particles on the root surface and the presence of a golden brown honeycomb-like pattern in the root recorded. Isolation of fungi from diseased roots Isolation of the suspected fungal pathogens was conducted on Ganoderma Selective Media (GSM) (Ariffin & Idris 1992). Prior to isolation, tools for excising diseased tissues were surface sterilized with 75% alcohol and flamed for approximately 30 s. Root tissues measuring approximately 5 mm 5 mm bearing disease symptoms were excised at the border between the healthy and infected zones and then plated directly onto the agar media. The plates were transported to FRIM and incubated at room temperature (28 C ± 2 o C) for 3-4 days. After incubation, fungal mycelia growing out of the tissues were transferred into new plates containing PDA which were incubated at room temperature for the fungi to grow. Fungal isolates All fungal isolates obtained were identified morphologically. Isolate 591 obtained by R.A. Fox, in 1956 from Field 49, Malaysia Rubber Board (MRB), Sg. Buluh from a stump of Pasania lucida left during land clearing for the establishment of rubber plantations and identified as P. noxius by K.P. John of RRIM, was used as a reference. Morphological characterization of P. noxius isolates Characteristics of cultures and fruiting bodies Characterization of brown root disease fungal isolates was based on examination of macroscopic and microscopic features according to Stalpers (1978). Fruiting bodies artificially induced in the laboratory according to the technique described by Lee and Noraini Sikin (1999) were described according to Nunez and Ryvarden (2000). All the identified isolates were then allocated a FRIM reference number for further study. Detection of P. noxius using species specific primer DNA was extracted from mycelia and affected tissues of collected specimens (Table 1). For species specific primer test using the fungal mycelia, Phellinus lamaensis, P. periculitatus, P. cf. gilvus and Phellinus sp. were used for comparison. For species specific primer test using diseased tissues, P. noxius isolates obtained from disease surveys and culture collections were artificially inoculated onto rubber wood blocks (Lee & Noraini Sikin 1999). DNA extracted from the infected wood blocks was then tested. Clean uninfected rubber wood tissues were used as negative control and a fruiting body of isolate 591 was used as positive control. DNA extraction and specific primer test Genomic DNA from mycelia, fruiting body and wood tissues was extracted using DNeasy plant Mini Kit (Qiagen, GmbH, Germany ). In total, 200 µl of genomic DNA were collected and then stored at 20 o C until used. For the primer test, a total of 37 Phellinus specimens, 10 in mycelial form, 13 fruiting bodies and 14 rubber wood blocks infected by the fungus, were used. Detection of P. noxius using specific primer PNOX02 (5 -AGT-GGT-TTA-TTC-GTT-TAT-TC-3 ) developed by Mohd Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 149

164 Farid et al. (2006) was undertaken using 50 μl of PCR reaction mixture containing 200 ng fungal genomic DNA templates, 0.5 pmol ITS4 universal primer, 0.5 pmol designed primer, 0.2mM dntp and 0.5 unit Taq DNA Polymerase. The reactions were incubated in a thermal cycler programmed at 94 o C: 30 s denaturing, 59.2 o C: 30 s annealing and 72 o C: 1min extension with 30 cycles. The PCR products were analyzed by 1% agarose gel electrophoresis and visualized by ethidium bromide staining. Results Disease surveys and assessment The majority of the 33 plantations surveyed (Figure 1) were small-scale and belonged to low income planters. In contrast, large scale plantations were mostly owned by private companies and state forestry departments (Appendix 1). Table 1. Specimen collections of Phellinus used in this study for primer design and/or testing using selective amplification of ribosomal DNA ITS regions. No. Specimen Species Host Locality 1 FRIM 25 DW P. noxius A. mangium Batu Arang, Selangor 2 FRIM 46 DW P. noxius A. mangium Rawang, Selangor 3 FRIM 100 DW P. noxius A. mangium Forestry Head Quarter, Kuala Lumpur 4 FRIM 112 DW P. noxius A. mangium Meuro Bengkal, Kalimantan, Indonesia 5 FRIM144 M, DW P. noxius A. excelsa Lendu, Melaka 6 FRIM147 M, DW 7 FRIM154 M, DW 8 FRIM556 M, DW 9 FRIM557 M, DW 10 FRIM613 M, DW 11 FRIM614 M, DW 12 FRIM618 M, DW 13 FRIM638 M, DW P. noxius A. excelsa Kuala Kangsar, Perak P. noxius A. mangium Ulu Sedili, Johor P. noxius A. mangium Kemasul, Pahang P. noxius A. mangium Gemas, N. Sembilan P. noxius T. grandis Sabak Bernam, Selangor P. noxius T. grandis Sabak Bernam, Selangor P. noxius T. grandis Sabak Bernam, Selangor P. noxius A. excelsa Sik, Kedah M, DW P. noxius H. brasiliensis Sg. Buluh, Selangor B P. noxius Unidentified Rawang, Selangor B P. noxius Unidentified Sentul, N. Sembilan B P. noxius Unidentified Pasoh, N. Sembilan 18 24N-4 B P. lamaensis Unidentified Pasoh, N. Sembilan B P. lamaensis Unidentified Pasoh, N. Sembilan B P. lamaensis Unidentified Pasoh, N. Sembilan 150 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

165 B P. lamaensis Unidentified Pasoh, N. Sembilan 22 6D-10 B P. periculitatus Unidentified Pasoh, N. Sembilan B P. periculitatus Unidentified Pasoh, N. Sembilan 24 4D-4 B P. cf. gilvus Unidentified Pasoh, N. Sembilan B Phellinus sp. Unidentified Pasoh, N. Sembilan B Phellinus sp. Unidentified Sabak Bernam, Selangor B Phellinus sp. Unidentified Pasoh, N. Sembilan M =DNA extracted from mycelia; B = DNA extracted from fruiting body; DW =DNA extracted from diseased wood block Four types of root disease were found namely white root disease (WRD), brown root disease (BRD), red root disease (RRD) and black root rot caused by Rigidoporus microporus, P. noxius, Ganoderma sp. and R. vinctus respectively. BRD was found in 8 plantations (24.2%) in monoculture A. excelsa plantations at Lendu, Melaka and Sik, Kedah (P1), monoculture T. grandis plantations at Sabak Bernam, Selangor (P1 & P2) and Kuala Kangsar, Perak and monoculture A. mangium plantations at Ulu Sedili, Johor, Gemas, Negeri Sembilan and Kemasul, Pahang. In general, the severity of the disease was considered low; BRD was highest (4.37%) in T. grandis at Sabak Bernam (P2) and lowest (0.25%) in A. excelsa at Sik, Kedah (P1). Symptomatic trees were observed to occur solitarily or in patches and trees as young as 1 year-old could be killed. Poor land clearing and a previous history of brown root disease in these plantations were often associated with disease incidence in the current plantations. In the field, above-ground symptoms were similar on the different species and manifested as yellowing and wilting of leaves and dieback, except in T. grandis where crown symptoms were less evident but bark depression, especially at the base of the main stem, and a rotted root collar were observed. Below ground, affected roots were covered by a dark brown surface mycelial crust intermingled with soil particles. In the wood, irregular golden brown pockets sometimes could be seen, especially on trees in very advanced stages of infection. Morphological characteristics of fungal isolate Cultures of the isolates that had morphological characteristics representative of P. noxius are in Appendix 2 (Stalpers 1978, Lee & Noraini Sikin 1999). Morphology of fruiting bodies Characteristics of P. noxius fruiting bodies obtained from diseased roots are shown in Appendix 3. In the present study, 9 fruiting bodies artificially induced in the laboratory from isolates FRIM144, FRIM147, FRIM154, FRIM556, FRIM557, 591, FRIM613, FRIM618 and FRIM638 were of resupinate form. The surface of all the fruiting bodies was undulating, hard, crusted, resinous when sectioned and finely velvety. The colour was pale ferruginous to umber in the older regions, and brown towards the margin. Tubes of the fruiting body were single layered and the context layer was brown in colour. The pores were round to angular with 9 14 pores per mm 2 measuring µm µm in diameter. They were small and invisible to the naked eye. White mycelial strands oriented radially were often observed inside the pores. Setal hyphae were abundant in all fruiting bodies, thick-walled, dark brown to ferruginous with obtuse to blunt ends measuring μm and projecting into the hymenium. The basidiospores were globose to subglobose, hyaline, smooth and thin walled, μm. Basidiospores of fruiting bodies of isolate 591 appeared to be the smallest compared to the other isolates. Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 151

166 Detection of P. noxius using species specific primer Results of PCR amplification revealed that primer combination PNOX02/ITS4 was sensitive and successfully detected the presence of P. noxius isolates only (Figure 2). All fungal specimens previously identified as P. noxius namely, 2113 (B), FRIM144 (E), FRIM147 (F), FRIM154 (G), FRIM556 (H), FRIM557 (I), FRIM613 (J), FRIM614 (K), FRIM618 (L), 591 (M), FRIM638 (P), 42 (R) and 55 (S) were detected in the present study. In contrast, the primer combination failed to amplify ITS region of the fungal specimens 24N-4, 1877, 1933 and 2049 (all P. lamaensis), 2005 and 6D-10 (both P. periculitatus), 4D-4 (P. cf gilvus) and 18273, 615 and 2079 (all Phellinus spp.). The study also revealed that the primer combination was equally sensitive in amplifying ITS regions of the fungus even though the isolates were obtained from various hosts and localities. It was also effective in detecting P. noxius from dried samples which had been kept for several years in the herbarium. Figure 2. DNA fragments of amplified ITS region in agarose gel indicating PNOX02/ITS4 primer combination is sensitive in discriminating P. noxius from P. lamaensis, P. periculitatus, P. cf gilvus, and Phellinus sp. A, O= 100 bp marker, B= 2113 (P. noxius), C= 625 (Phellinus sp.), D= (Phellinus sp.), E= FRIM144 (P. noxius), F= FRIM147 (P. noxius), G= FRIM154 (P. noxius), H= FRIM556 (P. noxius), I= FRIM557 (P. noxius), J= FRIM613 (P. noxius), K= FRIM614 (P. noxius), L= FRIM618 (P. noxius), P= FRIM638 (P. noxius), Q=24N-4 (P. lamaensis), R= 42 (P. noxius), S= 55 (P. noxius), T=1877 (P. lamaensis), U= 6D-10 (P. periculitatus), V=4D-4 (P. cf gilvus), W= 2079 (Phellinus sp.), X= 1933 (P. lamaensis), Y= 2049 (P. lamaensis), Z=2005 (P. periculitatus), M, a= Positive control (591), N, b= Negative control (H 2 O). The specific primer pair, PNOX02/ITS4 also successfully amplified DNA of all wood blocks inoculated with P. noxius (Figure 3). The primer pair was also sensitive in detecting the presence of P. noxius DNA from culture (isolate 591 (A), positive control). The primer combination failed to amplify DNA of healthy rubber wood (negative control, B). Discussion There is little information about the occurrence of brown root disease (BRD) in Peninsular Malaysian forest plantations and data is only available for surveys conducted by Lee (2000) in A. mangium plantations at Kemasul, Pahang. This study revealed that BRD occurred in 8 out of 33 plantations only, and in A. excelsa, T. grandis and A. mangium of different ages and health status. Trees as young as 1 year-old were killed. Disease severity varied with site and ranged from %. Although mortality rates were low, BRD could still be economically important if mortality increases with time and control measures are not taken. 152 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

167 It is also very difficult to eliminate the pathogen once present as it can survive in the soil for a long time as a saprophyte. Figure 3. DNA fragments of amplified ITS region in agarose gel indicating PNOX02/ITS4 primer combination is sensitive in detecting P. noxius from affected wood samples. A= 591 (Positive control), B= DNA of healthy wood (Negative control), C= FRIM638, D=FRIM618, E= FRIM614, F= FRIM613, G= FRIM557, H= FRIM556, I= FRIM154, J=FRIM147, K=FRIM144, L= FRIM112, M=FRIM100, N=FRIM46, O=FRIM25 and P=591 Occurrence of BRD was apparent in plantations that had poor land preparation and a previous history of root disease, especially in monocultures of A. excelsa, T. grandis and mixed A. excelsa rubber and T. grandis rubber. The majority had previously been planted with crops also known to be susceptible to BRD, such as cocoa, rubber, oil palm and coconut (Nandris et al. 1987; Wood & Lars 1985, Pegler, 1968). It is suggested that BRD in the present plantations could have originated from infected root remnants of former crops. BRD incidence in A. excelsa plantations in Lendu and Sik and a T. grandis plantation in Kuala Kangsar was lower than in T. grandis plantations in Sabak Bernam, possibly due to a lower incidence of disease in the previous crops as reported by local farmers. The more severe incidence in Sabak Bernam, especially P2 was most likely due to the presence of a higher inoculum load in the soil due to poor land clearing. Previous agricultural crops on the site of these present plantations were often killed by BRD and left untreated until conversion into a forest plantation. As a result, the pathogen may have remained as a saprophyte, becoming a parasite when susceptible trees such as T. grandis were planted. Disease spread was most likely via contact between infected woody debris and healthy roots or between roots of diseased and healthy neighboring trees, similar to that reported in H. brasiliensis (Nandris et al. 1987) and A. mangium (Lee 1996) plantations affected by root disease. Trees in the Sabak Bernam teak plantations were older, uniform and bigger with well developed root systems compared to the younger and smaller trees in the Lendu, Sik and Kuala Kangsar plantations. The chances of tree roots reaching buried inoculum in the soil are therefore lower in the younger plantations. These results match those of Lee (2000) on the incidence of root disease in A. mangium plantations where disease spread was probably dependent on the presence, abundance and distribution of disease inocula. Incidence of BRD in A. mangium plantations was low with % severity and confirms that it is not a major threat to this species compared to red root disease (Arentz 1986; Lee 1996). Previous surveys (Mohd Farid et al. 2006) also revealed that red root disease was more destructive in A. mangium plantations than BRD. It is suggested that the source of inocula in these sites was low, probably due to good land clearing. Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 153

168 All P. noxius isolates had similar cultural appearances to those described by Nandris et al. (1987), Ann et al. (1999), Lee and Noraini Sikin (1999), Chang (2002), Supriadi et al. (2004) and Mohd Farid et al. (2006) obtained from different host plants and countries. The species specific tests revealed that primer pair PNOX02/ ITS4 was highly sensitive in detecting P. noxius. The primer designed from sequence of DNA ITS regions in P. noxius (isolate 591) confirmed that the rdna repeat units were highly conserved and thus useful in producing a characteristic DNA fragment (Bachmann 1994; White et al. 1990). Similarly, the non-coding internal ITS was often successfully used in identifying species and detecting intraspecific fungal variation (Henrion et al. 1992; Erland et al. 1994; Ward et al. 1994; Morton et al. 1995). During PCR amplification, the primer paired with ITS4 successfully amplified genomic DNA of isolates identified as P. noxius obtained from various host plants and locations, and confirmed that all morphologically identified material was indeed P. noxius. Based on DNA fragments present in agarose gel, the specific primer was also found to be equally sensitive in amplifying DNA of the pathogen extracted from cultured mycelial and dried fruiting bodies. Likewise, the primer pair was also sensitive in detecting the presence of P. noxius in affected wood. Sicoli et al. (2003) showed that this approach could rapidly detect the presence of Armillaria species in diseased plant tissues. Although a previous molecular study reported that identification of Phellinus species at species-level is complicated due to the presence of intraspecific DNA sequence variations among isolates from difference provenances (Fisher & Binder 2004), the present study proved that the designed primer was sensitive and species specific only to the target pathogen. Thus, this primer offers an alternative approach for identification of the pathogen up to species level more rapidly compared to the time consuming morphological identification. In addition, it also can be used in discriminating co-existing pathogens in the diseased tissues (Kikuchi et al. 2000). Conclusion In Peninsular Malaysia, occurrence of BRD in forest plantations was relatively low, occurred in only 8 of 33 plantations, and <5% of trees were affected. Trees associated with the fungal infection exhibited yellowing and wilting of leaves, defoliation and finally death. All P. noxius isolates obtained were similar culturally and morphologically irrespective of host plant and locality. Species specific primer, PNOX02 developed from regions of variable ITS sequence confirmed that all isolates were of P. noxius. Acknowledgement We thank the Director General, Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM) for permission to publish this paper. We acknowledge the assistance of Mr. Zakaria Yusoff, Mrs. Anida Zakaria, Mr. Fakaruddin Baharuddin and Ruszaida Yahya in collecting samples and carrying out field surveys. Financial support by the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (MOSTI) through IRPA grant No EA001 is gratefully acknowledged. References AKHTER, S. AND ANTONOVICS, J The use of internal transcribed spacer primers and fungicide treatments to study the anther-smut disease, Microbotryum violacea (Ustilago violacea) of white campion Silene alba (Silene latifolia). International Journal of Plant Science 160(6): Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

169 ANN, P.J., LEE, H.L. AND HUANG, T.C Brown root rot of 10 species of fruit trees caused by Phellinus noxius in Taiwan. Plant Disease. 83(8): ANN, P.J., CHANG, T.T. AND KO, W.H Phellinus noxius brown rot of fruit and ornamental trees in Taiwan. Plant Disease 86(8): ARENTZ, F Forest pathology lecture notes. Papua New Guinea Forestry College. Bulolo. ARIFFIN, D. AND IDRIS, A.S The Ganoderma selective medium (GSM). Porim Information Series. Pp. 1 2 BACHMANN, K Molecular markers in plant ecology. New Phytologist. 126: BAKSHI, B.K., SEHGAL, H.S. AND SINGH, B Cultural diagnosis of Indian Polyporaceae. 1. Genus Polyporus. Indian Forest Records (new series), Forest Pathology 2(9): BANDAMARAVURI, K. B., ANIL, K. S., ALOK, K. S. AND DILIP K. A Identification and detection of Macrophomina phaseolina by using species specific oligonucleotide primers and probe. Mycologia 99(6): BROWNE, F.G Pest and disease of forest plantation trees. An annotated list of the principle species occurring in the British Commonwealth. Clarendon Press, Oxford. Pp CHANG, T.T The Biology, ecology and pathology of Phellinus noxius. In Watling et al. (eds.), Tropical mycology, Volume 1, Macromycetes. CABI Publishing, U.K. Pp CHILLALI, M., IDDER-IGHILI, H., GUILLAUMIN, J.J., MOHAMMED, C., ESCARMANT, B.L. AND BOTTON, B Variation in the ITS and IGS regions of ribosomal DNA among the biological species of European Armillaria. Mycological Research 102 (5): CHRISTOPH, K., SEAK-JIN, K, SANG-SUN, L. AND CARSTEN, H A reliable direct from field PCR method for identification of mycorrhizal fungi from associated roots. Mycobiology 31(4): ERLAND, S., HENRION, B., MARTIN, F., GLOVER, L.A. AND ALEXANDER, I.J Identification of ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Tylospora fibrillose Donk by RFLP analysis of the PCR amplified ITS and IGS regions of ribosomal DNA. New Phytologist 126: Fischer, M. and Binder, M Species recognition, geographic distribution and histpathogen relationships: a case study in a group of lignicolous basidiomycetes, Phellinus s.l. Mycologia 96(4): HENRION, B., CHEVALIER, G. AND MARTIN, F Typing truffle species by PCR amplification of the ribosomal DNA spacers. Mycological Research 98: HODGES, C.S. AND TENEIRO, J.A Root rot of Delonix regia and associated tree species in the Mariana Islands caused by Phellinus noxius. Plant Disease 68: HOLLIDAY, P Fungus diseases of Tropical crops. Cambridge University Press, UK. Pp. 607 KIKUCHI, K., MATSUSHITA, N., GUERIN-LAGUETTE, A., OHTA, A AND SUZUKI, K Detection of Tricholoma matsutake by specific ITS primers. Mycological Research 104(12): LEE, S.S Diseases of some tropical plantation Acacias in Peninsular Malaysia. In Old, K.M., LEE, S.S & SHARMA, J.K (eds.) Proceeding of an International Workshop on Diseases of Tropical Acacias held at Subanjeriji (South Sumatra) 28 April 3 May CIFOR Special Publication, Indonesia. Pp LEE, S.S The current status of root diseases of Acacia mangium Willd. In Flood et al. (eds.) Ganoderma diseases of perennial crops. CABI Publishing, UK. Pp LEE, S.S. AND NORAINI SIKIN, Y Fungi associated with heart rot of Acacia mangium trees in Peninsular Malaysia and East Kalimantan. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 11(1): Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 155

170 LOVIC, B.R., MARTYN, R.D. AND MILLER R.E Sequence analysis of the ITS regions of rdna in Monosporascus spp. to evaluate its potential for PCR mediated detection. Phytopathology 85: MOHD FARID, A. LEE, S. S. MAZIAH, Z. ROSLI H. AND NORWATI M Root rot in tree species other than A. mangium. In Potter, K. et al. (eds.) Heart Rot and Root Rot in Tropical Acacia Plantations. ACIAR Proceedings No.124, Australia. Pp MORTON, A., CARDER, J.H. AND BARBARA, D.J Sequences of the internal transcribed spacers of the ribosomal RNA genes and relationships between isolates of Verticillium alboatrum and V. dahlia. Plant Pathology 44: NUNEZ, M. AND RYVARDEN, L East Asian Polypores. Vol. 2. Polyporaceae s. lato. Synopsis Fungorum 14. Fungiflora. Pp. 522 NUNEZ, M. AND RYVARDEN, L East-asian polypores. Vol. 1. Ganodermataceae and Hymenochaetaceae. Synopsis Fungorum 13. Fungiflora. Olso, Norway. Pp.168 NANDRIS, D., NICOLE, M. AND GEIGER, J.P Root rot diseases of rubber tree. Plant Disease. 71: OLD, K.M., LEE, S.S., SHARMA, J.K. AND YUAN, Z.Q A manual of diseases of Tropical Acacias in Australia, South-East Asia and India. CIFOR, Jakarta, Indonesia. Pp Pegler, D. N., and Waterston, J. M Phellinus noxius. No. 195 in: Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria. Commonw. Mycol. Inst., Kew, England. SICOLI. G., FATEHI, J. AND STENLID, J Development of species-specific PCR primers on rdna for the identification of European Armillaria species. Forest Pathology 33: STALPERS, J.A Identification of wood-inhibiting Aphyllophorales in pure culture. Studies in Mycology, Baarn, Germany. 16:1 248 SUPRIADI, S., ADHI, E.M., WAHYUNO, D., RAHAYUNINGSIH, S., KARYANI, N. AND DAHSYAT, M Brown root rot disease of cashew in West Nusa Tenggara: Distribution and its causal organism. Indonesian Journal of Agricultural Science. 5(1):32 36 VAN DER PAS, J.B. AND HOOD, I.A. (1983). The effect of site preparation on the incidence of Armillaria root rot in Pinus radiata four years after conversion from indigenous forest in Omatoroa Forest, New Zealand. In Kile, G.A. (ed.) 6 th Proceeding International Conference on Root Rot and Butt Rots of Forest Trees. August 25 31, Melbourne, Victoria and Queensland, Australia. Pp WARD, E., ADAMS, M.J., MUTASA, E.S., COLLIER, C.R. AND ASHER, M.J.C Characterization of Polymyxa species by restriction analysis of PCR-amplified ribosomal DNA. Plant Pathology 43: WHITE, T.J., BRUNS, T., LEE, S. AND TAYLOR, J Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetic. In: Innis MA, Gelfand D.H., Sninsky, J.J. and White, T.J. (Eds.). PCR protocols: a Guide to Methods and Applications. New York, Academic Press WOOD, G. A. R. AND LASS, R.A Cacoa. Longman, New York. Pp Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

171 IDENTIFICATION OF SEVERAL Ganoderma SPECIES CAUSING ROOT ROT IN Acacia mangium PLANTATION IN INDONESIA D. Puspitasari 1), V. Yuskianti 1), A. Rimbawanto 1), C. Beadle 2), M. Glen 3) and C. Mohammed 3) 1) Centre for Forest Biotechnology and Tree Improvement, Jalan Palagan Tentara Pelajar KM. 15 Purwobinangun Pakem Sleman Yogyakarta 55582, Indonesia; 2) CSIRO Ecosystem Sciences, Private Bag 12, Hobart, Tasmania 7001, Australia; 3) Tasmanian Institute of Agriculture, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 98, Hobart, Tasmania 7001, Australia. Corresponding author: Abstract Several species of Ganoderma are known to be associated with root-rot disease, especially in Acacia mangium. The purpose of the study was to identify Ganoderma species collected in 5 different plantations of A. mangium in Sumatra and Kalimantan, Indonesia and from Eucalyptus pellita plantations in Sumatra. Root samples were collected from permanent monitoring plots set up in these plantations and from a survey of eucalypt plantations. Identification of Ganoderma species was based on 2 methods i.e. morphological identification of cultures and sporocarps and by DNA analysis. Over 4000 basidiomycete cultures were isolated including duplicates. Out of 573 Ganoderma isolates from a single tree or sporocarp, 537 were confirmed as G. philippii. Other species of Ganoderma found were G. mastoporum 6 isolates, G. australe 16 isolates, G. subresinosum 7 isolates, and Ganoderma sp. 7 isolates. The cultural characteristics of these isolates are described for the first time. Keywords: morphological traits, Ganoderma species, DNA identification Introduction Root-rot disease caused by Ganoderma species has become a major threat to plantation Acacia mangium. The percentage of mortality is high, between 3 and 28% in A. mangium aged 3-to 5-years old (Irianto et al. 2006) and the disease significantly reduces both the quantity of harvestable wood for pulp (Old et al. 2000; Barry et al. 2004; Irianto et al. 2006; Glen et al. 2009). Ganoderma species are frequently associated with root-rot disease in tree and crop plantations in the tropics and sub-tropics (Old et al. 2000; Lee 2002; Glen et al. 2006). Ganoderma philippii is the causal agent of a root-rot disease that is characterized by a red rhizomorphic skin visible on the root surface. This type of root rot is frequently observed in of A. mangium (Glen et al. 2006, Glen et al. 2009) but it has become increasingly clear that they are other Ganoderma species in both A. mangium and Eucalyptus pellita that have similar root symptoms than can be mistaken for G. philippii (Glen at al. 2009, Agustini 2010). Sporocarps of the different Ganoderma species, to a non-taxonomist, are difficult to differentiate and are variable in morphology (Glen et al. 2009). Identification of a fungus causing root-rot requires knowledge of the symptoms of infected roots as well as the morphological characteristics of sporocarp(s) that may be associated with the infected tree or its environs. A tree may be infected by more than one species of Ganoderma and a sporocarp that appears on a tree may have different characteristics with an isolate obtained from the infected roots of the same tree. In this case, isolations must be carried out on both the infected roots and sporocarps. Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 157

172 Roots affected by Ganoderma species may be covered by a reddish-brown rhizomorphic skin that is visible after the roots are washed clean of associated soil (Mohammed et al. 2006). Taxonomic identification of fungal cultures by their cultural morphologies is important to a screening process when there is a large number of isolates (such as in this study) to passage through to verification by DNA analyses. Contaminant cultures can be excluded, and when there is confidence in the identification of a culture by its morphology, the number of DNA verifications can be reduced to minimum, only carrying out random checks to ensure integrity of the identifications. In this paper we examine isolates of the different Ganoderma species associated with root-rot to establish a set of reference cultures. Materials and Methods Trial 1: At each of five different A. mangium plantations in Sumatra and Kalimantan, five semi-permanent plots, 30 x 30 m (100 trees) were set-up and monitored every 6 months. Plots were established in areas infected by root-rot disease. Monitoring plots included assessments of above ground factors [dead or alive tree, crown condition, diameter at breast height (DBH)] and below ground factors (root condition, presence of root-rot, type of rhizomorph). Below ground assessments were conducted by carefully removing the soil from the roots to a distance of approximately 1 m away from the stem. Roots were covered after sampling to protect until the next visit. Root samples and any sporocarps found taken back to the laboratory. Trial 2: This study investigated the fungi associated with root rot disease in Eucalypts pellita during a one-off survey of root-rot disease at 12 sites in a plantation (Agustini 2010). Infected root samples and sporocarps collected from both acacia and eucalypts were isolated onto malt extract agar (MEA) 1% medium (10gr/L) containing streptomycin (50 ppm), penicillin (50 ppm), polymyxin (25 ppm) and thiabendazole (230 ppm). Material for isolation was taken from the mycelium under the bark of a root, or rhizomorphs, or infected wood inside of root with mycelium, or the context of fruit bodies, or the pores of the sporocarps. After isolation, cultures were incubated at room temperature (25 C) on Himedia malt extract agar (MEA) 2% medium (20gr/L) without antibiotic. The target fungi of interest (wood-rotting fungi) produce enzymes (laccase and tyrosinase) capable of degrading lignin. An initial screening was carried out with cultures obtained from isolations. Sporulating contaminants and isolates that tested negative for laccase and/or tyrosinase were discarded. About 4000 isolates of putative basidiomycetes were obtained (including duplicate isolations). Cultures were grouped according to their morphology using characteristics as set out by Stalpers (1978) for wood-inhabiting fungi in culture. The isolates were then identified using molecular analyses. The first step was a screening process using species-specific primers developed for Ganoderma philippii and G. mastoporum (Yuskianti et al., unpublished) and the second step was sequencing for all fungi remaining unidentified from the first analysis using specific primers (Glen et al., unpublished). Results and Discussion Seo and Kirk (2000) described cultures of Ganoderma species as producing various hyphal structures, such as generative hyphae with clamp connection, fibre or skeletal hyphae, staghorn hyphae, cuticular cells and vesicles and hyphal rosettes. Out of the 4000 isolates, eliminating duplicates, 537 were confirmed by molecular analyses as G. philippii; 6 as G. mastoporum, 16 as G. australe, 7 as G. subresinosum, and 7 as unknown Ganoderma sp. All cultures of Ganoderma species have the same type of mycelial colony, white to pale 158 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

173 yellow but do have sufficient variation to recognize in culture. It must be emphasized that this is the morphology on malt extract agar and with culture incubated at 25 C. Culture morphology varies according to the medium and temperature of incubation. Ganoderma philippii In the early stages of growth, the mycelium grows out in fans out in a straight hyphal pattern, is very white, grows close to the media and becomes granulose on the surface (Fig. 1.1). As the culture ages it becomes coppery on the surface (1.3), a discriminative feature of this species. The colour of the mycelial mat changes from yellowish to brown; light brown to grayish brown at the centre and the surface becomes crustose (Fig. 1.2). Clamp connections typical of Basidiomycetes are found (Fig. 1.4). (1.1) (1.2) (1.3) (1.4) Figure 1. Ganoderma philippii cultures: 1) young culture after 21 days on MEA 20% at 25 C; 2) old culture after 126 days on MEA 20% at 25 C; 3) coppery on the surface, seen under microscope (Olympus SZX12; magnification); 4) clamp connection. Ganoderma mastoporum Cultures of G. mastoporum are more cottony compared to those of G. philippi (Fig. 2). The mycelium is white to pale yellow, crust formation is rare. The mycelium is sometimes slightly flat and dense in the centre, yellowish to brown on the edge of the culture. The culture becomes leathery and difficult to subculture as it becomes older. It does not become as grainy as G. philippi on the surface. Ganoderma australe Colony culture is pale white with straight radiating hyphae. The surface is very fluffy and becomes very cottony (cottony balls ) as it ages, very characteristic of this species (Figure 3). Crust formation is rare. Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 159

174 (2.1) (2.2) (2.3) Figure 2. Ganoderma mastoporum cultures: 1) young culture after 7 days on MEA 20% at 25 C; 2) old culture after 33 days on MEA 20% at 25 C; 3) cottony mycelium seen under microscope (Olympus SZX12; magnification). (3.1) (3.2) (3.3) Figure 3. Ganoderma australe cultures: 1) young culture after 7 days on MEA 20% at 25 C; 2) old culture after 33 days on MEA 20% at 25 C; 3) cottony balls seen under microscope (Olympus SZX12; magnification). Ganoderma subresinosum The mycelium is pale white and yellowish, with aerial fluffy mycelium. In the early stages of growth, the mycelium is similar to other species except that it has wide centre of white opaque and flat mycelium. The mycelium to the edge of the colony is flat, transparent and immersed in the medium. As the colony ages the mycelium at the edge grows back on itself, becomes orangey yellow, crustose brown and sometimes appears to form a sporocarp primordium (Fig. 4). (4.1) (4.2) (4.3) (4.1) (4.2) (4.3) (4.4) (4.4) Figure 4. Cultures of Ganoderma subresinosum: 1) early stage of mycelium growth after 7 days on MEA 20% at 25 C; 2) old culture after 33 days on MEA 20% at 25 C; 3) crustose brown in the middle; 4) crustose brown appears to form sporocarp primordium (seen under microscope - Olympus SZX12; magnification). Conclusion This paper describes for the first time the cultural morphology of four species commonly associated with root-rot disease in acacia and eucalypt plantations in Indonesia. 160 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

175 Acknowledgement This research was funded by the Australian Centre for International Agriculture Research project FST. 2003/048, a collaboration between Centre of Forest Biotechnology and Tree Improvement, University of Tasmania and CSIRO Australia. We would to thank our industry partner PT. Riau Andalan Pulp and Paper (RAPP), PT. Musi Hutan Persada (MHP) and PT. Arara Abadi. Appreciation also goes to Drs. Anthony Francis, Ragil Irianto, Nur Hidayati and Luciasih Agustini. References AGUSTINI L Signs and symptoms of root rot in Eucalyptus pellita plantations in Indonesia. MSc thesis University of Tasmania. BARRY, K.M., IRIANTO, R.S.B., SANTOSO, E., TURJAMAN, M., WIDYATI, E., SITEPU, I., MOHAMMED, C.L Incidence of heartrot in harvest-age Acacia mangium in Indonesia, using a rapid survey method. Forest Ecology and Management. 190: GLEN, M., POTTER, K., SULISTYAWATI, P., RIMBAWANTO, A Molecular identification of organisms associated with root and heart rot in Acacia mangium. In ACIAR Proceedings No Heart rot and root rot in tropical Acacia plantations: a synthesis of research progress, 7-9 February, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. (Eds K Potter, A Rimbawanto, C Beadle) p. GLEN, M., BOUGHER, N.L., FRANCIS, A., NIGG, S.Q., LEE, S.S., IRIANTO, R.S.B., BARRY, K.M., BEADLE, C.L., MOHAMMED, C.L Ganoderma and Amauroderma species associated with root-rot disease of Acacia mangium plantation trees in Indonesia and Malaysia. Australian Plant Pathology. 38: IRIANTO, R.S.B., BARRY, K.M., HIDAYATI, N., ITO, S., FIANI, A., RIMBAWANTO, A., MOHAMMED, C.L Incidence, spatial analysis and genetic trial of root rot of Acacia mangium in Indonesia. Journal of Tropical Forest Science. 18: LEE, S.S Overview of the heartrot problem in Acacia-gap analysis and research opportunities. In Heartrots in plantation hardwoods in Indonesia and Australia. ACIAR Technical Report 51E. (Eds KM Barry) p. MOHAMMED, C.L., BARRY, K.M., IRIANTO, R.S.B Heart rot and root rot in Acacia mangium: identification and assessment. In ACIAR Proceedings No Heart rot and root rot in tropical Acacia plantations: a synthesis of research progress, 7-9 February, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. (Eds K Potter, A Rimbawanto, C Beadle) p. OLD, K., LEE, S.S., SHARMA, J.K. AND YUAN, Z.Q A manual of diseases of tropical acacias in Australia, SE Asia and India. Bogor, Indonesia. Centre for International Forestry Research. 104p. SEO, G.S. AND KIRK, P.M Ganodermataceae: nomenclature and classification. In Ganoderma disease of perennial crops. (Eds J Flood, PD Bridge, M Holderness) 3-22p. (CABI Publishing: Wallingford, UK). STALPERS, G.A Identification of wood-inhabiting fungi in pure culture. Studies in mycology. Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures. 248 pp. Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 161

176 RESPONDS OF YOUNG Falcataria moluccana TO GALL RUST L. Baskorowati 1), A. Rohandi 2), and Gunawan 2) 1) Forest Biotechnology and Tree Improvement Research Centre, Yogyakarta, Indonesia; 2) Agroforestry Research Centre, Ciamis West Java, Indonesia Abstract The fast growing tree species Falcataria moluccana is widely planted in tropical regions. Widespread incidence of gall rust in Falcataria moluccana plantations was reported in 2003 in Indonesia. In Indonesia, particularly in Java during , large areas of plantations with F. moluccana were severely attacked by gall rust. In order to reduce the impact of gall rust different provenances of F. moluccana should be screened for resistance to this pathogen. This study shows that the susceptibility of F. moluccana to gall rust varies significantly among the different provenances. Keywords: Variation, susceptibility, Falcataria moluccana, gall rust, resistance trial Introduction Falcataria moluccana in Indonesia (commonly called sengon) is widely planted in tropical regions. Its natural distribution ranges from 0 to 1,200 m above sea level in regions with a mean annual temperature and rainfall of 22 to 29 C and 2000 to 4000 mm, respectively (Hidayat et al., 2003). Sengon is a major forest resource in Indonesia especially in Java with over 1,200,000 ha of plantations established in 2005 (RLPS, 2005). In addition to forest plantations, it is commonly planted in agro-forestry systems and has shown potential in alley farming. The number of plantations has increased every year as this species is one of the most valuable multipurpose species that can be used to replace native tropical timber species in Indonesian pulp and plywood industries. Falcataria moluccana in Indonesia has become widely infected by gall rust especially in Java (Rahayu, 2008). In East Java, the initial outbreak was reported in 2003 but unfortunately little serious attention was given to solving this problem by the responsible department or nongovernment institutions and industries (Rahayu, 2010). By 2005 the gall rust had spread to the major areas of sengon plantation including Banyuwangi, Bondowoso, Pasuruan, Malang, Probolinggo, Jember and Kediri. It was found in Central Java (Temanggung, Wonosobo) in the early 2006 and in West Java (Ciamis) in Based on the level of impact and conditions of the worst-affected plantations Rahayu, 2008 suggested that gall rust must have been present for several years to cause such damage. Uromycladium tepperianum (Sacc.) McAlp. has been identified as the cause of gall rust disease in F. moluccana (Brown, 1993 in Rahayu, 2008; Braza, 1997; Old and Cristovao, 2003; PROSEA, 2003; Rahayu et al., 2005; Rahayu dan Lee, 2008). Gall rust causes the formation of galls on foliage, branches and stem. The pathogen attacks all above-ground parts of susceptible hosts; however damage is most severe when shoots and stems are affected, as stems are girdled by the rust and then insects and saprophytes invade and live in the galls. As shoots become partially girdled, massive defoliation occurs and, eventually, large trees can be killed. Moreover, infected stems will easily fall over when there is severe wind. Various silvicultural techniques have been attempted to reduce the gall rust in Java, Indonesia (Anggraeni, 2008; Rahayu, 2008) but this disease is difficult to eliminate. Based on 162 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

177 observations from several studies of rust diseases in trees (Western gall rust of radiata pine caused by Endocronartium harknessii and phyllode rust of acacias caused by Atelocauda digitata) it has been suggested that genes for the rust resistance exist in the host trees and their presence is a major factor in determining disease impact (Old et al., 1986; Old et al., 1999). A previous study of F. moluccana seedlings from 6 different seed sources revealed that seedlings from Wamena, Papua exhibited the highest degree of gall rust resistance (Rahayu et al., 2009). Another study of 3 year old open pollinated F. moluccana at Kediri, East Java also showed that Papuan seed sources exhibit the greatest degree of resistance to gall rust (Baskorowati et al., 2012). This paper reports the variation in gall rust resistance observed in a rust resistance trial of provenances of F. moluccana. Materials and methods Location and experimental design Gall rust disease severity and tree growth parameters were assessed in February 2012 in F. moluccana trial planted in February 2011 at Panjalu, Ciamis, West Java in an area of private forest with severe gall rust disease. This open pollinated provenance trial was a collaborative research project between BPTA (Agroforestry Research Centre) Ciamis, West Java and B2PBPTH (Centre for Forest Biotechnology and Tree Improvement) Yogyakarta. This trial was arranged in a square plot design, and comprised of 12 provenances (seed sources) from Papua, 25 seedlots (5 x 5), and 4 blocks as replications. The 12 provenances originating from different seed sources are presented in Table 1. Table 1. List of Papuan seed sources of F. moluccana resistance trial at Ciamis, West Java Seed source Altitude Longitude Latitude Hobikosi º.10'E 4º 10's Waga-waga, Kuluru º.10'E 4º 50's Holima º " 04º '' Elagaima, Hobikosi º " 03º " Pyramid, Muai* n/a n/a n/a Mualiama Bawah* n/a n/a n/a Wadapi Menawi Nifasi 6 135º 39'07,3" 03º 10.04,5" Worbag º 41'52,6" 03º 09.13,3" Maidi º 45'10.5" 03º 10.07,6" Meagama º " 04º '' Siba, Kuluru º 49'814" 03º " * seeds were collected in 1996 and no data is available Assessments of growth, disease incidence and severity Assessments of traits were conducted on all individual trees in the trial. Several parameters were measured i.e., survival rate, height, diameter at breast height, stem-form and crown density. The number of galls on twigs, branches and stems were assessed at different time intervals when the trees were 3, 6, 9 and 12 months old. Height (Ht) referred to the total tree height was measured to the nearest 0.1 m. Diameter (DBH) was defined as the stem diameter taken at 1.3 m from ground level and was measured to the nearest 0.1 cm. Number of stem-galls (GStem) refers to the total number of gall on a stem per tree (Rahayu, 2010). Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 163

178 Qualitative scoring techniques were applied to characteristics which could not be measured quantitatively (Pinyopusarerk et al., 2004). Three qualitative characteristics were assessed; stem form (Sf), number of branch-galls per tree (Gbranch) and number of twig-galls per tree (Gtwig). Those characters were scored as follows: Stem form (Cf): 1 = straight form, 2 = medium bent form, 3 = very bent form Number of branch-galls per tree (Gbranch): 1 = there are no galls on a branch, 2 = 50% of a branch is galled, 3 = > 50% of a branch is galled Number of twig-galls per tree (Gtwig): 1 = there are no galls on a twig, 2 = 50% of a twig is galled, 3 = > 50% of a twig is galled Based on stem-gall, branch-gall and twig-gall data, gall rust disease on individual trees was then classed into six classes: 1 = healthy trees without galls 2 = galls on 50% of twigs 3 = galls on 50% of twigs and branches 4 = galls on > 50% of twigs and branches 5 = galls exists on stem but not on twigs and branches 6 = trees killed by gall rust According to Rahayu (2008), disease incidence (DI) and disease severity (DS) are essential data for describing and understanding the dynamics of the disease as well as for evaluating the effectiveness of control treatments. Therefore, gall rust incidence (DI) and severity (DS) for each plot were calculated based on formulas as described by Rahayu et al., (2009). ` Where: n = number of infected trees n1, n2, n3, nx = number of trees with index score 1,2,3,,, x z1,z2,z3,zx = index score of gall rust presence 1,2,3,,,,x N = total number of trees in one plot Z = the highest score Gall rust disease incidence (DI) and severity (DS) values are categorized as rare to widespread and nil to very severe respectively (Table 2). Table 2. Incidence and severity of gall rust based on DI and DS values for Falcataria moluccana Value of Disease Value of Disease Incidence Incidence Severity Severity <10% Rare 0% Nil 10 - <25% Occasional <25% Low 25 - <50% Common 25 - <50% Medium 50 - <75% Very common 50 - <75% Severe >75% Widespread % Very severe 164 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

179 Statistical Analysis Data were analyzed using ANOVA (Genstat Version 5.3.2, Payne et al., 1987). Analyses were based on the following linear model described for a nested randomized block design as follows Y ijk = + R i + P j + F k(j) + e ijk Where: = the overall mean; R i = the effect of the i th replicate P j = the effect of the j th provenance = the effect of the k th family within j th provenance F k(j) e ijk Y ijk = the residual error with a mean of zero. = the plot mean of the j th provenance, k th family within j th provenance, the i th replicate Results and Discussion Survival rate and growth The survival rate of trees in this trial was high (> 85%) (Table 3) meaning that the different seed sources were well adapted to conditions at this site. There were no significant differences between provenances in terms of growth (height and diameter) possibly because of the young age of the trees (12 months) and that differences in growth traits will not be expressed until trees are older (Hadiyan, 2010). Analyses also revealed that there were no significant differences between provenances in terms of stem form. Falcataria moluccana trees often have slightly bent stems due to environmental influences such strong wind and shading from other trees. Table 3. Average survival rate and growth of provenances of 12 month old Falcataria moluccana in a resistance trial at Ciamis, West Java Survival Growth No. Provenance District rate Diameter (%) Height (m) (cm) 1. Hobikosi Wamena Waga-waga, Kuluru Wamena Holima Wamena Elagaima, Hobikosi Wamena Pyramid, Muai Wamena Mualiama bawah Wamena Wadapi Menawi Serui Nifasi Nabire Worbag Nabire Maidi Nabire Meagama Wamena Siba, Kuluru Wamena Disease incidence and disease severity Disease incidence and severity in the trial varied between the times of observation. Although all values for both disease severity and disease incidence were very low for all assessments during 2011, DS and DI were slightly greater during March compared to values in June, Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 165

180 September and December (Figure 1). This observation may possibly be attributed to higher rainfall in March and December compared to June and September. Previous studies indicate that high relative humidity and slower wind speeds are favourable for the development of gall rust (Rahayu, 2010). Figure 1. Average of disease incidence and severity of Falcataria moluccana trees in a resistance trial at Ciamis, West Java. Trees were observed at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months old. Figure 2. Average disease incidence (galls) on different provenances of 12 month old Falcataria moluccana trees in a resistance trial at Ciamis, West Java. The average number of galls was low for all provenances (Figure 2) and was not significantly different between provenances. However even if not statistically different trees originating from Wamena (provenances 1 to 6, 11 and 12) had the lowest incidence of galls compared to trees originating from Serui (provenance 7) and Nabire (provenances 8, 9, and 10). These results are confirmed by previous studies (Rahayu et al. 2009, Baskorowati and Nurrohmah, 2011). A gall rust resistance trial is currently planted at Kediri, East Java with provenances originating from Kediri (East Java), Lombok (Nusa Tenggara), Papua and Candiroto (Central Java). This trial, in which the trees are 3 years old, also supports the finding that trees grown from Wamena seed sources exhibit a high degree of resistance to the gall rust disease (Baskorowati et al. in press). The trees in the trial at Ciamis are probably too young to clearly show differences in resistance. Gall rust risk is strongly influenced by environmental conditions, such as relative humidity, sunlight intensity, temperature, elevation and the presence of fog. Table 1 shows that provenances 7, 8, 9, 10 originate from several districts with low altitude (8 m to 167 m above sea level) compared to provenances from Wamena districts with altitudes of 1500 m above sea level. Trees at high altitudes such as Wamena have conceivably become adapted to foggy conditions which favour gall rust disease. They are thus are more tolerant to gall rust than 166 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

181 provenances originating at lower altitudes and which have not evolved under foggy conditions (Rahayu et al., 2011). According to Rahayu et al., (2011), adaption to foggy conditions may have resulted in anatomical and morphological characteristics such as impermeable cuticles and intracellular modification which also confer tolerance to gall rust infections. References ANGGRAENI, I Pengendalian Karat Tumor pada Sengon. Workshop Penyakit Karat Tumor pada Sengon, Balai Besar Penelitian Bioteknologi dan Pemuliaan Tanaman Hutan Yogyakarta, 19 Nopember pp. BASKOROWATI, L. & NURROHMAH S.H Variasi ketahanan terhadap penyakit karat tumor pada sengon tingkat semai. Jurnal Pemuliaan Tanaman Hutan Vo. 5, No 3, p: BASKOROWATI, L., SUSANTO M. & CHAROMAENI. (publishing proceed). Genetic variability in resistance of Falcataria moluccana (Miq.) Barneby & J. W. Grimes to gall rust disease. Journal of Forestry Research. BRAZA, R.D Karat tumor disease of Paraserianthes falcataria in the Philippines. Forest, Farm, and Community Tree Research Reports Vol. 2. p: HIDAYAT, J., IRIANTO D. & OCHSNER P Paraserianthes falcataria (L.) Nielsen. Seed Leaflet No. 81 Indonesia Forest Seed Project. 15 pp. HADIYAN, Y Evaluasi Pertumbuhan Awal Kebun Benih Semai Uji Keturunan Sengon (Falcataria maluccana synonim : Paraserianthes falcataria) Umur 4 Bulan di Cikampek Jawa Barat. Jurnal Pemuliaan Tanaman Hutan Vo. 4, No 2, p: OLD, K.M. & CRISTOVAO C.D.S A rust epidemic of the coffee shade tree (Paraserianthes falcataria) in East Timor. In: Agriculture: New Directions for New Nation East Timor (Timor-Leste). Eds. H. Costa., C. Piggin., C. J. Cruz. And J. J. Fox. ACIAR Proceedings No. 113, Canberra, Australia. p: OLD, K.M., LIBBY W. J., RUSSELL J.H. & ELDRIDGE K.G Genetic variability in susceptibility of Pinus radiata to western gall rust. Silvae Genetica. Vol. 35. p: OLD, K.M., BUTCHER P.A., HARWOOD C.E. & IVORY M.H Atelocauda digitata, a rust disease of tropical plantation acacias. Proceedings of the 12 th Biennial Conference of the Australasian Plant Pathology Society, September pp. PAYNE, R.W., LANE P.W., AINSLEY A.E., BICKNELL K.E., DIGBY P.G.N., HARDING S.A., LEECH P.K., SIMPSON H.R., TOOD A.D., VERRIER P.J., WHITE R.P., GOWER J.C. & TUNNICLIFFE-WILCON G Genstat 5 Refference Manual. Oxford University Press, New York. 749 pp. PINYOPUSARERK, K., KALINGANIRE A., WILLIAMS E.R. & AKEN K.M Evaluation of International Provenance Trials of Casuarina sequisetifolia. ACIAR Technical Reports No pp. PROSEA (Plant Resourches of South-East Asia) Paraserianthes I.C. Nielsen. In : Soerianegara, I and Lemmens, R.H.M.J. (eds.).(1) Timber trees: Major commercial timbers. Bogor. Indonesia. 625 pp. RAHAYU, S., LEE S.S., & NOR AINI A.S Gall rust disease in Falcataria moluccana (Miq.) Barneby & Grimes at Brumas, Tawau-Sabah. Pages In: Sahibin, A.R., RAMLAN, O., KEE A.A.A. AND NG Y. F. eds Proceeding of second regional symposium on environment and natural resources, March UKM and Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental, Malaysia. Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 167

182 RAHAYU, S Penyakit Karat Tumor pada Sengon (Falcataria moluccana (Miq.) Barneby & J.W. Grimes). Workshop Penyakit Karat Tumor pada Sengon, Balai Besar Penelitian Bioteknologi dan Pemuliaan Tanaman Hutan Yogyakarta, 19 Nopember p: 1-6. RAHAYU, S Pelatian Penyakit Karat Tumor pada Sengon dan Pengelolaannya. Fakultas Kehutanan UGM, Yogyakarta. 21 pp. RAHAYU, S. & LEE S.S Environmental conditions and gall rust disease development on Falcataria moluccana in South East Asia. Case study in Sabah Malaysia and Java Indonesia. Asia and the Pacific Forest Health Workshop Forest health in a changing world. IUFRO-APFISN. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 1-3 December pp. RAHAYU, S., NOR AINI A.S., LEE S.S., & G. SALEH Responses of Falcataria moluccana seedlings of different seed sources to inoculation with Uromycladium tepperianum. Silvae Genetica. Vol. 58. p: RAHAYU, S., LEE S.S., & NOR AINI A.S Gall Rust Disease of Falcataria moluccana: Characterization of the pathogen, Environmental condition supported, Genetic Relationship and Screening for Resistance. LAP Lambert Publishing House, Germany. 208 pp. RLPS Data Potensi Hutan Rakyat. Internet document: Accessed on October 25th, Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

183 SUSCEPTIBILITY OF URBAN TREES Polyalthia longifolia AND Pterocarpus indicus TO ROOT ROT FUNGUS Ganoderma SP. Widyastuti,S.M., I. Riastiwi and Harjono, Faculty of Forestry Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia Corresponding author: Abstract Urban trees on the Gadjah Mada University (UGM) area play an important role in increasing environmental qualities as well as in supporting the teaching and learning processes. However, red root rot disease caused by Basidiomycete Ganoderma sp. has severely infected some existing urban trees. This experiment was aimed to know the susceptibility of Polyalthia longifolia (glodokan) and Pterocarpus indicus (angsana) to infection with Ganoderma sp. Identification of infected trees was performed in UGM area. Further steps were carried out to achieve those objectives, i.e.: (1) isolation of Ganoderma spp. and testing of Koch's postulate, and (3) examination of the susceptibility of P. longifolia and P. indicus to infection of Ganoderma sp. The susceptibility test of P. longifolia and P. indicus to Ganoderma sp. indicated that P. longifolia was more resistant to fungal pathogen infection than that of P. indicus. Based on this experiment, it can be concluded that P. longifolia is a species that is more suitable than P. indicus. Polyalthia longifolia, should be planted on the areas that have been previously infested with inoculums of Ganoderma sp. Keywords: Ganoderma, Polyalthia longifolia, Pterocarpus indicus, plant resistance Introduction The urban forest is a cluster of trees plantedin urban area to create a micro climate and consists of various shade trees. This forest generally acts as the container and absorber of lead particles, noise reducer, wind breaker, acid rain reducer, oxygen, CO, and CO2 producer, and aesthetic enhancer (Dahlan, 1992). Several types of shade trees which are frequently used include Pterocarpus indicus (New Guinea Rosewood), Polyalthia longifolia (Mast Tree), Dalbergia latifolia (Indian Rosewood), Delonix regia (Flamboyant), dan Acacia spp. (Acacia). The shade trees planted within Universitas Gadjah Mada campus, particularly the Acacia spp., are dying due to infection of the red root rot disease caused by Ganoderma spp. The trees deteriorate slowly at different rates and this occurs over an extended period of time. This indicates that the red root rot disease has existed for quite a long time in the area. The differing time of fatality is caused by the slow and latent characteristics of pathogen infection (Widyastuti et al., 1998b). The death of shade trees causes a great loss. The falling trees cause damages on public facilities such as the telephone lines, fences (Fig. 1), and can cause human casualty. On the other hand, the health aspect of shade trees in urban forest still lacks attention. Therefore, a research is needed to determine the level of tolerance of shade trees according to their type. Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 169

184 Figure 1. Destruction of Pterocarpus indicus due to Ganoderma sp. at Gadjah Mada University campus. Yellow circle and insert: Fruiting bodies of Ganoderma sp. Some of Ganoderma infested areas in UGM campus areas have been replanted with P. longifolia and P. indicus. However, information on the susceptibility of this plants towards Ganoderma infection is not available. In this paper, we described the causal agent of root rot disease and the susceptibility of P. longifolia and P. indicus in the glass house experiment. The result hopefully will give a better insight on recommending either P. longifolia or P. indicus as shade trees in areas that have previously been infested with Ganoderma sp. Materials and Methods Isolation of Ganoderma sp. and fungal pathogenicity test The fruiting bodies of Ganoderma sp. were collected from affected trees at UGM campus. The location was previously planted with Acacia oraria (Widyastuti et al., 1998), and due to Ganoderma sp. infestation the plants was replaced with Polyalthia longifolia and Pterocarpus indicus. Isolation was performed from fruiting bodies in sterile conditions. Isolates were stored and multiplied in tilted potato dextrose agar (PDA). The Koch s Postulates were carried out to determine whether the fungal culture obtained was the causal agent of symptom. In this test, Clotalaria sp. was used as the indicator plant. Ganoderma sp. which was previously grown on an A. mangium root pieces were inoculated on the root collar of Clotalaria sp. Prior fungal inoculation, root collar was wounded to shorten the infection process. In the control treatment, Crotalaria sp. Was wounded without fungal inoculation. Reisolation of suspected pathogen inoculum was conducted by isolating pathogens from the base of Clotalaria sp. that shows signs and symptoms of infection (Widyastuti et al., 1998). Subsequently, one of the tested Ganoderma sp. isolate (GD TP2) was used for susceptibility test of Polyalthia longifolia and Pterocarpus indicus 170 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

185 Susceptibility test of Polyalthia longifolia and Pterocarpus indicus against Ganoderma sp. This test was performed on on three month-old P. longifolia and P. indicus seedlings by inoculating Ganoderma sp. on the root collar of both plants. Fungal inoculation on both plants was performed using GD TP2 according to fungal pathogenicity test as previously described. Observation were performed weekly to detect symptoms and signs development, such as yellowing and falling leaves, as well as presence of GD TP2 mycelium in the root collar. Results and Discussion Ganoderma sp. was the causal agent of root rot disease In the sixth week after Crotalaria sp. were inoculated with fungal isolate, rhizomorph develops on the root base and the root system and the tested plants also started to show signs of dying (Fig. 2b and 2c). Rhizomorf on root system at six weeks after inoculation. In comparison, non-inoculated plant was healthy and it did not developed any symptom (Fig. 2a). Reisolation of rhizomorph from the root base of Crotalaria sp. showed colony morphology similar with GD TP2 pure isolate that has been inoculated to the Crotalaria sp. This result was a conclusive indication that Ganodema sp. isolate GD TP2 was the causal agent of root rot disease. Figure 2. Pathogenicity test of Ganoderma sp. isolate GD TP2 on Crotalaria sp. as indicator plant: (a) control treatment; (b) plant inoculated with Ganoderma sp.; (c) Rhizomorf on root system at six weeks after inoculation. Tolerance responses of Polyalthia longifolia and Pterocarpus indicus against Ganoderma sp. Seedlings of P. indicus inoculated with Ganoderma sp. did not develop any symptoms at two months after inoculation, however the fungal pathogen has formed rhizomorph on the root base and root system (Fig. 3a). Tissue damage was not yet oberved on the root s cross section. Cross section of the root of control plants showed similar result. Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 171

186 Figure 3. Tolerance responses of Pterocarpus indicus seedlings against Ganoderma sp. isolates GD TP 2 two months after inoculation a) rhizomorph; b) cross section and control treatment; c). rhizomorph; d). cross section. Polyalthia longifolia seedlings inoculated with GD TP2 did not show any symptoms at twelve month after inoculation, but rhizomorph were found at the root collar (Figure 4a and 4b). Polyalthia longifolia was suspected to have a high tolerance against GD TP2, eventhough the plant was infeted infected, no symptoms were observed and it grew normally similar to the plant in control treatment. Figure 4. Tolerance responses of Polyalthia longifolia seedlings against Ganoderma sp. isolate GD TP 2 twelve months after inoculation a) rhizomorph, b) cross section and control treatment c) rhizomorph, d) cross section. Blue lines indicate phenolic compounds 172 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

187 On the cross section of the root, a color change took place from white to blackish brown at 80% of the total surface of the root s cross section (Fig. 4b). This phenomenon was suspected as phenolic compounds accumulation at infetion sites as a response agains GD TP2 infection. The color change on the control plants was marked with black color caused by artificial wounding. Response of the seedling against wounding appears on 20% of the total surface of the root s cross section although there was no pathogen infection (Fig. 4d). Pathogen infection induces the plant to express self defense mechanism. Most plants produce phenolic compound and its toxic derivatives to inhibit the growth of pathogen. (Lattanzio et al., 2006). The compound which is naturally present within a plant will multiply in amount whenever there is a stimulation in the form of pathogen infection. There are many enzymes which act as catalist in the biosynthesis of phenolic compound, among which are phenolases, phenoloxidases, polyphenoloxidases, which oxidize phenolic compounds. Later kinon undergoes polymerization to form blackish brown pygment on the plant tissues (Pandey, 2006). From the explanation above, we suspected that the brown color was a phenolic compound as the plant response against GD TP2. In twelve months of incubation, there was only a little amount of rhizomorph found at the root base. It indiated that GD TP2 has not penetrated the P. longifolia root tissues. The tolerance level of P. longifolia against fungal pathogen was better compared to that of and P. indicus. This was evident from the fact that within two months P. indicus root collar was colonized by the fungal pathogen, while it took twelve months for P. longifolia for the pathogen to colonize the root collar at a lower degree (Table 1). Pterocarpus indicus was suspected to be a possible host of Ganoderma sp. Hennesy and Daly (2007) stated that P. indicus was susceptible to the red root rot disease. However, in authors knowledge so far there is no report of Ganoderma sp. infection on P. indicus in Indonesia. Table. 1. The presence of mycelia on the root collar (weeks after inoculation) Plant Type Length of inoculation (week) Crotalaria sp Dead - Pterocarpus indicus Polyalthia longifolia Note : - = mycelia not present + = mycelia present The root rot disease caused by Ganoderma sp. occurs in various intensities on Acacia spp. within UGM campus area. The intensity of infection on A. auriculiformis, A. mangium, A. oraria, and A. Crassicarpa, respectively, was as follows: 38.59%, 22.22%, 28.95%, and 66.67% (Widyastuti et al., 1998b). The presence of Ganoderma sp. in UGM campus causes concern that there will be an increase of the source of inoculum, which means an increase of the damage potential. The later stage of red root rot infection causes the falling of the host tree since the root can no longer support the bark. The sites where Polyalthia longifolia and Pterocarpus indicus are planted and observed in this experiment was once occupied by A. oraria. Root rot disease on A. oraria has been observed in in this area (Widyastuti et al, 1998b). This proves that Ganoderma sp. inoculum still exists underground as well as on dead tree stumps. Ganoderma sp. always poses a threat of infecting the shade tree which is planted to replace A. oraria. The location is feared to undergo accumulation of Ganoderma sp. inoculum source, as time goes by the potential of Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 173

188 mold infection gets higher. This means that the next planting rotation will be disturbed, and the life of the plants will get shorter. Based on the result of this experiment, P. longifolia is more resistant against GD TP2 infection than P. indicus. It means that P. longifolia is more suitable to be used as the recommended shade tree for urban forest with record of previous Ganoderma sp. infestation, particularly within UGM campus environment. One of the qualifications needed to choose plants for urban forest is that it must be resistant disease (Fandeli et al., 2004; Zoer'aini, 2005). Conclusion and Recommendation Polyalthia longifolia is more resistant against Ganoderma spp. Isolate GD TP2 than P. indicus. Therefore P. longifolia is recommended as the alternative shade tree to be planted in areas previously infected by Ganoderma sp. inoculum, instead of P. Indicus. Acknowledgement We thank the Tanoto Foundation for providing the research funding for the first author. This research is part of the graduating paper prepared by the second author. References DAHLAN, E.N Hutan Kota: Untuk Pengelolaan dan Peningkatan Kualitas Lingkungan Hidup Asosiasi Pengusaha Hutan Indonesia. (APHI). Jakarta. FANDELI, C., KAHARUDIN AND MUKHLISON Perhutanan Kota. Gadjah Mada University Press. Yogyakarta. HENNESY, C. AND DALY A Ganoderma Diseases. Diakses : 1 Februari LATTANZIO, V., LATTANZIO V.M.T. AND CARDINALI A Role of Phenolics in the Resistance Mechanisms of Plants Against Fungal Pathogens and Insects. Phytochemistry: parameters in Ganoderma lucidum. Micologia Aplicada International 17: 5-8. PANDEY, B.P Plant Pathology (Pathogen and Plant Diseases). S. Chand & Company Ltd. New Delhi. WIDYASTUTI, S.M., SUMARDI, SULTHONI A. AND HARJONO. 1998b. Pengendalian Hayati Penyakit Akar Merah pada Akasia dengan Trichoderma. Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia 4: ZOER'AINI, D.I Tantangan Lingkungan dan Lansekap Hutan Kota. PT. Bumi Aksara. Jakarta. 174 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

189 INVITED PAPER BIOLOGY, SPREAD AND MANAGEMENT OF ROOT ROT IN Acacia Mangium PLANTATIONS IN INDONESIA Chris Beadle 1), Morag Glen 2), Luciasih Agustini 3), Vivi Yuskianti 4), Anthony Francis 2), Anto Rimbawanto 4) and Caroline Mohammed 2) 1) CSIRO Ecosystem Sciences, Private Bag 12, Hobart 7001, Australia; 2) Tasmanian Institute of Agriculture, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 98, Hobart 7001, Australia; 3) R & D Centre for Forest Conservation and Rehabilitation of FORDA of Indonesian Ministry of Forestry Jl. Gunung Batu No. 5, Bogor 16610, Indonesia; 4) R & D Centre for Forest Biotechnology and Tree Improvement of FORDA of Indonesian Ministry of Forestry Jl. Palagan Tentara Pelajar Km 15, Purwobinangun, Pakem, Sleman,Yogyakarta 55582, Indonesia Corresponding author: Abstract Of the problems confronted by commercial forestry in western Indonesia, root-rot diseases of exotic plantation Acacia mangium and, more recently plantation Eucalyptus pellita, are the most intractable and damaging for the industrial pulpwood industry. For both acacias and eucalypts, identification of the main causal agent of red root-rot as Ganoderma philippii was assisted by species-specific PCR tests for G. philippii and G. mastoporum. Phellinus noxius was also found to be pathogenic on both. Extensive monitoring has shown that mortality increases more or less linearly with time at an average rate of about 3% per month. Average time from first observed infection to tree death was conservatively estimated at months. Several options are potentially available for disease control, but as yet no reliable system has materialised. Seeking ways of managing inoculum load currently offers the only way forward for containing red root-rot until reliable biocontrols are developed. Keywords: Tropical acacias, tropical eucalypts, fungal diagnostics, tree mortality Introduction Within 20 years of its first introduction in 1979, Acacia mangium became a very successful and the most widely planted species grown for industrial pulpwood in Indonesia (Arisman and Hardyanto, 2006). The next ten or so years, however, has seen a big reversal of its fortunes. Irianto et al. (2006) noted up to 26% of tree death in second-rotation plantations; by the third rotation, some sites have been found to be no longer capable of providing a commercial yield at harvest (E. Wirawan, pers. comm.). The reason of course was root rot, one of the most intractable diseases confronted by the forest industry worldwide (e.g. Woodward et al. 1998). What do we now know about this disease and its dynamics in Indonesia and are we any nearer to being able to arrest or even reverse the hold it currently has on the fortunes of the forest industry. Root diseases of plantations in tropical south and south-east Asia are caused by several species of basidiomycetes (see Potter et al. 2006) and the most frequent pathogens have been found to be Ganoderma species (Lee 1997). By the 1990s, that root-rot organisms were widespread in Indonesia had been recognised (Rahayu, 1999). In Indonesia, several Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 175

190 Ganoderma species may produce sporocarps in plantations affected by root rot, but many of these are not pathogenic and sporocarps of the root pathogens may be absent even after the deaths of a high percentage of trees (Glen et al. 2009). DNA analysis can be used to overcome the difficulty of correctly identifying species infecting roots, at the same time offering a fast and efficient identification system. While several molecular techniques are available, species-specific PCR is particularly efficient for rapid identification of imperfect life-stages where large numbers are to be processed and one or very few species are likely to constitute the majority of the samples (Glen et al. 2007). A tell-tale sign that root rot has arrived is the appearance of concentrically expanding patches of dead trees or disease gaps (Lee, 2000). In seeking to detect disease presence before this happens, two options are available. The easier is to find out whether above-ground surveys have any useful role as indicators of disease presence and for longer-term disease monitoring. As root-to-root contact is considered the more likely means of disease spread (Lee, 2000), the second though more time-consuming option of potential value is root excavation. The results presented here are from a large cooperative study between Indonesia and Australia that commenced in There are two main foci, disease identification and monitoring of disease spread. Where we are at and where we are going with root-rot disease management is discussed. Materials And Methods Fungal identification Sporocarps of G. philippii (red root-rot) and G.mastoporum were collected from A. mangium plantations in Indonesia. DNA was extracted from sporocarps and fresh mycelium (Raeder and Broda 1985). PCR amplification was carried out and the rdna ITS regions amplified using primers ITS1-F and ITS4 (Gardes and Bruns, 1992; White et al., 1990); purification of PCR products and DNA sequencing was carried out by Macrogen Korea. Several combinations of primers were tested using DNA from herbarium sporocarps of known Ganoderma species. Further optimisation was conducted using a larger set of DNA samples from isolates originating from sporocarps and diseased roots of a broader range of Ganoderma and other species from Indonesia. Specificity was verified throughout the project by sequencing the rdna ITS of all isolates that gave negative PCR results and also 3% of the isolates that had been identified as G. philippii. Disease monitoring Acacia mangium plantations at a total of five locations in Riau (two sites), South Sumatra (two sites) and East Kalimantan (one site) were used to establish three or four replicated plots for disease monitoring. The sites represented 1 st, 2 nd and 3 rd rotations and their age at plot establishment varied between 1- and 5-year-old. Each plot contained approximately = 100 trees at the start of the monitoring period. The tree at the centre of each plot was visually confirmed as having red root-rot while few if any of the other trees in the plot were affected at this time. Trees were monitored at approximately six-month intervals on up to four subsequent occasions. Above-ground variables measured were whether alive or dead, crown density and colour, and stem diameter; below-ground variables were presence of root rot and proportion of affected roots to a depth of 10 cm and 50cm radius around the tree. Analysis of Variance and Tukey s Honest Significant Difference post-hoc tests were used to test the significance of crown colour, crown density, and tree size on presence of root rot. 176 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

191 Results and Discussion Primer design, testing, optimisation and verification Potential primers were first selected so that inter-specific variation was near the 3 end of the primer. Potential species-specific primers for Ganoderma mastoporum, G. philippii, and G. steyaertanum were then selected for further testing. An initial test run with DNA from a set of identified sporocarps gave promising results with two primer sets each for G. philippii and G. mastoporum. After testing a larger range of non-target species, raising the annealing temperature from 60 to 62 C resulted in the desired specificity for the PCR tests (Table 1). The specific PCRs were used as an initial screening test to assist in the identification of 1229 root isolates; 60% tested positive to G. philippii and <2% to G. mastoporum. Isolates that gave a negative PCR test result were identified by sequencing of the rdna ITS and BLAST searches of private and public DNA databases. While some isolates represented other root-rot pathogens such as Phellinus noxius, Ganoderma steyaertanum and Tinctoporellus epimiltinus, most were non-pathogenic woodrotters. The PCR tests described facilitated the rapid identification of more than 1000 fungal isolates. This rapid and reliable system of identification has clearly shown that the major pathogen associated with red root-rot in A. mangium is G. philippii (Table 2). It also assisted in selection of isolates for pathogenicity and somatic compatibility tests. A variety of fungal species has been implicated in root rot of A. mangium (Lee, 1997; 1999), and other pathogens, including P. noxius from both A. mangium and E. pellita, were isolated in this study, albeit at much lower frequency than G. philippii. Another potential use of the PCR tests is to identify the pathogen directly from infected roots without first isolating the fungus. This may prove useful in circumventing the reduction in isolation success caused by the presence of secondary invading fungi. Table 1. Fungal species and isolates used to test the specificity of the Ganoderma philippii and G. mastoporum species-specific primers. + indicates PCR amplification, - indicates no amplification. Species/group No. of species No. of isolates/ collections G. phil PCR G. mast. PCR Ganoderma philippii Ganoderma mastoporum Other Ganoderma species Other basidiomycete species Ascomycete species Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 177

192 Table 2. The mean number of trees in sampling plots of A. mangium (3-4 plots of approximately 100 trees at each site) from which Ganoderma philippii was isolated from roots and identity confirmed by species-specific PCR. Site Mean number of trees/plot from which Ganoderma philippii was isolated Deras 12 Langgam 9 Logas South 13 Selibing 5 Sebulu Rasau Kuning* *in Riau and planted with E. pellita Disease spread Trees with yellow crowns, which were always low in number, and low crown density were generally associated with root rot. Otherwise crown colour (green, green-yellow or yellow) and density were not good indicators of either presence or absence of root rot. Mean DBH of trees with root rot was significantly greater than those without root rot, though for individual sites this difference was not significant. Thus tree size and vigour are no protection against root rot. To assess the lag time which it took for the pathogen to kill its host, three classes of trees were identified (Table 3). These are of course estimates because of the approximately sixmonth interval between monitoring times. For a tree that was last found alive without root rot and the monitoring it was first found dead with root rot, the average lag time was 8.5 months (Class 1). For a tree that was first found to have root rot and the monitoring it was found dead, the average lag time was 10.5 months (Class 2). For a tree that was found to have root rot but was not dead at the final monitoring, the average lag time was 15.4 months (Class 3). Table 3. The average time (months) between 1) the monitoring the tree was last found alive without root rot and the monitoring it was first found dead with root rot; 2) the monitoring the tree was found to have root rot and the monitoring it was found dead for infected trees; and 3) the monitoring the tree was found to have root rot and the final monitoring for infected trees still living at the last monitoring. Site average 1) Infected & D/M* same time 178 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics ) Infected before D/M* 3) Infected, not dead at T (last) Logas South Selibing Langgam Sebulu Deras Average for all sites *D/M = dead or missing and infected by root rot The percentage of trees dead or missing when monitoring commenced varied between 5 and 30%; on the last monitoring, this had increased to between 30 and 70% (Fig. 1). The mortality rate increased more or less linearly at all sites with monitoring occasion. The exception was Langgam which experienced a rapid increase in mortality between T1 and T2.

193 When this relationship was examined against time since planting, the average monthly increase in tree mortality was about 3%. As >90% of trees that died during the monitoring period were recorded as having been killed by root rot, these findings suggest that rates of tree death to G. philipii are generally unrelated to either the age or average size of the trees. They also confirm that at least in the context of short-rotation pulpwood forestry, root-rot disease caused mainly by this pathogen shows no indication that it has run its course by the time of harvest at around age 5 years. Other research in this ACIAR project has demonstrated that most trees appear killed by existing below-ground inoculum. This study confirms that inoculum load simply builds up during a rotation and is carried forward to the next rotation. To date, no genetic, chemical, Percentage of trees dead or missing 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% T0 T1 T2 T3 T4 Monitoring occasion Logas South Selibing Langgam Sebulu Deras Figure1. Cumulative average percentages of trees recorded as dead or missing against monitoring occasion for the five sites investigated. silvicultural or biological means for containing root rot in A. mangium plantations has been developed (Eyles et al., 2008) although there is some promise that new biological control agents may be available for field testing in the near future (Agustini et al., this proceedings). The Agustini et al. paper also confirms that E. pellita, currently planted as a replacement species for A. mangium, is also susceptible to red root-rot. Assuming there is no progress in other areas, the only option available in the meantime is to reduce inoculum load. Fire is one option that removes at least contaminated surface litter and has been successful against root rot in other contexts (Filip amd Yangerve, 1997). However slash loads following harvesting of A. mangium are unlikely to generate enough heat to affect inoculum carried in roots or stumps below the mineral soil surface. Stump removal is a second option, but is expensive as well as causing extensive disruption to the upper soil horizon. Is there a third option? What remains unknown is the rate of decline of inoculum load in the presence of a tree crop that is apparently not susceptible to root rot e.g. Alstonia scholaris. Given the current lack of choices, the potential benefits that might follow from planting such species warrant investigation, if only to find out whether this offers a means of at least containing the disease at acceptable levels. Conclusion This study has provided a definition of how above- and below-ground variables can be used to interpret disease presence and disease progression across a number of commercial plantations which represented those affected to some degree by root-rot disease at the commencement of the study. As differences between site were confounded with age and rotation, it is not possible to draw conclusions about site differences, but it is clear that once Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 179

194 present, red root-rot is persistent and that rates of spread are such that a time comes when A. mangium is no longer commercially viable for pulpwood production. While other plant pathogens were present, the red root-rot G. philippii was dominant. The availability of a rapid PCR diagnostic test with potential for direct detection in host tissue may reduce the need for fungal isolation and culturing in future studies into disease control measures in A. mangium and other crops. Acknowledgments This work was supported by the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research Project FST/2003/048. We would like to thank many individuals from the affiliated organisations, PT. Arara Abadi Sinar Mas Forestry, PT Musi Hutan Persada and PT Riau Andalan Pulp and Paper for their assistance in the field and laboratory. References AGUSTINI, L., GLEN, M., INDRAYADI, H., WAHYUNO, D., SAGITARIANTO, F., ALHUSAERI, B. Root rot in Eucalyptus pellita plantations and its possible biocontrol. In: RAHAYU et al. (eds.) The impacts of climate change to forest pests and diseases in the tropics (this proceedings) ARISMAN, H., HARDYANTO, E.B In POTTER, K. et al., (eds.) Heart rot and root rot in tropical Acacia plantations. ACIAR, p EYLES, A., BEADLE, C., BARRY, K., FRANCIS, A., GLEN, M. & MOHAMMED, C Management of fungal root-rot pathogens in tropical acacia plantations. For. Path. 38, p Ryvarden, L., Johansen, I A preliminary polypore flora of East Africa, Oslo, Norway, Fungiflora. FILIP, G.M., YANGERVE, L Effects of prescribed burning on the viability of Armillaria ostoyae in mixed-conifer forest soils in the Blue Mountains of Oregon. Northwest Sci. 71, p GARDES, M., BRUNS, T.D ITS primers with enhanced specificity for basidiomycetes-application to the identification of mycorrhizae and rusts. Molec. Ecol. 2, p doi: /j X.1993.tb00005.x. GLEN, M., BOUGHER, N. L., FRANCIS, A. A. et al Ganoderma and Amauroderma species associated with root-rot disease of Acacia mangium plantation trees in Indonesia and Malaysia. Australasian Plant Pathology, 38, p GLEN, M., SMITH, A. H., LANGRELL, S. R. H., Mohammed, C. L Development of nested Polymerase Chain Reaction detection of Mycosphaerella spp. and its application to the study of leaf disease in Eucalyptus plantations. Phytopath. 97, p IRIANTO, R.S.B., BARRY, K.M., HIDAYAH, I. et al Incidence, spatial analysis and genetic variation of root rot of Acacia mangium in Indonesia. J. Trop. For. Sci. 18, p LEE, S.S Diseases of some tropical plantation Acacia in Peninsular Malaysia. In OLD, K.M. et al., (eds.) Diseases of tropical acacias. CIFOR Special Publication, Jakarta, Indonesia, pp LEE, S.S Forest health in plantation forests in South-East Asia. Austral. Plant Path. 28, p POTTER, K., RIMBAWANTO, A., BEADLE, C In POTTER, K. et al., (eds.) Heart rot and root rot in tropical Acacia plantations. ACIAR, 92 pp. RAEDER, U., BRODA, P Rapid preparation of DNA from filamentous fungi. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 1, p RAHAYU, S Penyakit tanaman hutan di Indonesia. Gejala, penyebab dan teknik pengendaliannya. Kanisius. Yogyakarta, Indonesia. 138 pp. 180 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

195 WHITE, T. J., BRUNS, T., Lee, S., TAYLOR, J Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. In INNIS, M.A. et al. (eds.) PCR protocols: a guide to methods and applications. Academic Press, pp WOODWARD, S., STENLID, J., KARJALAINEN, R., & HUTTERMANN, A "Heterobasidion annosum Biology, Ecology, Impact and Control," CAB International, Oxford. Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 181

196 PREVENTIVE SPRAYS FOR Ceratocystis acaciivora INFECTION CONTROL FOLLOWING SINGLING PRACTICES OF Acacia mangium Marthin Tarigan, Budi Tjahjono And Abdul Gafur RGE Fiber Research and Development, Town Site I, PT RAPP Complex, Pangkalan Kerinci 28300, Indonesia Corresponding author: Abstract Singling is often done in commercial Acacia plantations to improve tree form, restore apical dominance and to increase tree strength thus reducing stem and branch breakage. Singling also reduces the number of co-leader shoots so that optimum tree growth can be achieved. The quality of singling wounds affects disease development. Improper singling creates wounds that provide infection sites for wound pathogens such as Ceratocystis acaciivora which cause premature tree mortality. The incidence of C. acaciivora infection due to improper singling is increasing; thus, singling practices have to be implemented properly and carefully. However, to avoid new C. acaciivora infection due to unwanted improper singling, application of insecticides and fungicides on wound surfaces is an option that require evaluation and study in order to seek practical and economical control measures. Careful singling reduced C. acaciivora infection by 50% compared to rough singling. In the careful singling plot, reductions again control for contact and systemic pesticides were 25% and 38% respectively. In the rough singling plot, reductions again control for contact and systemic pesticides were -53% and 32% respectively. Keywords: Acacia mangium plantation, Ceratocystis acaciivora infection, singling, contact and systemic insecticide and fungicide. Introduction Since the initiation of Intensively Managed Planted Forest (IMPF) by Indonesian Government in the 1980s, plantations of both Acacia mangium and A. crassicarpa have been expanded rapidly in Indonesia, specifically to provide raw material for Indonesian pulp and paper industries (Barr 2001). These Acacia species, however, tend to have poor stem form, with multiple stems and branches (Lee and Arentz, 1997). In order to improve stem form and strength, reducing stem or branch breakage, particularly after strong winds, singling is a common silvicultural practice in commercial Acacia plantations (Beadle et al., 2007). The wounds resulting from singling are susceptible to infection by pathogens (Lee et al. 1988, Barry et al., 2005). C. acaciivora has been shown recently to be important pathogens of A.mangium in Indonesia, where it is commonly associated with wounds on trees (Tarigan et al., 2011a, Tarigan et al., 2011b). Ceratocystis spp. are well adapted to being vectored by insects such as nitidulid beetles (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) and flies (Diptera) (Moller and DeVay 1968, Kirisits 2004). These insect attracted to fresh wounds and visited wounds and carried along with them Ceratocystis which has sticky masses of spores that stick easily to insect bodies. Recent studies showed that the quality of singling wounds on disease development is very important (Tarigan et al., 2011b). Fungal infection is much higher when singling resulted in tearing of the bark. Singling practices have to be implemented properly and carefully with proper technique and equipment to avoid unnessary wounds. Technician awareness and good supervision are required to make sure singling is carried out properly. However, considering that singling operation is done in huge plantation areas by many technicians, it is noticed that the incidence of C. acaciivora infection due to improper singling practice is increasing. Thus in order to avoid new C. acaciivora infection 182 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

197 due to unwanted improper singling, application of insecticides and fungicides on wound surface needs to be evaluated in order to search for practical and economical control measures. Materials and Methods Six-month-old A. mangium trees in Riau province, Indonesia, were singled using a handsaw, similar to that used in routine singling activities in Indonesia. Two singling methods were used. In the first method, branches were pruned above the branch collar taking care not to tear the bark, called as careful singling (Figure 1). In the second method, branches were pruned on the branch collar and the bark was torn to create a flap, called as rough singling (Figure 2). Figure 1. Careful Singling Figure 2. Rough Singling Insecticide application followed by fungicide application was carried out after singling using a hand sprayer in the treatment plot based on the treatments list presented in Table 1. Table 1. List of treatments Code Singling Type Insecticide Fungicide T1 Careful None None T2 Rough None None T3 Careful Contact Contact T4 Rough Contact Contact T5 Careful Systemic Systemic T6 Rough Systemic Systemic Note: Pesticide 1 = contact insecticide (deltametrin at 0.04% concentration) was applied initially followed by contact fungicide application (propineb at 0.2% concentration). Pesticide 2 = systemic insecticide (imidacloprid at 0.04% concentration) was applied initially followed by systemic fungicide application (carbendazim 0.2% concentration). The six treatments were established in Completely Randomized Block (CRB) of 4 replicates. Each plot contained 100 trees (10 x 10) at 3 x 2 m spacing, for a total of 2400 trees. Ceratocystis acaciivora incidence was recorded at 1, 2, 3, and 6 months after establishment. Acacia mangium trees infected by C. acaciivora infection typically display foliar wilt and, at the point where a lesion appears to originate from a singling wound, stem canker symptoms. The bark and the wood surrounding the cankers are discolored and have a black appearance due to the exudation of gum (Figure 3). Data obtained were analyzed with analysis of variance (ANOVA) using Genstat statistical software 14 th edition. Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 183

198 Results and Discussion Both careful and rough singling produced lesions on the singling wound within one month and numbers of infected trees increased over time (Table 2). However, all treatments using the rough singling method (T2, T4 and T6), produced higher disease incidence (P = 0.023) than those associated with careful singling (T1, T3, T5). The effect was most apparent at 3 and 6 months after establishment, although some of the treatments are not different statistically, except for treatment T4. Figure 3. Ceratocystis symptoms on a singling wound The number of infected trees for careful singling treatments (T1, T3, T5) at six months was 8%, 6% and 5% respectively (Figure 4) while the number of infected trees in the rough singling treatments (T2, T4, T6) at six months (Figure 4) was 11.8%, 18% and 8% respectively. In the careful singling plot, reductions again control for contact and systemic pesticides were 25% and 38% respectively. In the rough singling plot, reductions again control for contact and systemic pesticides were -53% and 32% respectively. Systemic pesticide application provided better control in both careful and rough singling applications over the untreated (no chemical application) and contact pesticide plots Ceratocystis incidence (%) a T1 = Control a T3 = Contact Pesticides a T5 = Systemic Pesticides ab b a T2 = Control T4 = Contact Pesticides T6 = Systemic Pesticides Careful Singling Rough Singling Figure 4. Ceratocystis incidence at 6 months after treatment application 184 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

199 Similar to a previous study by Tarigan et al. (2011b) results of this study show clearly that the quality of singling has a significant effect on the infection of A. mangium by C. acaciivora that is associated with disease development from singling wounds. On Average the incidences of Ceratocystis associated with careful singling and with rough singling were 6% and 13% respectively. It means that careful pruning can reduce the incidence of stem disease caused by C. acaciivora in Acacia plantations by 50%. Conclusion This study has shown that careful pruning can reduce the incidence of stem disease caused by C. acaciivora in Acacia plantations by 50%. Excessive pruning and rough pruning practices should be avoided. Systemic pesticide application provided better control in both careful and rough singling applications over the untreated (no chemical application) and contact pesticide plots. Reduction of Ceratocystis incidence on systemic pesticide against control in careful singling practice and rough singling practices were 38% and 32% respectively. Acknowledgments We acknowledge with thanks the support and assistance provided by both the Teso East Estate Management and our R&D staffs to carry out this study. We also thank RAPP Management for supporting this work and granting their permission to present this paper. References BARR, C Banking on sustainability: structural adjustment and forestry reform in post-suharto Indonesia. Bogor, Center for International Forestry Research and WWF Macroeconomics for Sustainable Development Program Office. BARRY, K. M., HALL, M. F., MOHAMMED, C. L The effect of time and site on incidence and spread of pruning-related decay in plantation-grown Eucalyptus nitens. Canadian Journal of Forestry Research, 35, p BEADLE, C., BARRY, K., HARDIYANTO, E., IRIANTO, R. J., MOHAMMED, C., RIMBAWANTO, A Effect of pruning Acacia mangium on growth, form and heart rot. Forest Ecology and Management, 238, p KIRISITS, T Taxonomy and systematics of bark and ambrosia beetles. In F. LIEUTIER, F., DAY, K. R., BATISTTISTI, A., GRE GOIRE, J. C., EVANS, H. F. (ed.): Bark and woodboring insects in living trees in Europe, a synthesis. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, p LEE, S. S., ARENTZ, F A possible link between rainfall and heart rot incidence in Acacia mangium? Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 9, p LEE, S. S., TENG, S. Y., LIM, M. T., KADER, R. A Discolouration and heartrot of Acacia mangium Willd. - some preliminary results. Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 1, p MOLLER, W. J., DeVay, J. E Insect transmission of Ceratocystis fimbriata in deciduous fruit orchards. Phytopathy, 58, p TARIGAN, M., ROUX, J., VAN WYK, M., TJAHJONO, B., WINGFIELD, M. J. 2011a. A new wilt and die-back disease of Acacia mangium associated with Ceratocystis manginecans and C. acaciivora sp. nov. in Indonesia. South African Journal of Botany, 77(2), p TARIGAN, M., WINGFIELD, M. J., VAN WYK, M., TJAHJONO, B., ROUX, J. 2011b. Pruning quality affects infection of Acacia mangium and A. crassicarpa by Ceratocystis acaciivora and Lasiodiplodia theobromae. Southern Forests, 73(3&4), p Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 185

200 DEVELOPMENT OF BIOLOGICAL CONTROL AGENTS TO PROTECT PLANTATION FORESTS IN SUMATRA, INDONESIA Abdul Gafur, Aswardi Nasution, Marthin Tarigan and Budi Tjahjono RGE Fiber Research and Development, Town Site I, PT RAPP Complex, Pangkalan Kerinci 28300, Indonesia; Corresponding author: Abstract Productivity of plantation forests in Indonesia, especially in the humid tropic area, is always challenged by pests and diseases. With the introduction of new plant species, especially acacias and eucalypts, for the development of industrial forest plantations in Sumatra, new pests and diseases are becoming emerging threats. As a component of integrated pest management, some biocontrol agents have been developed to manage pests and diseases in Sumatra plantation forests. A number public institutions and private sectors are very keen to develop biological control programs. For example, Trichoderma and white rot fungi have been developed to control Ganoderma root rot in Acacia plantations. To manage insect pests such as caterpillars and Helopeltis, an insect predator (Sycanus sp.) is routinely released into acacia and eucalypt compartments with high pest infestation. Nuclear Polyhidrosis Virus (NPV) has already been applied in nurseries to control armyworm (Spodoptera litura). A possibility of employing other biocontrol agents such as entomopathogenic fungi (for instance Beauveria and Metharhizium) is also explored. Results of some biocontrol trials are elaborated in this paper. Based on our works on the use of Trichoderma and Gliocladium to manage Ganoderma, future works on antagonistic microbes should focus more on continuous isolation of locally more adapted and stable isolates to increase their efficacy. Introduction of endophytic microbes into the scenario should be encouraged. Keywords: Acacia, biological control, disease, eucalypt, pest, plantation forest. Introduction The ever increasing global demand for wood is anticipated by the Indonesian Government through reforestation programs. The Department of Forestry has targeted a development of plantation forests, both industrial and community-based plantation forests. Consequently, since mid 1980s the area of plantation forests in Indonesia has increased dramatically (Gintings et al. 1996), especially in Riau and some other provinces in Sumatra. The effort is aimed at sustaining the supply of forest products while conserving the natural forests, thus maintaining not only their economic importance, but also environmental and social roles (Natadiwirya 1998). In line with the policy, industrial plantation forests of fast-growing species, especially acacias and eucalypts, are being established on a large scale to meet the goal. From pest and disease point of view, this can potentially increase the risks. As it is common with most of the planted species, some pests and diseases are observed associated with plantation forests. A number of pests and pathogens have indeed been recorded since early establishment of the plantation forests. They ignite various damages such as retardation, defoliation, root rot, heart rot, stem cankers, foliar diseases, etc. 186 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

201 Common pests and diseases As mentioned earlier, plantation forests of fast-growing species, especially acacias and eucalypts, are being established on a large scale basis in Sumatera. One challenge has been to maintain high survival and productivity of the trees. Pests and diseases are considered as limiting factors to plantation forest production. Common pests include termite Coptotermes sp. (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae), Helopeltis sp. (Heteroptera: Miridae), caterpillars, especially leaf roller Strepsicrates sp. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), armyworm Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and bag worm Pteroma sp. (Lepidoptera: Psychidae), and vertebrate pests. Major pathogens are Ganoderma spp., P. Karsten (red root rot), Phellinus noxious (Corner), G. Cunn. (heart rot), Ceratocystis spp. (stem canker), Atelocauda digitata (G. Wint.) Cummins (phyllode rust), Passalora perplexa (Passalora leaf and shoot blight disease), Cylindrocladium sp. (Cylindrocladium leaf blight), Xanthomonas sp. (Xanthomonas leaf blight in nurseries), and Ralstonia solanacearum (bacterial wilt). Research and application of biological control agents to manage pests and diseases in plantation forests have for some time been initiated but are yet to get more serious attention. This paper will focus on the potentials of Trichoderma and white rot fungi as biocontrol agents of root rot diseases. Utilization of Sycanus, Nuclear Polyhidrosis Virus (NPV), and some entomopathogenic fungi to manage insect pests is briefly discussed. Trichoderma as biological control agents against G. philippii Root rot is considered a major disease of acacias (Gafur et al. 2007; Lee 2000; Wingfield et al. 2010). Ganoderma philippii Karst. has been found to be the fungal species most commonly associated with the disease in Acacia mangium plantations in Indonesia (Coetzee et al. 2011; Glen et al. 2009). Although presently occurs in lower frequencies, the disease is also found on different species of eucalypts (Coetzee et al. 2011; Francis et al. 2008; Gafur et al. 2010). Acacia trees infected by the disease usually show a rapid decline, evidenced by off-color and sparse foliage, wilting, and death (Figure 1 top). Recently infected roots are covered with a red-colored rhizomorphs and white mycelium (Figure 1 bottom, left). Fruiting bodies are occasionally observed at the bases of dead trees (Figure 1 bottom, right). In the case of eucalypts, roots have identical signs of infection including red rhizomorphs and the typical mottled pattern of mycelial growth below the bark. The current level of damage and incidence of this disease requires that effective management be developed to secure sustainable production of fiber plantations. This is, however, not easy. Field management is complicated by the fact that its pathogen survives on the woody debris between rotations. Use of the cost-effective and environmentally sound management of the biological control measure employing consortium of different functional groups of synergistic microorganisms is therefore seen as an important management of root rot disease in plantation forests (Gafur et al. 2011a; 2011b). Trichoderma is one of the most common fungi used as biocontrol agents. A large number of free living isolates collected from different origins and localities have been screened in vitro for their efficacy against Ganoderma. Some of the collections are able to reduce root rot incidence in the field (Gafur et al. 2011a; 2011b). Free living isolates of the fungus have long been used predominantly as biocontrol agents. One problem with the free living isolates is their consistency in the field. Isolates with excellent inhibitory effects in laboratory tests (Figure 2), may not be a good performer in the field. In addition, one particular isolate which is effective in certain environmental conditions is not necessarily equally good in other conditions. To illustrate, two trials were established in two different locations in Riau, i.e. Baserah and Logas. Results of the trials showed that Trichoderma Baserah isolate performed best by reducing Ganoderma incidence by 7.0 % in the Baserah trial. Similarly, Logas isolate of Gliocladium was the most effective in the Logas site, decreasing Ganoderma incidence by Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 187

202 10.0 % (Gafur et al. 2011a; 2011b). This indicates that local isolates tend to be more effective than the introduced ones in reducing Ganoderma incidence. Figure 1. Symptoms and signs of Ganoderma root rot on Acacia mangium. Young trees showing yellowing and wilting of leaves (top, left), dead trees (top, right), roots covered with red-colored rhizomorphs and white mycelium (bottom, left), and fruiting bodies of Ganoderma philippii (bottom, right). In search of more stable and consistent biocontrol agents, scientists have started to investigate endophytic microbes. Recently explored endophytic isolates of Trichoderma is considered as a good option. Endophytic Trichoderma is able to enhance both plant health and plant vigor (Hill 2012). They also persist in the root through the rotation, providing hope for future disease management. As endophytic Trichoderma is considered as one of those biocontrol agents with great potentials, we have also isolated and screened a great number of putative endophytic isolates. Some of the isolates are able to promote seedling growth in the nursery screening (Figure 3), an early indication of their ability to live endophytically with plants. Field trials are now going on to test performance of these isolates in the field, both in reducing root rot incidence and in promoting plant growth. G T G Figure 2. Ganoderma (G) in pure culture (left) and Trichoderma (T) is overgrowing Ganoderma (G) in dual culture (right) 188 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

203 Figure 3. Nursery screening of endophytic isolates of Trichoderma. Acacia mangium seedling height is increased by more than 20 %. White Rot Fungi as Biological Control Agents against G. philippii In our effort to control the Ganoderma root rot disease, we isolated and screened white rot fungi as biological control agents. We collected 107 samples from different localities in Riau. The fungi were isolated from rotten woods including trunks and twigs, and from fruiting bodies. Out of the 107 samples, 79 samples (28 from rotten woods and 51 from fruiting bodies) were successfully isolated. Screening of the isolated fungi was done on wood block, wood disc, and wood powder containing agar. Eleven isolates showed fast growth on wood block; subsequent second screening in dual culture on wood disc resulted in three isolates showing fast growth and capability of overgrowing G. philippii. The third screening was to examine quantitative growth rate of the selected fungal isolates on potato dextrose agar wood powder (PDA-WP). Two isolates were selected. These two isolates have shown potentials as biological control agents of the root-rot pathogen, G. philippii. The isolation and screening methods are described by Sitompul et al. (2011). The growth rate of the 79 isolates on A. mangium wood block is shown in Table 1. As seen in the table, 11 isolates express fast growth. The 11 fastest growing isolates selected from the first screening were subjected to the second screening for interference ability in dual culture technique on A. mangium wood disc. Two isolates (WFA033 and WFA068) were considerably good in suppressing the growth of G. philippii (Figure 4). The growth rate of the three selected isolates was then quantitatively determined on MEA-WP. Isolates WFA033 and WFA068 grew fast and suppressed the growth of G. philippii, whereas isolate WFA064 grew slower compared to WFA033 and WFA068 (Figure 5). Growth suppression of G. philippii by isolates WFA033 and WFA068 can also be observed in dual culture test on MEA-WP (Figure 6). Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 189

204 Table 1. Growth rate of the newly isolated fungi on Acacia mangium wood block (Sitompul et al. 2011) Number of strains Growth rate* * : very fast growth rate (0-15 days covered wood block) : fast growth rate (16-30 days covered wood block) : moderate growth rate (31-45 days covered wood block) : slow growth rate (> 45 days covered wood block) Figure 4. Dual culture of WFA033 (left) and WFA068 (right) with Ganoderma philippii on Acacia mangium wood disc. Both isolates overgrew and inhibited growth of G. philippii (Sitompul et al. 2011). 100 Growth rate (mm/day) Incubation (days) Ganoderma WFA033 WFA064 WFA068 Figure 5. Growth rate of WFA033, WFA064, WFA068, and Ganoderma philippii on MEA- WP (Sitompul et al. 2011) Biological control of root rot fungi using non- or weak-pathogenic fungi can be considered. These biological control agents could break down wood debris faster than the pathogen, occupy the same resource as the pathogen, compete for nutrients, produce inhibitory 190 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

205 secondary metabolites, and are able to mycoparasitize the pathogen (Eyles et al. 2008; Peterson 2006). These characters are found in WFA033 and WFA068, which were able to compete and inhibit growth of G. philippii during the screening on three different types of media. These two isolates have shown potential as biological control agents of the root-rot pathogen, G. philippii. Figure 6. Growth inhibition by WFA033 and WFA068 of Ganoderma philippii on MEA-WP (Sitompul et al. 2011). Other Biocontrol Programs Plantation forests are also prone to pest infestation. Although the magnitude of pest damages is currently less than that of disease losses, there are cases when they are detrimental. Some of these common pests include Helopeltis spp., leaf roller on eucalypts, and army worm. Anticipating unexpected situation, we are also developing other biocontrol agents to manage these insects. The insect predator Sycanus sp., SlNPV, and entomopathogenic fungi are some of these (Figure). While entomopathogenic fungi are being tested at the laboratory scale, Sycanus and SlNPV have been applied in the filed, both in plantations and nurseries. Figure 7. Other biocontrol agents developed include Sycanus sp., SlNPV, and entomopathogenic fungi. Conclusion Plantation forest, especially of fast growing species, in Sumatra is still expanding. Planting of non-native trees in new environments has a number of consequences including those related to pests and diseases. Pests and diseases are likely to challenge plantation forest in the future but there are also outstanding opportunities for management using biocontrol Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 191

206 agents. Based on our works on Trichoderma and Gliocladium, future research on antagonistic microbes should focus more on continuous isolation of locally more adapted and stable isolates to increase their efficacy. Introduction of endophytic microbes into the scenario should be encouraged. References COETZEE, M.P.A, GOLANI G.D., TJAHJONO B., GAFUR A., WINGFIELD B.D., & WINGFIELD M.J A single dominant Ganoderma species is responsible for root rot of Acacia mangium and Eucalyptus in Sumatra. Southern Forests 73: EYLES, A., BEADLE C., BARRY K., FRANCIS A., GLEN M., & MOHAMMED C Management of fungal root-rot pathogens in tropical Acacia mangium plantations. For. Path. 38: FRANCIS, A.A., BEADLE C., MARDAI, INDRAYADI H., TJAHJONO B., GAFUR A., GLEN M., WIDYATMOKO A., HARDYANTO E., JUNARTO, IRIANTO R.S.B., PUSPITASARI D., HIDAYATI N., RIMBAWANTO A., & MOHAMMED C.L Basidiomycete root rots of paper-pulp tree species in Indonesia identity, biology and control. Presented at the 9th International Congress of Plant Pathology, Turin, Italy, August 24 29, GAFUR, A., TJAHJONO B., & GOLANI G.D Fungal species associated with acacia plantations in Riau, Indonesia. Presented at the 2007 Asian Mycological Congress, Penang, Malaysia, December 02 06, GAFUR, A., TJAHJONO B, & GOLANI G.D Pests and Diseases of Low Elevation Eucalyptus: Diagnose and Control. Pangkalan Kerinci, Indonesia. APRIL Forestry R&D, PT RAPP. 40 p. GAFUR, A., TJAHJONO B., & GOLANI G.D. 2011a. Options for field management of Ganoderma root rot in Acacia mangium plantation forests. Presented at the 2011 IUFRO Forest Protection Joint Meeting, Colonia del Sacramento, Uruguay, November 8 11, GAFUR, A., TJAHJONO B., & GOLANI G.D. 2011b. Silvicultural options for field management of Ganoderma root rot in Acacia mangium plantation. Presented at the 4 th Asian Conference on Plant Pathology and the 18 th Australasian Plant Pathology Conference, Darwin, Australia, April 26 29, GINTINGS, N.A., DARYONO, H. & SIREGAR, C.A Ecological aspects of forest plantation. In Otsamo, A., Kuusipalo, J. and Jaskari, H. (eds). Proceed Workshop on Reforestation: Meeting the Future Industrial Wood Demand, April 30 May 1, Jakarta. Enso forest Development Oy Ltd. GLEN, M., BOUGHER N.L., FRANCIS A., NIGGA S.Q., LEE S.S., IRIANTO R., BARRY K.M., MOHAMMED C.L Molecular differentiation of Ganoderma and Amouroderma species associated with root rot disease of Acacia mangium plantations in Indonesia and Malaysia. Ausralas. Plant Pathol. J. 38: HILL, R Trichoderma root endophytes enhance plant health and vigour. Presented at the 12 th International Trichoderma and Gliocladium Workshop, Christchurch, New Zealand, August 27 30, LEE S.S The current status of root diseases of Acacia mangium Wild. In: Flood J, Bridge PD, Holderness M, editors. Ganoderma diseases of perennial crops. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing. pp Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

207 NATADIWIRYA, M Plantation forest in Indonesia: Basic resource issues and national goals. In Nambiar, E.K.S., Gintings, A.N., Ruhiyat, D., Natadiwirya, M., Harwood, C.E. and Booth, T.H. (eds). Sustained Productivity of Short and Medium Rotation Plantation Forests for Commercial and Community Benefit in Indonesia: An Analysis of Research Priorities. CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products, p PETERSON, R.R.M Fungi and fungal toxin as weapon. Mycol. Res. 110: Sitompul A, Nasution A, Gafur A, Tjahjono B Screening of white rot fungi as biological control agents against Ganoderma philippii. Presented at the International Seminar and 12 th National Congress of the Indonesian Phypathological Society, Solo, Indonesia, December 03 05, WINGFIELD, M.J., SLIPPERS B., ROUX J., WINGFIELD B.D Novel associations between pathogens, insects and tree species threaten world forests. New Zealand Journal of Forest Science 40 suppl.:s95-s103. Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 193

208 BIOFERTILIZER APPLICATIONS FOR MAINTAINING HEALTH AND PRODUCTIVITY IN OIL PALM PLANTATIONS UNDER A CHANGING CLIMATE Mucharromah, Teguh Adi Prasetyo, Hidayat, Sigit Nugroho, Merakati Handajaningsih Agriculture College, Bengkulu University, Jl. WR Supratman, Bengkulu 3837, Indonesia Corresponding author: Abstract Large areas of oil palm plantations have a high dependency on chemical fertilizers which stimulate N2O emissions, can negatively impact soil properties, are costly in terms of fossil fuel energy and money and maybe in short supply. Dependency on chemical fertilizers has led to unproductive and neglected plantations where fertiliser has not been applied because of its price, unavailability or that it not seen to be effective. This research tested the effect of a microbial biofertilizer (added to the soil below the canopy edges of oil palm plants) on leaf yellowing and no-fruitbunch symptoms. The results of this study showed that biofertilizer application at 50 kg/plant increased the number of healthy plants by over 50% and more than doubled increased productivity within three months, as well as reducing chemical fertilizer inputs. This research shows the benefit of managing organic waste to improve plant nutrition, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and provide increased vigour to withstand the vagaries of a changing climate. Keywords: biofertilizer, climate change, microbia, plant health, oil palm Introduction Palm oil of Elaeis guineensis Jacq. had became the priority commodity of Indonesia. Nowadays, Indonesia is the biggest producer and exporter of the world crude palm oil (CPO), with productivity of 23 million tons/year (Arifin, 2011). The oil palm production centres are mainly in North Sumatra (39.9%), Riau (21%), West Kalimantan (6.1%), Aceh (6.1%) and West Sumatra (5.4%) (Arifin, 2011). The remaining centres include Bengkulu Province which had been developing oil palm plantation particularly in Muko-Muko, North Bengkulu, Central Bengkulu, Seluma, South Bengkulu and more recently in Kaur (BPS, 2011). Oil palm production in Indonesia is regarded as environmentally unsound, partly because of its heavy reliance on chemical fertilizer, which is a main source of N2O emissions (Suharto, 2011; Supriatna et al., 2011). In addition to the long-term sustainability issues involved in using chemical fertilizer, it is often in short supply and difficult to obtain especially in remote areas. In addition plantations have been suffering from dry weather possibly associated with increasing climate variability. Consequently, there are many neglected oil palm plantation which will require considerable effort to restore. Organic amendments have been successful through-out the world in reducing chemical fertilizer use while maintaining or even improving crop production (Abbasi, et.al., 2002; Aggarwal, et.al., 1997; Aseri, et.al., 2008; Batisda, et.al., 2008). Recycling programs reduce hazards from the agriculture waste, livestock manure and sewage (Arkhipchenko, et al., 2005). All of this recycling is based on the action of microbes (Chadwick, et.al., 2011), particularly those able to degrade organic materials into simple compounds which can be 194 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

209 utilized by other microbes or organisms, as well as plants. The application of organic composts is becoming more popular, along with an increase in organic farming and restrictions on the use of certain pesticides. The use of beneficial microorganisms in agriculture had long been reported, but mostly in relation to relatively direct interactions with the plant, e.g. mychorrizae, biocontrol agents, growth stimulators, and inducers of plant resistance (Singh, et.al., 2011). The use of microbes which do not have specific associations with the crop, such as organic matter decomposers used in the biofertilizers have not been widely reported. BIOM3G is a biofertilizer developed using multi-types and multi-functional groups of microbia incubated in enriched cow-dung based media. This paper reports the results of BIOM3G application to improve oil palm health and productivity, particularly its role in oil palm survival through a very dry season. Materials and Methods The research was conducted at an oil palm plantation at Desa Jumat, Kecamatan Talang Empat Kabupaten (District) of Bengkulu Tengah, Bengkulu Province, and the Protection Laboratory, Agriculture College, Bengkulu University, from May to August The oil palm plantation used was 6-7 years old, and the BIOM3G biofertilizer had been developed as part of other research (Mucharromah, et al., 2012). Biofertilizer application was done by digging three trenches 20 cm deep and wide, 2 m away from the basal stem, equal in length and in total occupying about half the length of the palm drip line below the canopy edges. The BIOM3G was then placed inside at a rate of 50 kg/plant, covered back with the soil and pressed lightly. For the control treatment, chemical fertilizer at standard recommended doses were applied by mixing and spreading them on the area around the basal stem to out below the canopy edge. Since the application was done during very dry conditions (early June 2012), the control plants were watered prior to fertilizer application to avoid toxicity. The 6 plants per treatment were selected for uniform size and appearance, and were clustered per treatment. The number of leaves, fruit bunches formed and harvested, the weight of fruit bunches harvested per plant, the ph of soil around root tips were assessed every two weeks. The soil around the plants and at the sites of the BIOM3G application was sampled for each plant and bulk analysed for each treatment at the beginning and end of the experimental period. Results and Discussion Based on Figure 1 below, the number of fruit bunches observed per plant and the number of harvested fruit bunches from the BIOM3G treated plants were similar to those observed with chemically fertilizer (SOP). Untreated plants did not form any fruit bunches. Leaf yellowing was reduced and new leaves produced in both BIOM3G treated plants (Figures 1 and 2) and the chemically fertilized plants, but there was no change in the leaf yellowing of the untreated control plants. Leaf chlorophyll analysis is still in progress. Oil palm is known to be a crop reliant on a high level of nutrition and lack of the correct nutritional levels and limits fruit production. This study clearly showed over a short period of time the association between good nutrition and fruit bunch formation. This study was carried out in a neglected oil palm plantation on red yellow podsols, known to be very acid and low in organic matter and nutrients. Unfortunately, this is the type of soil is common in Indonesia, particularly in Sumatra and Kalimantan thus explaining the dependency of oil palm production on chemical fertilizers. Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 195

210 Figure 1. BIOM3G treated plant with many fruitbunches (left) and a control plant (right), two months after treatment. A greater number of leaves was produced by BIOM3G treated plants but are not see in the photo as they were cut during harvest SOP BIOM3G NL (1) NL (4) NLG (leaf) NL (1) NL (4) NLG (leaf) Figure 2. Total number of leaves per plant before treatment (NL 1) and 2 months after treatment (NL 4) for chemically fertilized (SOP) and BIOM3G treated plants (untreated plants lost leaves and did not form new leaves). Up to 10 bunches per plant were produced within the two months observation period (Figure 3) each of which grew to harvestable size. Increased productivity was accompanied by improved health and a greater number of leaves produced. Although Figure 4 shows a high level of variation between plants, the data of total number of fruit bunches (FB Total) per plant and the total fruit bunch weight (FBW Total) per plant for the BIOM3G and chemical fertilizer treated oil palms were comparable and obviously superior to the control treatment which did not fruit. The results of soil analyses support the improvement of soil by the addition of biofertilizer BIOM3G (data not shown). 196 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

211 SOP BIOM3G FB/Plant FB Harvested FB/Plant FB Harvested Figure 3. Number of fruit bunches observed per plant and the number harvested from the intensively fertilized chemically oil palms (SOP) and the BIOM3G treated oil palm 2 months after treatment (untreated plants did not form any fruit bunches). SOP BIOM3G FB Total FBW Total FB Total FBW Total Figure 4. Total number of fruit bunches harvested per plant and the total weight (kg) of harvested fruit bunches from the intensively fertilized chemically (SOP) oil palms and the BIOM3G treated oil palms 2 months after treatment (untreated plants did not form any fruit bunches). Conclusions An application of 50 kg/plant of the biofertilizer BIOM3G increases oil palm health, growth, fruit bunch formation and overall productivity within three months. This effect is as good as that provided by the recommended dose of chemical fertilizer. Untreated plants failed to thrive and produce fruit in comparison to chemical fertilizer and BIOM3G. Therefore, BIOM3G shows significant promise for environmentally sound sustainable palm oil production, recycling available waste into high quality but low cost fertilizer and will assist the oil palm industry in facing current problems and those posed by a changing climate. Acknowledgements The paper submitted on June 20th, 2012 to Working Party Conference IUFRO International Diseases and Insects of Tropical Forest Trees, for The International Conference entitled The Impact of Climate Change to Forest Pest and Diseases in the Tropics, to be held on October 8th-10th, 2012 at UGM Yogyakarta, Indonesia is part of the MP3EI data funded by Dikti under Contract Number 0541/023_ /00/2012 dated December 9th, 2011 under Agreement Number 236/SP2H/PL/Dit. llitabmas V/2012, dated May 9th, Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 197

212 References ABBASI, P.A., AL-DAHMANI, J., SAHIN, F., HOITINK, H.A.J., MILLER, S.A Effect of compost amendments on disease severity and yield of tomato in conventional and organic production systems. Plant Disease 86, AGGARWAL, R.K., P. KUMAR, J.F. POWER Use of crop residue and manure to conserve water and enhance nutrient availability and pearl millet yields in an arid tropical region. Soil and Tillage Research (41): ARIFIN, B Sustainable Oil Palm Development: Challenges for Food Security. Presentation of The 7th Indonesian Palm Oil Conference and 2012 Price Outlook: Sustainable Palm Oil Drivers of Change, Bali, November 30th - December 2nd, ARKHIPCHENKO, I.A., M.S. SALKINOJA-SALONEN, J.N. KARYAKINA, I. TSITKO Study of three fertilizers produced from farm waste. Applied Soil Ecology 30 (2005) ASERI, G.K., N. JAIN, J. PANWAR, A.V. RAO, P.R. MEGHWAL Biofertilizers improve plant growth, fruit yield, nutrition, metabolism and rhizosphere enzyme activities of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) in Indian Thar Desert. Scientia Horticulturae 117 (2008) CHADWICK, D., S. SOMMER, R. THORMAN, D. FANGUEIRO, L. CARDENAS, B. AMON, T. MISSELBROOK Manure management: Implications for greenhouse gas emissions. Animal Feed Science and Technology : MUCHARROMAH, T. ADIPRASETYO, M. HANDAJANINGSIH, HIDAYAT Perbaikan karakteristik fisik, kimia dan biologi tanah paska aplikasi biofertilizer BIOM3G. Proceeding of The National Seminar Towards Agriculture Sovereighnity. Agriculture College Bengkulu University, PERHEPI and PFI Komda Bengkulu, Bengkulu, September 12th, SINGH, J.S., V.C. PANDEY, D.P. SINGH Efficient soil microorganisms: A new dimension for sustainable agriculture and environmental development. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 140: SUHARTO, R Indonesian Sustainable Palm oil as an Alternative Scheme. Presentation of The 7th Indonesian Palm Oil Conference and 2012 Price Outlook: Sustainable Palm Oil Drivers of Change, Bali, November 30th - December 2nd, SUPRIATNA, J., H. SUMANTRI, C. MARGULES Sustainable agriculture in the climate change era: case studi of Papua. Presentation of The 7th Indonesian Palm Oil Conference and 2012 Price Outlook: Sustainable Palm Oil Drivers of Change, Bali, November 30th - December 2nd, Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

213 FORMULATION OF A METARHIZIUM BASED MYCOINSECTICIDE AND FIELD TRIALS AGAINST DEFOLIATOR PESTS OF Tectona grandis AND Ailanthus excelsa T.O Sasidharan 1), Remadevi O.K 2), Sapna Bai N 1) and M Balachander 2) 1 ) Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment, Royal Enclave, Srirampura, Jakkur P.O., Bengaluru , India; 2) Institute of Wood Science and Technology, 18 th Cross, Malleswaram, Bengaluru , India Corresponding author: or Abstract Insect pests regularly inflict severe damage to several commercially valuable timber species grown in plantations, considerably affecting the quality and quantity of wood produced. These damages are caused by insects from different genera which have fairly distinct host preferences. In nature, most of these pests are susceptible to various microbial diseases among which entomopathogenic fungi are known to produce considerable impact on the populations of many such pest species. We isolated several native strains of the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae and studied their efficacy against selected pests of certain important tree species with the objective of developing a biopesticide for application in forestry. Twenty five isolates of the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae, were collected from various sources and the three most virulent isolates, viz., MA2, MA7 and MA13 were identified for development of the mycoinsecticide. A detailed protocol for multiplication, mass production and formulation of the bio-pesticide was developed incorporating certain specific ingredients to augment the efficacy of the formulation. Among the various formulations assessed, conidia formulated with Kaolinite maintained higher viability (>86% germination) even after 5 months of storage at 4ºC. Low concentrations of Pongamia pinnata seed oil in liquid culture did not affect biomass and sporulation. Synergism between the isolates was also studied in detail with the objective of improving the efficacy and also to target multiple pests with a single formulation. The studies showed that the isolates Ma2 and Ma7 were compatible with each other when formulated together followed by Ma7 and Ma13. Insecticide, deltamethrin was used to augment the efficacy of formulation in the field as deltamethrin at 0.8 ppm was found to be compatible with the isolates tested. The mycoinsecticide product named as PESTSTAT is formulated in two forms, as dust and liquid formulation. Evaluation of the liquid formulations against the teak defoliator, Hyblaea puera in the field showed reduction in infestation by 60.75%. Field trials against Ailanthus defoliators, Eligma narcissus and Atteva fabriciella exhibited 66.09% and 71.80% reduction in infestation respectively. Key words: Metarhizium, formulation, field trial, Hyblaea puera, Atteva fabriciella, Eligma narcissus Introduction Pest management in forestry remains a continuing challenge for both forest research and development agencies and planters. It is especially relevant in the area of commercial forestry where productivity is frequently affected by outbreaks of pests and diseases. Insects are perhaps the most destructive agents affecting forest and shade trees (Douce et al., 2002). High value wood requires healthy actively growing trees that are free from stem defects and Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 199

214 produce wood rapidly. Insects that affect these qualities are therefore of primary concern to timber producers (De Groot et al., 2003). Control of insect pests through eco-friendly approaches such as biological control is considered the best alternative to chemical pesticides. In this area there is growing interest in the use of entomopathogens since they are naturally occurring and environmentally safe. Many of them are remarkably virulent, replicate inside the insect body and perpetuate through the population quite effectively by horizontal transmission. This self replicating ability and the capacity to rapidly cause appreciable levels of mortality in the hosts with minimal environmental impact are strong positives for their development as bio-pesticides. Among the entomopathogens, fungi have long been known for their ability to cause large scale epizootics in insect populations in field. They are perhaps the most explored and exploited organisms in insect biocontrol. Use of fungi in augmentative or inundative biocontrol programmes of insect pests has been reported and reviewed by several workers (Ferron, 1978; Agarwal and Rajak, 1985; Zimmermann, 1998; Rath, 2000). Metarhizium, a hyphomycete, is one of the most preferred fungal groups for insect pest management. Several Metarhizium species/strains have been developed into commercial products in many countries for use in pest control programmes. While products with this fungus have found considerable use in the agricultural sector, they have not been employed as much in the forestry sector. In the study reported here, twenty five strains of the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae isolated from infected/dead insects and also from soil were tested in the laboratory for their efficacy against the larvae of the teak defoliator (Hyblaea puera), and two foliage pests (Eligma narcissus and Atteva fabriciella) of Ailanthus excelsa. Three virulent isolates, viz., MA2, MA7 and MA13 were identified for formulation and development as a mycoinsecticide. Materials and Methods Isolation of fungal strains Sixteen Metarhizium isolates were recovered from infected/dead insects and also from other sources, mainly soil. Galleria bait method was used to isolate the fungus from soil samples. The infected insect larvae were surface washed, plated on PDA medium and incubated at 28±1 C under high humidity conditions. Slant cultures were prepared from a single colony and stored at -20 C until used. In addition, five isolates were obtained from ARSEF (USDA Agriculture Research Services Entomopathogenic Fungi Culture Collection, Ithaca, New York), two from NBAII (National Bureau of Agriculturally important Insects, ICAR, Govt. of India), one from IARI (Indian Agricultural Research Institute, ICAR, Govt. of India) and one from MTCC (Microbial Type Culture Collection Centre, Chandigarh, India) which were used for comparison with the field collected isolates. In all, 25 isolates (MA1 to MA25) of Metarhizium anisopliae were maintained in the laboratory. Bioassay of the isolates was carried out against the teak defoliator, Hyblaea puera, and two foliage pests (Eligma narcissus and Atteva fabriciella) of Ailanthus excelsa. Inoculum concentrations used ranged from conidia ml -1 to determine the dose-mortality (LC 50 ) response and, the three most virulent isolates, viz., MA2, MA7 and MA13 were selected for developing the biocontrol formulations. Multiplication, Mass Production and Formulation Multiplication of the three isolates in the laboratory was done in culture flasks in YPDB medium (Yeast Extract Potato Dextrose Broth). Different grains, agro-wastes and few other solid substrates were evaluated for mass production of the isolates by standard procedures. Incorporation of dry silkworm pupa powder, yeast extract and mannose was also done to 200 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

215 evaluate their potential in augmenting the efficacy of the spores produced. The potential of the different substrates for mass production was evaluated by assessing the number of spores produced per known quantity of substrate. Different formulations, viz., dust, oil, adjuvant mixed and desiccant mixed, were also made and their suitability assessed based on germination of conidia from the formulations. Compatibility between isolates Compatibility between the three isolates was tested on PDAY medium by a dual culture technique (Royse and Ries, 1978). Three combinations of the isolates, viz., MA2+MA7, MA2+MA13, MA7+MA13 were tested, each combination with three replicates. The growth of the isolates was measured daily up to 7 days in both dual culture and control plates. Synergism between the isolates was calculated using the formula: S= T 1 - T 2 /C 1 -C 2 x 100 where, S=Synergistic activity, C 1 & C 2 = colony diameter in control and T 1 & T 2 = Colony diameter in treatment. The two most compatible isolates were combined in a single formulation for field evaluation. Field Evaluation Based on the laboratory efficacy tests, the dual combination of isolates MA2 and MA7 was selected for preparing formulations for field evaluation against H. puera and MA7 and MA13 for evaluation against A. fabriciella and E. narcissus. Three liquid formulations were prepared in 0.08% Tween 80 as follows: Formulation 1 MA2+MA7 alone (10 14 conidia/ml) tested against H. puera MA7+MA13 alone (10 14 conidia/ml) tested against A. fabriciella, E. narcissus Formulation 2 MA2+MA7+0.5% Pongamia pinnata seed oil Formulation 3 MA7+MA13+0.5% P. pinnata seed oil MA2+MA7 +0.5% P. pinnata seed oil ppm Deltamethrin MA7+MA % P. pinnata seed oil ppm Deltamethrin Control 0.08% Tween 80 Evaluation of the formulations against H. puera was done in three year old teak plantations at two locations in the Kannavam forest range of Kannur district in Kerala, India. The field layout was a randomized block design, each plot with a fixed number of plants and each treatment replicated four times. The number of larvae on the leaves of six randomly selected tagged plants in each plot was recorded before treatment. Spraying was done uniformly using a motorized sprayer. Post treatment observations on the number of surviving larvae were recorded seven days after the spray. Field evaluation against Atteva fabriciella and Eligma narcissus was done in four year old plantations in the Odagathur forest division of Vellore district of Tamil Nadu, India. Evaluation was carried out by selecting two locations for each pest based on the predominance of each pest species. The treatments were imposed as described above and the numbers of surviving larvae were recorded fifteen days after spraying. Observations from the two locations were pooled in each case and the percent reduction of larvae was calculated using Henderson and Tilton equation (Henderson and Tilton, 1955). Results Pathogenicity of the isolates to H. puera, A. fabriciella and E. narcissus From our earlier studies (Remadevi et al., 2010), the isolates MA2 and MA7 were found to be most pathogenic to the teak defoliator, H. puera with the lowest LC 50 values, 0.65 x 10 5 and 1.67 x 10 5 respectively. Isolates MA13 and MA7 were found to be most pathogenic to Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 201

216 A. fabriciella with the lowest LC 50 values, 3.16 x 10 5 and x 10 5 respectively. Isolates MA13 and MA7 were also most pathogenic to E. narcissus with lowest LC 50 values of 6.46 x 10 5 and x 10 5 respectively. Multiplication and mass production of isolates Multiplication and sporulation of the three isolates was better in YPDB medium which was further improved when the media was supplemented with dry silkworm pupa powder (in press). Among the different grains tested, the yield of conidia was significantly higher in rice (19.02 to x 10 8 conidia/g) for all the three isolates, followed by pearl millet (17.61 to x 10 8 conidia/g). Among two agro-wastes tested, higher spore yield was obtained on groundnut cake compared to coconut cake. Table 1 Mass production on grains Isolates Grains Mean No. of spores/g substrate after different days of incubation (x 10 8 ) * 5D 7D 12D 16D 20D Ma2 Rice Pearl millet Ma7 Rice Pearl millet Ma13 Rice Pearl millet grains days g x d SED CD (P0.05) CD (P0.01) g d gd * Values are means of four replications Formulation of mycoinsecticide Conidia formulations with different carrier materials retained higher viability than unformulated conidia. Among them conidia formulated with kaolinite maintained higher viability (>86% germination) even after 5 months of storage at 4ºC. Table2. Effect of Kaolinite as carrier material on germination Isolates Formulations Mean % germination at 4ºC* 2 months 5 months MA2 Kaolinite (continental clay) Control - Dry spore (unformulated) MA7 Kaolinite (continental clay) Control Dry spore (unformulated) MA13 Kaolinite (continental clay) Control - Dry spore (unformulated) i-isolates f-formulations m-month * Values are means of four replications SED CD (0.05) CD (0.01) i f m Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

217 Effect of oils on growth and sporulation of isolates in liquid formulation Fungal culture with 0.5% P. pinnata seed oil did not affect biomass and sporulation compared to neem oil suggesting the usefulness of P. pinnata oil as an oil protectant for formulating these isolates. Compatibility of isolates The compatibility of the isolates tested (dual culture method) showed that, isolates Ma2 and Ma7 were highly compatible (100%) followed by Ma7 and Ma13 (80%). Ma2 and Ma13 were less compatible (45%). This was done with the intention of using two isolates in a single formulation to augment the efficacy and to target multiple pests with a single formulation. Augmentation of efficacy of formulation by addition of Deltamethrin Addition of Deltamethrin up to 0.8 ppm showed sporulation on par with the control. Sporulation decreased at higher concentrations of Deltamethrin. Therefore, Deltamethrin at 0.80 could be used for augmentation of efficacy of the formulations. Table 3. Effect of Deltamethrin on sporulation in the formulations Formulation Insecticide Con. (ppm) Mean Sporulation (x 10 8 /ml)* Ma2 + Ma7 Deltamethrin Control Ma7 + Ma13 Deltamethrin Control SED CD (0.05) CD (0.01) t-treatments t i-insecticides i c-concentration c Field Evaluation Trials Evaluation against Hyblaea puera Formulation T3 was most effective against Hyblaea puera in the field, producing about 61% reduction in the number of larvae after 7 days of application, which suggested that augmenting the formulation with P. pinnata seed oil and Deltamethrin has a distinct advantage. Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 203

218 Table 4. Reduction of H. puera infestation on teak Treatments Average number of larvae/plant Location-I Location-II Location Mean % 1 DBT 7 DBT 1 DBT 7 DBT DBT DAT Reduction T T T T SED CD (0.05) CD (0.01) l-location t-treatment d-days DBT Days before treatment; DAT Days after treatment T1 = MA2+MA7; T2 = MA2+MA7+ 0.5% P. pinnata oil T3 = MA2+MA7+0.5% P. pinnata oil ppm Deltamethrin; T4 = 0.08% Tween 80 (Control) Field evaluation against Ailanthus defoliators Evaluation against both Atteva fabriciella and Eligma narcissus also gave similar results for treatment T3 and resulted in a 72 and 66% reduction respectively for each pest after 15 days of application. Table 5. Reduction of A. fabriciella infestation on A. excelsa Treatments Average number of larvae/plant Location-I Location-II Location Mean % 1 DBT 15 DAT 1 DBT 15DAT DBT DAT Reduction T T T T SED CD (0.05) CD (0.01) l-location t-treatment d-days DBT Days before treatment; DAT Days after treatment T1 = MA7+MA13; T2 = MA7+MA13+0.5% P. pinnata oil T3 = MA7+MA13+0.5% P. pinnata oil+0.8 ppm Deltamethrin; T4 = 0.08% Tween 80 (Control) 204 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

219 Table 6. Reduction of E. narcissus infestation on A. excelsa Treatments Average number of larvae/plant Location-I Location-II Location Mean % Reductio 1 DBT 15 DAT 1 DBT 15 DBT 1 DBT 15 DAT n T T T T l-location t-treatment d-days SED CD (0.05) CD (0.01) DBT Days before treatment; DAT Days after treatment T1 = MA7+MA13; T2 = MA7+MA13+0.5% P. pinnata oil T3 = MA7+MA13+0.5% P. pinnata +0.8 ppm Deltamethrin; T4 = 0.08% Tween 80 (Control) Discussion The different isolates of M. anisopliae exhibited considerable variation in virulence. The virulence variation between different species or isolates and situations were discussed by Shah et al. (2005). Mass production of entomopathogenic fungi and testing of virulence are important steps in successful utilization of entomopathogenic fungi. Solid substrates provide support for development of the dry aerial conidia (Karanja et al., 2010). Latch and Fallon (1976) suggested using of grains for mass production of entomogenous fungi. We observed rice to be the most promising substrate for conidial production of M. anisopliae isolates followed by pearl millet. Our observations are in conformity with reports of Mendonca (1992) and Milner et al. (1993). Pandey and Kanujia (2008) reported enhanced conidia production after addition of sucrose to the grain media. Formulation is a key factor in improving performance and for the successful utilization of biological pesticides. There is a need for careful assessment of compatibility of formulation components with conidia prior to their use in formulations (Jackson et al., 2010). Therefore, one of the first steps in developing a mycoinsecticide formulation is to evaluate the effect of its components on conidial viability to select products compatible with fungal conidia (Alves et al., 2002). Daoust et al. (1983) evaluated various formulation components on the viability of M. anisopliae conidia and suggested that dry formulations retained high conidial viabilities than liquid formulations. In the present investigation, we have found that isolates MIS2 and MIS7 were compatible in dual cultures as were also MIS7 and MIS13. There is little information about the performance of mixed entomopathogenic fungi against insects. Theoretically, the combined application of different species of insect isolates can increase the efficacy of pest control. The effect of interaction among Beauveria bassiana, M. anisopilae and Lecanicillium lecanii was tested by Mahmoud (2009). These authors reported synergistic interaction between some strains and antagonistic interactions between some others. There has been no significant work on the use of fungal pathogens, especially Metarhizium against H. puera. A few laboratory studies by Sandhu et al. (1993) revealed the ability of B. bassiana, M. anisopliae, Nomuraea rileyi, Aspergillus fumigatus, Fusarium moniliformae and Paecilomyces sp.to infect H. puera larvae. Studies on the susceptibility of H. puera to B. Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 205

220 bassiana showed optimum infection and host death at C (Rajak et al. 1993). The present study is perhaps one of the very few studies attempted against H. puera in the field involving a fungal formulation. Interestingly we observed that the formulation containing very low concentration of P. pinnata seed oil and Deltamethrin showed significantly greater efficacy against H. puera in the field. Association of deltamethrin and Metarhizium was also reported to cause higher mortality in the tick, Boophilus microplus (Bahiense, et al., 2006). There are numerous examples where applications of insecticides have enhanced the efficiency of entomopathogenic fungi against insect pests (Asi et al., 2010). Pongamia pinnata oil at the concentration used did not show any adverse effect on conidia viability. It is also known for its insecticidal properties and should, as any other oil, also help prevent desiccation. Field studies using Metarhizium formulations for the management of Ailanthus pests, A. fabriciella or E. narcissus have not been previously attempted in India. The fungus Paceliomyces farinosus was reported to be pathogenic to A. fabriciella (Mohanan and Varma, 1988) but most biocontrol methods for this pest have been based on bacterial pathogens, plant extracts and insecticides. Chatterjee et al. (1969) reported the ability of entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana to cause white muscardine disease in the pest E. narcissus. Paecilomyces fumosoroseus was recognized to be effective in controlling larvae and pupae of E. narcissus (David and Ananthakrishnan, 2004). Inoculation of A. fabriciella larvae with M. anisopliae caused mortality within h of incubation. Augmenting the formulation with P. pinnata oil and Deltamethrin further reduced the infestation of both pests of Ailanthus similar to the influence of these additives observed with the teak defoliator. In summary our field studies indicate that M. anisopliae formulations are effective against defoliating pests in teak and Ailanthus and could be good candidates for the fungal biocontrol of these pests. References AGARWAL, G.P AND RAJAK, R.C. (1985). A list of entomopathogenic fungi of insect pests of crop and forest nurseries of Jabalpur. (M.P.). Biol. Bull. India, 7: ALVES, R.T., BATEMAN, R.P., GUNN, J., PRIOR, C. AND LEATHER, S.R Effects of different formulations on viability and medium term storage of Metarhizium anisopliae conidia. Neotropical entomology, 31(1): ASI, M.R., BASHIR, M.H., AFZAL, M., ASHFAQ, M. AND SAHI, S.T. (2010). Compatibility of entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhzium anisopliae and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus with selective insecticides. Pak. Journal of Botany, 46(2): BAHIENSE, T.C., FERNANDES E.K. AND BITTENCOURT, V.R. (2006). Compatibility of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae and deltamethrin to control a resistant strain of Boophilus microplus tick. Vet. Parasitology, 141(3-4): CHATTERJEE, P.N., SINGH, P. AND MISRA, R.N. (1969). Studies on the biology, ecology, life cycle and parasite complex of Ailanthus defoliator, Eligma narcissus Cramer (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera), together with morphology of adult and immature stages. Indian Forester, 95: DAVID, B.V. AND ANANTHAKRISHNAN T. N. (2004). General and Applied Entomology. Tata Mc Graw - Hill publishing company Limited, New Delhi pp. DOUCE, G.K., MOORHEAD, D.J., AND BARGERON, C.T. (2002). Forest Pest Control. Special Bulletin 16, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of Georgia. 206 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

221 DAOUST, R.A. AND D.W. ROBERTS Studies on the prolonged storage of Metarhizium anisopliae conidia: effect of growth substrate on conidial survival and virulence against mosquitoes. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 41: FERRON, P. (1978). Biological control of insect pests by entomogenous fungi. Annual Review of Entomology, 23: HENDERSON, C.F. AND TILTON, E. W. (1955). Tests with acaricides against the brow wheat mite. Journal of Economic Entomology, 48: JACKSON, M.A., DUNLAP, C. A. AND JARONSKI, S.T Ecological considerations in producing and formulating fungal entomopathogens for use in insect biocontrol. Biocontrol, 55: KARANJA, L.W., PHIRI, N. A., ODUOR, G. I., Effect of different solid substrates on mass production of Entomopathogens, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. 12th KARI Biennial Scientific Conference, 8 12 November 2010, Nairobi, Kenya. LATCH, G.C. AND FALLON R.F Studies on the use of Metarhizium anisopliae to control Oryctes rhinoceros. Entomophaga, 21: MENDONCA, A.F Mass production, application and formulation of Metarhizium anisopliae for control of sugarcane froghopper, Mahanarva posticata, in Brazil. In: Biological control of locusts and grasshoppers, C.J. Lomer and C. Prior (ed). pp CAB International. Wallingford, UK. MAHMOUD, M. F. (2009). Pathogenicity of Three Commercial Products of Entomopathogenic Fungi, Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizum anisopilae and Lecanicillium lecanii against Adults of Olive Fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the laboratory. Plant Protection Science, 45(3): MILNER, R.J., ROGERS, D.J., MCRAE, C.M., HUPPATZ, R.J. AND BRIER, H Preliminary evaluation of the use of Metarhizium anisopliae as a mycopesticide for control of peanut scarabs. In: Pest control in sustainable agriculture. Melbourne, Australia pp. MOHANAN, C. AND VARMA, R.V. (1988). Paecilomyces farinosus, a potential biocontrol agent of some lepidopterous tree pests in India. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 90(1):119- PANDEY, A.K. AND KANAUJIA, K.R Effect of different grains as solid substrates on sporulation, viability and pathogenicity of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin. Journal of biological control, 22(2): RAJAK, R.C., AGARWAL, G.P., KHAN, A.R. AND SANDHU, S.S. (1993). Susceptibility of teak defoliator (Hyblaea puera Cramer) and teak skeletonizer (Eutectona machaeralis walker) to Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 31: RATH, A.C. (2000). The use of entomopathogenic fungi for control of termites. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 10: REMADEVI, O.K., SASIDHARAN, T.O., BALACHANDER, M. AND SAPNA BAI, N. (2010). Metarhizium based mycoinsecticides for forest pest management. Journal of Biopesticides, 3(2): ROYSE, D. J., AND RIES, S. M The influence of fungi isolated from peach twigs on the pathogenicity of Cytospora cincta. Phytopathology, 68: SANDHU, S., RAJAK, R.C. AND AGARWAL, G.P., (1993). Microbial control agents of forest pests of Jabalpur. Annals of Forestry, 1 (2): ZIMMERMAN, G. (1998). Suggestions for a standardised method for reisolation of entomopathogenic fungi from soil using the bait method. IOBC/WPRS Bulletin, Insect pathogens and insect parasitic nematodes. 21: 289. Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 207

222 TECHNIQUE DEVELOPMENT FOR PROTECTING SENGON FROM GANODERMA INFECTION Elis Nina Herliyana 1) Darmono Taniwiryono 2),Ratna Jamilah 1), Benyamin Dendang 1), Hayati Minarsih 2), Muhammad Alam Firmansyah 1), Permana Jenal, Ai Rosah Aisyah 1) 1 ) Departemen Silvikultura, Fakultas Kehutanan, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Bogor, Indonesia; 2) Balai Penelitian Bioteknologi Perkebunan Indonesia, Bogor, Indonesia Corresponding author: or Abstract Sengon (Paraserianthes falcataria (L.) Nielsen) is a major forest tree species that is widely planted by smallholders in Indonesia. Ganoderma infection as red root-rot or basal stem rot is becoming a more prevalent disease causing significant tree death. This research investigates the potential of biological control agents to protect Sengon seedlings from Ganoderma attacks. In vitro tests for antagonism between two Trichoderma spp (DT38 and DT39) and five fungal isolates of Ganoderma on PDA were undertaken. Four treatments were applied to sengon seedlings: 1) without Trichoderma + without organic materials (A0B0); 2) without Trichoderma + organic materials (A0B1); 3) with Trichoderma + without organic materials (A1B0); 4) with Trichoderma + organic materials (A1B1). Seedling height and the number of leaves was recorded. The in vitro tests showed that the Trichoderma spp. inhibited the five fungi isolates of Ganoderma between 11,7 48,8%. The average height of sengon seedlings six weeks after planting (WAP) were 12.3 cm (A0B1), 8.9 cm (A1B1), 8.0 cm (A0B0) and 6.0 cm (A1B0). Fourteen WAP, seedling height was greatest in A1B1 and least in A1B0. The height difference was caused by the availability of plant nutrients in the media. Key words: Sengon, Ganoderma, Trichoderma, organic materials Introduction Conversion of forest to agriculture or plantations can pose environmental problems. Agroforestry is a land management system that can address this issue. In the upper Way Besai, the remaining forest cover accounts for only 12% of the total land area. However, in the past 15 years, plantation monocultures have been gradually turned into mixed plantations with shade trees (Verbist et al. 2004). A popular choice of shade tree by cocoa farmers is sengon. These trees also provide long-term income as well as conserving water and preventing erosion. Central and West Java account for 60% of the total number of sengon trees planted in Indonesia (Krisnawati et al. 2010). The total area of sengon in Java is nearly 400,000 acres and is capable of supplying approximately 895,000 m 3 of wood per year, equivalent to 10% of Java s wood supply. The average productivity of forests on Java is 2.29 m 3 ha -1 year-1 (Arupa 2008). Sengon is a pioneer species with a natural distribution in Maluku, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands and Bismark (Hidayat 2002). It grows in lowland rain forest or secondary forest between altitudes of m asl and is adapted to humid monsoonal climates with rainfall between mm/yr, dry seasons up to four months and low fertility. Sengon is 208 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

223 fast-growing but intolerant of water-logging. As sengon is symbiotic with arbuscular mycorrhiza, it is excellent for improving soil fertility (Nusantara 2002). A major obstacle to the cultivation of forest trees is red root-rot disease caused by Ganoderma spp. (Solomon et al. 1993; Lee 2000; Old et al., 2000; Basset and Peters, 2003; Sankaran et al., 2005, Wingfield et al., 2010; Widyastuti 2007; Widyastuti 2010, Gafur et al. 2011, Herliyana et al. 2012). The most serious disease in Acacia mangium and Eucalyptus sp. plantations in Sumatra is red root disease caused by Ganoderma philippii (Gafur et al. 2011). In second rotation plantations of A. mangium aged 3-to-5 years in Sumatra and Kalimantan, the incidence of Ganoderma attack was between 3-28% (Irianto et al. 2006). Similar levels of Ganoderma attack can occur in sengon during the second rotation in Java (Widyastuti 2008, personal communication). Roots newly infected by Ganoderma spp. are covered by red rhizomorph and white mycelium. Above-ground symptoms include a rapid decline in vigour, leaf discoloration, withering and defoliation, and tree death. Fungal fruiting bodies sometimes form at the base of the dead stem, but may be absent (Bassett and Peters 2003). Conversely, fruiting bodies of Ganoderma spp can be found at the base of the trunk of healthy trees. Gafur et al showed that Ganoderma attack on Eucalyptus tree has similar symptoms. Ganoderma in West and East Java can appear as a facultative saprophyte on both the stumps of sengon that has died and as a pathogen on trees that are still alive. The close genetic similarity between G. lucidum originating on both sengon and cocoa might be expected to enhance disease transmission as they might act as alternate hosts (Herliyana et al. 2012). Biological control is one way to control Ganoderma. One option, Trichoderma spp. have been thoroughly investigated by Widiyastuti (2011) but this is limited to laboratory testing. Thus its effectiveness to control the Ganoderma in the field needs to be tested. In this study, the use of Trichoderma spp. to protect sengon in the nursery and improve seedling growth is investigated. The experiments tested (i) the virulence of in vitro biological control agents and (ii) the ability of biological agents to protect seedlings from Ganoderma attack and improve seedling growth. The objectives were to determine the potential of biological contol agents as antagonists and to develop biological control technology to protect sengon from Ganoderma lucidum. Materials And Methods In vitro antagonism test for Trichoderma spp. Isolates of Ganoderma spp. (Lampung L12, L6, L3, and Kalimantan K2 and K1) and Trichoderma spp. (T. harzianum isolates (DT38), and T. pseudoconingii isolates (DT39) from Dr Darmono Taniwiryono s collection) were propagated in 9-cm diameter Petri dishes. Colony diameter growth was observed daily until it covered the entire surface. The experiment included control treatments and four replications per treatment. Isolates Ganoderma spp. Were first incubated for 3 to 5 days to isolate Ganoderma spp. And when large enough, the isolates of Trichoderma spp. were placed 5 cm distance away (Figure 1). Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 209

224 r1 P r2 A Description: P = the pathogen inoculum (red) A = antagonist inoculum (green) t = midpoint of a petri dish r1 = radius 1 Growth of isolates P r2 = radius 2 Growth of isolates A Figure 1. Configuration of Ganoderma sp. and Trichoderma sp. Isolates on plates The radius of the colony of both isolates was measured every 24 hours until the fifth day after the two isolates came together. The zone and per cent of inhibition was then assessed. Zone of inhibition is the length of the region in the confrontation zone where the isolates are mutually antagonistic. Measurements were made by measuring the length of the empty zone. The percentage of inhibition was measured as: Where P = percentage of inhibition, r1 = radius one of the P isolate, and r2 = radius 2 of the P isolate Ability Test of Biological agents A mixture of T harzianum isolates (DT38) and T pseudoconingii isolates (DT39) was tested. Seedlings sengon were grown in polybags containing organic matter. Seed Treatment Before sowing, seed was immersed in boiling water for 1.5 hours and then drained. Cold water immersion included treatments with and without benomil fungicide for 15 minutes. Seeds were sown in a polytray simultaneously with the application of 10 g of solids per hole of Trichoderma. The seed was covered with a 10-cm layer of sterilised soil. Maintenance included appropriate watering, humidity control and pest control until the seedlings were two weeks of age. Transplanting This included soil attached to the roots to ensure Trichoderma presence and inoculation. The medium used consisted of soil mixed with commercial compost (2:1). For B1 treaments, half the compost was substituted with an organic fertilizer. The media was inserted into a poly bag measuring cm. One unit of treatment consisted of 30 plants with three replications, and a total of 360 seedlings (Table 1). The treatments are listed in Table Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

225 Table 1. The research plan treatments on sengon seedlings Treatments Without trichoderma Added trichoderma Without organic matter Added organic matter Randomization : A0BO A0B1 A1BO A0B1 A1BO A1BO A1B1 A1B1 A0BO A0B1 A0BO A1B1 Description: A0B0 = without Trichoderma + without organic matter A0B1 = without Trichoderma + organic matter A1B0 = Trichoderma + without organic matter A1B1 = Trichoderma + organic matter Seedling height and the number of leaves were measured. The numbers of plants showing symptoms of disease were recorded. The biomass of the plant above and below the surface of the plant was also measured. Total plant height was measured at the time of transplanting, and then every two weeks until age six months. Plant weight was divided into root and stem weights, both fresh and dry weight after 48 hours in an oven at 60 o C. Root length was also measured. Results and Discussion In vitro tests for antagonism between Trichoderma spp. and Ganoderma isolates The two Trichoderma spp. Inhibited the growth of the five fungi isolates of Ganoderma between 11,7 48,8%. Trichoderma T38 inhibited the growth of Ganoderma L12, L6, L3, K2 and K1 by an average of 27.3, 37.2, 34.9, 28.7 and 13.2% respectively (Figure 2). Trichoderma T39 inhibited the growth of Ganoderma L12, L6, L3, K2 and K1 by an average of 48.8, 42.3, 34.8, 22.4 and 11.7% respectively (Figure 3). No inhibition zones were formed on PDA media. Figure 2. Inhibition of in vitro growth of five isolates of Ganoderma by Trichoderma T38 and T39 on PDA. Colony growth rates of the Trichoderma isolates were more rapid than those of the Ganoderma on PDA media (Figure 3). The growth of Ganoderma isolates from the most rapid to the slowest was K2, L12, K1, L3 and L6 (Figure 3). Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 211

226 Figure 3. Growth in diameter of colonies of Trichoderma and Ganoderma isolates on PDA. Wells (1988 in Achmad et al. 2009) suggested that Trichoderma is a potential antagonist. The results support the view that Trichoderma T38 and T39 can inhibit fungal pathogens on PDA and are potential biological control agents against Ganoderma root disease. Of the two Trichoderma T39 was more effective against Ganoderma isolates L12, L6 and L3 whereas T38 was more effective against Ganoderma isolates K2 and K1. There are three mechanisms of antagonism between organisms, namely antibiosis, competition, and mikoparasitism (Baker and Cook, 1974 in Achmad et al. 2009). Inhibition zone formation on solid media is an indication of antibiosis and the suppression of the growth of pathogenic fungi. This study found no inhibition zone, possibly because the media used was PDA. A neutralisation of the influence of metabolites inhibiting the growth of pathogens on PDA was reported by Achmad (1991 and Ahmad et al. 2009). According to Wells (1988 in Achmad et al. 2009), antibiosis may involve toxic metabolites (toxins) or extracellular enzymes produced by fungal antagonists. It is argued that Trichorderma sp. produce the toxin trikhor dermin which is a sesquiterpene compound, single-service dermadin acid which is active against a broad range of fungi and bacteria including gram-positive and gram-negative, and two peptide compounds that are antifungal and anti-bacterial. The degree of suppression of the growth of pathogenic fungi shows the mechanism of competition in antagonism, the more competitive antagonist utilizing more growing space and nutrients. This leads to its more rapid growth than the fungal pathogen on the same medium. Trichoderma is abundant in agricultural soils worldwide and this is the best evidence that these fungi are very good competitors for nutrients (Wells, 1988 in Achmad et al. 2009). Mikoparasitism is shown by microscopic observation of the mycelia of T. harzianum and R. solani at the meeting between the colonies which shows penetration of R. solani by T. harzianum (Achmad et al. 2009). Benhamou and Chet (1993 in Achmad et al. 2009) proposed a process ikomiparasitisme between T. harzianum and R. solani where they come into contact. In this the hyphae of T. harzianum surround the R. solani which leads to its destruction. Elad et al. (1983 in Achmad et al. 2009) studied mikoparasitisme of T. harzianum and T. hamate against R. solani and Sclerotium rolfsii. They argued that the hyphae of T. harzianum 212 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

227 penetrate R. solani through a hole made by the host hyphae. The antagonist T. harzianum secretes β-1,3-glucanase. Ability test of biological agents The growth of seedlings two weeks after planting (WAP) was not significantly different because nutrients in the medium used were still available. Four WAP, the best growth was in A1B1. This was probably due to the influence of fertilizers (organic material) applied to this treatment. The smallest values in A1B0 and A0B0 were probably caused by the lack of available nutrients. Numbers of leaves were distributed more evenly. Six WAP growth in height was A0B1 > A1B1 > A0B0 > A1B0, respectively. At 14 WAP, the greatest height was in treatment A1B1 and smallest in A1B0 (Figure 4). Plant height differences are mainly caused by nutrient availability. Treatment A1B0 showed symptoms of nutrient deficiency, especially of N, visible by green leaves changing color from yellowishgreen to yellow. The leaf tissue dies causing the leaves to become dry and brownish red high (cm) number of leaves high(cm) number of leaves high (cm) number of leaves high (cm) number of leaves Figure 4 Growth in height and leaf number of seedlings 2 weeks after planting 4 weeks after planting 6 weeks after planting Figure 4. Growth in height and leaf number of seedlings 10 weeks after planting high (cm) number of leaves 14 weeks after planting A0B0 A0B1 A1B0 A1B1 Exploration of the use of biological agents, especially Trichoderma spp., for the control of Ganoderma on forestry crops is still limited to laboratory testing. Its effectiveness for controlling Ganoderma has now been shown for protecting plants in the nursery and improving plant growth to up to 14 weeks of age. However, the results obtained also showed that organic materials can also support the growth of sengon seedlings to a similar age that have been treated with Trichoderma spp. The height of sengon seedlings at six WAP were A0B1 (average 12,3 cm), A1B1 (average 8.9 cm), A0B0 (average 8.0 cm) and A1B0 treatment (average 6.0 cm) respectively. The growth of sengon seedlings at eight weeks WAP was highest in the A0B1 treatment and smallest in the A1B0 treatment. The height difference was probably caused by the availability of plant nutrients in the media. Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 213

228 Conclusion Trichoderma T38 and T39 inhibited the growth of Ganoderma. Growth of sengon seedlings at 14 WAP sengon was highest in A0B1 and least in A1B0. Treatment A1B0 showed symptoms of nutrient deficiency, especially N. In order to manage Ganoderma attack, information about its genetic diversity as a cause of root rot disease on plantation crops is essential. The exploration of the use of biological agents, especially Trichoderma spp., remains limited to laboratory testing but their effectiveness in protecting plants in the nursery and improving plant growth is indicated. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the program leader KKP3T Research Agency Ministry of Agriculture. The research was made possible with the support of funding from the State Budget Agency Secretariat of Research and Development, Ministry of Agriculture in We would thank the students in the research team that helped carry out this study. References ACHMAD, S. HADI, S. HARRAN, E. GUMBIRA SA ID, B. SATIAWIHARDJA, M. KOSIM KARDIN Pengendalian Hayati Penyakit Lodoh Pada Semai Pinus Merkusii : Potensi Antagonistik In-vitro Trichoderma harzianum DAN Trichoderma pseudokoningii. Jurnal Litbang Tanaman. Bardakci F Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Turk J Biol 25: ARUPA Hutan Rakyat Wonosobo. comcontent&do_pdf=1&id=39 [16 November 2010]. BASSET K, PETERS RN Ganoderma: A Significant Root Pathogen. Arborilogical Services Inc. Publication. [6 Februari 2010] FIRST-NATURE Bracket and Crust Fungi Gallery. [20 November 2011]. GAFUR, A., TJAHJONO B., GOLANI G. D Patogen dan Opsi Pengendalian Penyakit Busuk Akar Ganoderma di Hutan Tanaman Industri. Simposium Nasional dan Lokakarya Ganoderma: Sebagai Patogen Penyakit Tanaman dan Bahan Baku Obat Tradisional, Bogor, 2-3 November Bogor: Balai Penelitian Bioteknologi Perkebunan Indonesia. Herliyana EN, Taniwiryono D, Minarsih, Hayati Root diseases Ganoderma sp. on the Sengon in West and East Java. Journal of Tropical Forest Management 18 (2): DOI: /jtfm HIDAYAT, J Informasi Singkat Benih. Bandung: Direktorat Perbenihan Tanaman Hutan dan Indonesia Forest Seed Project. IRIANTO, R. S. B., BARRY K., HIDAYATI N., ITO S., FIANI A., RIMBAWANTO A., MOHAMMED C Incidence and Spatial Analysis of Root Rot of Acacia mangium In Indonesia. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 18(3): KRISNAWATI, H., VARIS E., KALLIO M., KANNINEN M Panduan bertajuk, Paraserianthes falcataria (L.) Nielsen.: Ekologi, Silvikultur dan Produktivitas. Bogor: Cifor. 214 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

229 LEE, S.S The Current Status of Root Diseases of Acacia mangium Wild. In: Flood J, Bridge PD, Holderness M, editors. Ganoderma Diseases of Perennial Crops. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing. Hlm MINARSIH, H., LINGGA D. N. P, TANIWIRYONO D., HERLIYANA E.N Analisis Keragaman Genetik Ganoderma spp. yang Berasosiasi dengan Tanaman Kakao dan Tanaman Pelindungnya Menggunakan Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Jurnal Menara Perkebunan (MP) 79(1): NUSANTARA, A. D Tanggap Semai Sengon (Paraserianthes falcataria (L) Nielsen) Terhadap Inolukasi Ganda Cendawan Mikoriza Arbuskular dan Rhizobium sp. Jurnal Ilmu- Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia 4(4): OLD, K. M., LEE S.S., SHARMA J. K., YUAN Z.Q., editors A Manual of Diseases of Tropical Acasias in Australia, South-East Asia and India. Jakarta, Indonesia: Center for International Forestry Research. 104 p. SANKARAN, K. V., BRIDGE P.D., GOKULAPALAN C Ganoderma Diseases of Perennial Crops in India-an Overview. Journal Mycopathologia 159: doi /s SOLOMON, J.D., LEININGER T.D., WILSON A.D., ANDERSON R.L., THOMPSON L.C., MCCRACKEN, F.I Ash Pests: A Guide to Major Insect, Diseases, Air Pollution Injury and Chemical Injury. Gen. Tech. Rep. SO-96. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,Southern Forest Experiment Station. 45p. VERBIST B., VAN NOORDWJIK M., AGUS F., SUPRAYOGO D., HAIRIAH K., PASYA G., FARIDA Peranan Agroforestri dalam Mempertahankan Fungsi Hidrologi Daerah Aliran Sungai (DAS). Jurnal Agrivita 26(1): 1-8. WIDYASTUTI, S. M Pengendalian Hayati Penyakit Akar Merah pada Akasia dengan Trichoderma. Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia 4(2): WIDYASTUTI, S. M Peran Trichoderma spp. Dalam Revitalisasi Kehutanan di Indonesia. Yogyakarta: Gajah Mada University Press, 255p. WIDYASTUTI, S. M Laporan Akhir program Tanoto Professorship Award. Penelitian Metode Pengendalian Ganoderma sp. Pada Tanaman Perkebunan dan Kehutanan. Fakultas Kehutanan Universitas Gadjah Mada - Yogyakarta. WINGFIELD, M. J, SLIPPERS B., ROUX J., WINGFIELD B.D Novel Associations Between Pathogens, Insects and Tree Species Threaten World Forest. New Zealand Journal of Forest Science 40 suppl.:s95-s103. Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 215

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232 218 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

233 SOME NOTES ON INSECTS ASSOCIATED WITH Jatropha curcas IN SABAH Arthur Y. C. Chung, Chia Fui Ree & Richard Majapun P. O. Box 1407, Forest Research Centre, Sabah Forestry Department, Sandakan, Sabah, Malaysia Corresponding author: Abstract Jatropha curcas is a perennial plant with tremendous potential for biodiesel, an alternative for fossil fuel. Since the last few years, it has been planted on a trial basis under the Sabah Forestry Department and was proposed as an agroforestry crop to alleviate poverty among the local communities in Sabah. Hence, some research on the insects causing damage to J. curcas was conducted. Among the insects documented were Stomphastis sp. (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), Hypomeces squamosus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Cheromettia sp. (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae), Epilachna sp. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), unidentified wasp, bagworm and beetle larvae. Apart from insects, snails and slugs were also causing damage to the germinating seedlings at the nursery. The overall damage by insects, however, was minor and did not require any control measure to be taken. Introduction Jatropha curcas of the family Euphorbiaceae is a small tree or shrub with smooth gray bark, which exudes a whitish colored, watery, latex when cut. Normally, it grows between three and five meters in height, but can attain a height of up to eight or ten meters under favourable conditions. It can thrive on the poorest stony soil, including gravel, sand and saline soils. It can grow even in the crevices of rock, can survive in low rainfall conditions (200 mm) and in hot climatic conditions. This indicates that J. curcas can adapt to adverse conditions and can grow in all kinds of areas, including degraded forest and marginal land (Chia et al. 2007). In Sabah, J. curcas or locally known as sougi was recorded in the interior part, such as Ranau, Tambunan, Tenom and Kinabatangan (J.B. Sugau, pers. comm.). It is planted merely for fencing by the local people. In view of the potential of this plant for biodiesel, some research was conducted to explore planting of J. curcas as an agroforestry crop to alleviate the livelihood of the local communities in Sabah. Insects causing damage to J. curcas were documented as part of the study because there is little information on insects associated with this plant in Sabah. Study Area and Methodology Surveys were carried out at various plots in Sabah (Figure 1) from 2007 until Insects that were found damaging the plant were collected manually. Pictures of the attacked area and the specimens were taken and the extent of the damage was recorded. In many cases, the damage was caused by larvae of insects, and thus the larvae were collected and were bred in plastic containers to monitor their life cycle. When the adult emerged, it was dry-mounted for identification, based on reference materials at the Forest Research Centre, Sepilok. Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 219

234 KUDAT %U MAP OF SABAH CLASS II (COMMERCIAL FOREST RESERVE) Segaliud Lokan Forest Reserve (KTS Plantations Sdn. Bhd.) Malsa / Kolapis A Research Station Forest Research Centre, Sepilok KOTA KINABALU%U SANDAKAN %U Segaliud Lokan Research Station LAHAD DATU %U TAWAU %U N Kilometers Figure 1: Sabah map showing Jatropha curcas plots surveyed in this study. Results and Discussion Insects and other invertebrates that were recorded causing damage to Jatropha curcas are listed in Table 1. Table 1. Damage on Jatropha curcas. No. Insect / invertebrate Damage Stage Occurrence 1. Stomphastis sp. (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) Leaf Nursery & field High 2. Hypomeces squamosus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Leaf Field Moderate 3. Cheromettia sp. (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae) Leaf Field Low 4. Epilachna sp. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Leaf Field Low 5. Wasp (Unidentified) (Hymenoptera) Stem Nursery Low 6. Bagworm (Unidentified) (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) Leaf Field Low 7. Beetle larva (Unidentified) (Coleoptera:?Cerambycidae) Stem Field Low 8. Snail / Slug Germinating (Mollusca: Gastropoda) seedling Nursery Moderate Stomphastis sp. (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) The occurrence of this leaf miner at the Sepilok Forest Research Centre s nursery was reported by Chia et al. (2007). The tiny yellowish light green larva, measuring 5-6 mm, fed on the greenish leaf tissues, leaving the whitish paper-thin epidermal layer which eventually 220 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

235 turned yellowish brown and withered. The larva, as well as the pupa was covered with a layer of almost translucent and firm silky web. The life cycle was short, within a week and the adult emerged about 2 days after pupation. Known also as the blister miner, S. thraustica has caused noticeable damage in India (Shanker & Dhyani 2006). Cheromettia sp. (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae) The larvae of this insect were defoliating J. curcas at the Malsa / Kolapis plot. This unique candy-like larva was about 15 mm. Although the larva was similar to that of Cheromettia sumatrensis Heylaerts (Holloway 1986), it could not be confirmed because all of them were parasitized earlier by an endo-parasitoid Spinaria sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) that emerged in captivity. Hypomeces squamosus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Known as the gold dust weevil, it is a very common pest attacking a wide range of plants, with 42 different host-plants recorded in Malaysia alone (Hill & Abang 2005). The mode of leaf damage is usually from the leaf edge inwards, forming a semi circle. No control measure was needed as the damage did not significantly affect the tree health. If occur in high abundance, the weevils can be collected manually. Epilachna sp. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) The larva of this ladybird beetle was seen feeding on the foliage of J. curcas at the Malsa / Kolapis plot. Measuring 9 mm in length, it was yellow in colour and spiky. The pupation was rather short, about 9 days and the emerged adult was reddish orange with black spots. Other insects / invertebrates Other insects recorded causing damage to J. curcas are an unidentified wasp (Hymenoptera), bagworm (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) and beetle larvae (Coleoptera). Apart from insects, snails and slugs were feeding on the young tissue of the germinating seedlings at the nursery. Conclusion The overall damage by insects, however, was minor and did not require any control measure except for the leaf miner, Stomphastis sp. When the infestation by the leaf miner is severe at the nursery, chemical spraying is effective in controlling the pest. References CHIA, F.R., PANG, K.K.N. & CHUNG, A.Y.C Some notes on Jatropha curcas (a potential biodiesel tree for agroforestry plantations) at the nursery stage. Sepilok Bulletin 7: HILL, D. S. & FATIMAH ABANG, The insects of Borneo. Universiti Malaysia Sarawak. 435 pp. SHANKER, C. & DHYANI, S.K Insect pests of Jathropa curcas L. and the potential for their management. Current Science 91(2): Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 221

236 INFESTATION OF Achaea janata LINNAEUS (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE: CATOCALINAE) IN THE MANGROVES OF SANDAKAN, SABAH Arthur Y. C. Chung 1), Joseph Tangah 1) & Fadzil Yahya 2) 1) P. O. Box 1407, Forest Research Centre, Sabah Forestry Department, Sandakan, Sabah, Malaysia; 2) Sandakan District Forestry Office, P. O. Box 212, Sandakan, Sabah, Malaysia Corresponding author: Abstract A few thousand caterpillars of Achaea janata Linnaeus were found infesting quite an extensive part of the mangroves in Sandakan, Sabah in December, Many of the mangrove trees of the species Excoecaria agallocha (Euphorbiaceae) or locally known as Buta-buta were completely defoliated. The high abundance of the looper-like caterpillars was threatening because many invaded the adjacent villages, moving in to the house compounds, defoliating some of the garden plants and agricultural crops, and some even foraged into the houses. This is the first record of such attack in Malaysia. Nevertheless, it has been reported that this species has caused near total defoliation of E. agallocha over a stretch of 500-1,000 ha of a mangrove forest in Sumatra. Besides E. agallocha, the caterpillar was also found on Ceriops decandra (Tengar), Glochidion littorale (Saka-saka), Lumnitzera littorea (Geriting Merah), Sonneratia alba (Pedada), Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea (Landinglanding) and Derris trifoliata (Tuba Laut). Many of these plants were partially defoliated by the caterpillars but not severe. The pest is a widespread species, occurring in the Indo- Australian tropics and subtropics, extending south to New Zealand and east through the Pacific archipelagoes. It is highly polyphagous, feeding on a diverse array of host plants from about 30 families, including forest and fruit trees, ornamentals and vegetables. From observation, complete defoliation did not kill the trees, and new shoots and leaves sprouted quite fast, most likely due to the raining season. It was difficult to control the pest in the mangroves. However, as the caterpillars moved towards the landward margins of the mangroves, contact poison was applied through mist-blowing. Some of the pupae were parasitized by flies and wasps, or attacked by fungi. The many birds seen during the inspection could have fed on the larvae and pupae, thus reducing the pest population. Details of the infestation in Sandakan, biology of the pest and some recommendations on control measures are provided in this paper. Introduction A complaint was lodged by the villagers to the Agriculture Department that thousands of caterpillars were infesting the mangroves adjacent to Kampung Sg. Kayu, Sandakan in late December, The high abundance of the caterpillars was threatening because many invaded the house compound, defoliating some of the garden plants and agricultural crops, and some even foraged into the house. Subsequently, their concern was brought to the attention of the Sandakan District Forestry Officer, who is overseeing the adjacent Sibyte Mangrove Forest Reserve. Site inspection A site inspection was conducted on the vegetation adjacent to Kampung Sg. Kayu (N 5⁰ ; E 118⁰ ) on 6 January 2011, and some of the villagers were interviewed. 222 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

237 Almost all the mangrove trees of the species Excoecaria agallocha (Euphorbiaceae) or locally known as Buta-buta were completely defoliated (Figures 1-3). However, no caterpillars were found as the larval stage was over but some pupae were sampled. None pupated on the completely defoliated trees but they were found on the adjacent trees, still with green leaves. The pupa, measuring about 22 mm, was reddish brown with white powdery substance, covered in loose web between the leaves, forming the cocoon (Figures 4 & 5). It was found on Ceriops decandra (Tengar), Glochidion littorale (Saka-saka), Lumnitzera littorea (Geriting Merah), Sonneratia alba (Pedada), Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea (Landing-landing) and Derris sp. Many of these plants were partially defoliated by the caterpillars but not severe. According to the villagers, this was the first time that they have seen such a severe infestation. Their concern was over, as the caterpillars were no longer seen. Many of the affected Excoecaria agallocha are flushing on new leaves. From observation, some of the pupae were parasitized or attacked by fungi. The many birds seen during the inspection could have fed on the larvae and pupae, thus reducing the pest population. The natural biological control is likely to minimize a second infestation. However, what triggered the prevalence of the pest population remains unknown, at least for the time being. Insect pest identification & description Some pupae were taken and monitored in captivity. A few adults have emerged and it is a moth species, identified as Achaea janata Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Catocalinae), as shown in Figure 7, based on Holloway (2005). While in captivity, some tiny flies, measuring about 1.5 mm, emerged from the some of the pupae. They could be parasitic flies from the dipteran family Hybotidae. A parasitoid, Xanthopimpla sp. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) also emerged from one of the pupae (Figure 6). The pest a widespread species, occurring in the Indo-Australian tropics and subtropics, extending south to New Zealand and east through the Pacific archipelagoes. It is highly polyphagous, feeding on a diverse array of host plants from about 30 families, including forest and fruit trees, ornamentals and vegetables. Interestingly, Nair (2007) reported that this species has caused near total defoliation of E. agallocha over a stretch of 500-1,000 ha of a mangrove forest in Sumatra. The affected area at the mangroves of Sg. Kayu was quite extensive, and conservatively it could be easily more than a few hectares (< 10 hectares). The pest also attacked many of the Buta-buta trees at the Labuk Bay Proboscis Monkey Sanctuary in Sandakan (N E ) in late December, Recommendations on possible re-occurrence of the infestation From observation, complete defoliation did not kill the trees and new shoots and leaves sprouted quite fast, most likely due to the raining season. It is also difficult to control the pest in the mangroves. Nevertheless, control measures can be taken if the caterpillars attack the agricultural crops of the villagers. Contact poison (e.g. cypermethrin) can be applied through knapsack spraying if the caterpillars occur in high abundance and cannot be terminated manually. It is advised that direct contact with this caterpillar should be avoided because it feeds on E. agallocha which has a poisonous white sap. The milky sap of this tree can cause temporary blindness if it enters the eyes, hence its common name in Malay and English as well ( blindyour-eye and river poison tree). The sap can also cause skin blisters and irritation. Some local people use the sap to stun and kill fish. Thus, the caterpillar may be poisonous. Similarly, this caterpillar feeds on the castor oil plant, Ricimus communis (Euphorbiaceae) which is among the most poisonous plants in the world. Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 223

238 If the caterpillar moves into the house compound, it can be sprayed with aerosol insecticide or removed manually using forceps. Some additional information of this pest species is provided in Appendix I. Figure 1. The defoliated Excoecaria agallocha beside the road. Figure 2. Quite an extensive area was completely defoliated. Figure 3. Sonneratia alba was partially defoliated. Figure 4. Close up of the pupa in loose web that formed the cocoon. Figure 5. An exposed pupa with white powdery substance. Figure 6. A parasitoid, Xanthopimpla sp. that emerged from one of the pupae. 224 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

239 Figure 7. A newly emerged adult moth of Achaea janata. References HOLLOWAY, J.D The moths of Borneo: family Noctuidae, subfamily Catocalinae. Malayan Nature Journal 58 (1-4): MAU, R.F.L., KESSING, J.L.M. & DIEZ, J.M Achaea janata (Linnaeus) NAIR, K.S.S Tropical forest insect pests: ecology, impact and management. Cambridge University Press. 404 pp. HERBISON-EVANS, D. & CROSSLEY, S Achaea janata (Linnaeus, 1758). Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 225

240 INSECTS IN TEAK (Tectona Grandis L. F) IN THE FOREST AREA OF PASSO VILLAGE CITY OF AMBON MALUKU PROVINCE INDONESIA Fransina, Latumahina 1) and Illa Anggraeini 2) 1) Agriculture Faculty, Pattimura University Ambon, Maluku, Indonesia; 2) Forestry Research and Development Center Bogor, Indonesia Corresponding author: Abstract Teak is the forest species with the highest economic value in Indonesia. It is especially important to many villages in Maluku Province. In order to manage for maximum profitability we need to first understand the pest species attacking this valuable tree species and to determine how much damage is caused. Pest species were identified, and the intensity of pest attack determined. We identified two species acting as major pests; the lady bug (Coccinella magnifica) and the snout beetle (Orchidophilus aterrimus). The snout beetle and the lady bug were associated with severe damage on 64% and 56% respectively of the trees sampled although the intensity of damage was low to medium. Keywords: Teak (Tectona grandis), lady bug (Coccinella magnifica), snout beetle (Orchidophilus aterrimus) Introduction Teak (Tectona grandis Linn. F) is a tree with high economic value in Indonesia but pests cause a significant decrease in both the quality and quantity of the wood. Some of the common pests found attacking teak (Tectona grandis Linn. F) are Xyleborus destruens Blandford (scolytid borer), Hiblaea puera (Cramer) (teak defoliator), Pyraustista machaeralis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), (teak leaf skeletoniser) Neotermes tectonae (Dammerman) (termite) and Captotermes curviquanthus (termite). The research in this paper provides information about the major type of pests causing damage to teak trees planted in the Passo Village forest area. We also describe the intensity of damage. Methods Sites The pest damage surveys were carried out in the Passo Village forest plantation area, Ambon city from July 2009 until August Pests were identified at the Basic Biology Laboratory FKIP Pattimura University Ambon during September 2009 using pest manuals by Borror et al. (1992) and Achmad Sultoni and Kalsoven (1981). Sampling and calculation of pest intensity The survey area was 1 hectare in which five 25m x 25m plots were established. Samples were collected and pest damage assessed across diagonal transects in each plot (14 teak trees per plot and a total of 70 trees from all plots). The percentage of trees attacked by a pest was calculated and allocated to a category describing the extent of damage (Table 1). 226 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

241 Table 1. Extent of damage (Source: Natawigena, 1982) Score (=% of trees attacked) Description of extent of damage in plantation 0 Normal 0 to 25 Light 25 to 50 Average 50 to 75 Heavy 75 Very heavy To calculate the intensity of pest damage we used the formula established by Natawigena, 1982 and cited in Sugiharso, Where : P = damage intensity n = leaf area per tree in score (v) v = score (Table 2) Z = highest score N = total leaf area observed nxv P x 100% ZxN Table 2. Scores for damage intensity Score % leaf area damaged Description of damage 0 0 Normal 1 0 to 25 Light 2 25 to 50 Medium 3 50 to 75 Heavy 4 75 Very Heavy Results and Discussion Major pest species identified Pests common to the forest plantations of Passo Village Ambon city were the lady bug or ladybird (Cocinella magnifica) Coleoptera: Coccinellidae and the snout beetle (Orchidophilus aterrimus) Coleoptera: Curculionidae. Adult C. magnifica have wide oval to round bodies, are brightly coloured (yellow, orange, or red) with black or black yellow even reddish spots. The larvae are dark, with yellow reddish spots and forked thorns. It takes about 1 to 2 weeks from egg to larvae to adult and many generations can be produced in a short time. Adult ladybirds are usually predators but it is their larvae that attack leaves. Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 227

242 Borror et al. (1992) and Kalsoven (1981) describe the snout beetle as being hugely variable in size, body shape, snout shape with a dark, black brown or black colour. The larvae has a white, strong head, and is arched. Snout beetles are leaf skeletonisers. Extent of damage The extent of damage in the teak plantation sruveyed was heavy with 64% of the trees being attacked by the snout beetle and 56% of the trees attacked by the lady bug (Table 3). Table 3. Extent of damage; % of trees attacked by each pest Number of trees Pest Not Observed Attacked attacked % of trees attacked Category (see Table 1) Snout beetle Heavy Lady bug Heavy Damage intensity The snout beetle caused a greater intensity of leaf damage in all plots than the lady bug. Although more than half the trees were attacked by pests the damage intensity did not go above 40% and the average was 29.4 for the snout beetle and 17.2 for the lady bug. Table 4. Damage Intensity Sample Plot Pest Snout beetle Lady bug Average In summary a high number of teak trees were infested with the two defoliating species but the intensity of damage was low to medium. The presence of damaging insects in forest area is influenced by many factors; climate, insect food supply (Graham, 1952), competition between insects, and silvicultural practices. Temperatures within the forest ranged between 21.8 C and 26.6 C at the time the research was carried out. Relative humidity was 81% and during the surveys rain fell heavily. Sunjay (1970) states that the presence of certain types of pests over others is defined by topography and climate (temperature, humidity, and speeding also rain fall). The major pests found by our studies reproduce well at between 23 C and 27 C with relative humidity between 73 and 100% and therefore conditions were ideal for these pests. In addition to favoruable conditions the teak trees at Passo Village were not well maintained with no weeding, fertilisation or pest control. Such trees will be less vigorous and more prone to pest attack. Soemartono (1980) and Untung (1993) both recommend that pest control can be obtained by good silvicultural practices. 228 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

243 Conclusions 1. The two major defoliating pests attacking teak plantations inside the forest conservation area in Passo Village Ambon City Maluku Indonesia were the snout beetle (Orchidophilus aterrimus) and lady bug (Coccinella magnifica). 2. These two pests were widely present on a large number of trees and were causing low to medium levels of damage. 3. Environmental conditions in the forest were inducive to pests especially as the trees are not well maintained. References ANONYMOUS Vademecum Kehutanan Indonesia. Departemen Pertanian, Direktorat Jenderal Kehutanan. Jakarta ANONYMOUS Teknik Pembuatan Tanaman. Departemen Kehutanan Direktorat Jenderal Reboisasi dan Rehabilitasi Lahan. Direktorat Hutan Tanaman Industri. ANONYMOUS Ensiklopedia Indonesia Jilid III. Penerbit Ichtiar Baru Van Houve. Jakarta BORROR, TRIPLEHORN JOHNSON Pengenalan Pelajaran Serangga Edisi Keenam. Gadjah Mada University Press. HASAN, T Rayap dan Pemberantasa. CV. Yasa Guna Jakarta. Jumar Etomologi Pertanian, PT. RINEKA CIPTA Jakarta. GRAHAM, S.A Enetomologi kehutanan. Edisi ketiga. McGram-Hill Book Company, Inc New York-Toronto-London. KALSHOVEN, L.G.E Pests of Crops in Indonesia.PT. Ichtiar Baru-Van Hoeve. Jakarta. NATAWIGANA Pestisida dan Kegunaanya. Jurusan Proteksi Tanaman. Fakultas pertanian Unpad. Bandung. NATAWIGANA, H. Etimologi Pertanian ( Orbas Akti Bandung ). OHOIWUTUN, H Peranan Pelapuk Serasah daun (Paraserianthes) dan Nak (Acacia mangium), sebagai penyuplai makanan (unsur N, P, K) dalam Memperbaiki Kesuburan Tanah pada Hutan Gunung Geser, Kota Ambo, Skripsi Faperta. (Tidak dipublikasikan). RUKMAN, S.S Hama Tanaman Dan Teknik Pengendalian, Penerbit Kanisius, Yogyakarta. SUNJAY, P.I Dasar-Dasar Ekologi Serangga. Bagian Ilmu Hama Tanaman Pertanian. IPB. Bogor. SURATMO, F.G Ilmu Perlindungan Hutan. Proyek Peningkatan Mutu Perguruan Tinggi Institut Pertanian Bogor. SOEWARTONO, S Materi Kursus Singkat Pengelolaan Hama Terpadu. Universitas Sam Ratulangi, Manado. SUGIHARSO, S Dasar perlindungan Tanaman.Departemen Perlindungan Ilmu Hama dan Penyakit Tumbuhan, Faperta Bogor. UNTUNG, K Pengantar Pengelolaan Hama Terpadu. Gajah Mada University Press, Yogyakarta. YANA SUMARNA Budidaya Jati, Jakarta. Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 229

244 EFFECT OF ROOT EXUDATES OF SENGON (Paraserianthes falcataria L. Nielsen) INOCULATED WITH THE FUNGAL ENDOPHYTE Nigrospora sp. ON CONTROL OF THE ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE Meloidogyne spp. Nur Amin Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Sulawesi Selatan, 90245, Indonesia Corresponding author: Abstract Endophytic fungi live in a mutulistic relationship within their host plant tissues without causing any symptoms on the host. The host provides substrate and space for the endophytes to grow while the endophytes promote plant growth and protect the hosts from pests and diseases. This research determined the effect of different concentrations of root exudates of sengon (Paraserianthes falcataria) that had been inoculated with the fungal endophyte (Nigrospora sp.) to control the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.). The study was conducted using the sand block test method. Block I was the area of application of the nematodes; Block II was the area between application of the nematodes and the root; and Block III was the root zone. All treatments in Block III, except 12.5 and 6.25% of root exudates, had significantly lower populations of root-knot nematode than the untreated control. In Block III, the 100% root-exudate treatment suppressed the nematode population to 20% of that in the control. Keywords: Root Exudate, Fungal Endophyte, Root Knot, Nigrospora sp, Meloidogyne spp. Introduction Plant parasitic nematodes are responsible for >$100B in economic losses worldwide to a variety of crops. Root-knot nematodes are the most economically important group of plant parasitic nematodes worldwide and are known to parasitize nearly every crop grown, reducing both yield and quality (Sasser and Freckman, 1987). Sedentary endoparasitic root-knot nematodes are among the most successful parasites in nature. They parasitize over 2000 plants species and have a highly specialized and complex feeding relationship with their host (Hussey and Janssen, 2002). Plant roots injured by nematodes are, in addition, susceptible to soil borne pathogens. This interaction results in increased crop losses due to the resulting synergistic disease complexes (Sikora and Carter, 1987). Four species of the genus Meloidogyne viz. M. incognita, M. javanica, M. arenaria and M. hapla, account for 95% of all root-knot nematode infestations in agriculture. Chemical nematicides are one of the primary means of control for plant-parasitic nematodes. However, potential negative impacts on the environment, high human toxicity and the loss of effectiveness after prolonged use due to biodegradation have led to either their banning, removal from the market, or restricted use on many crops. There is an urgent need for new, safe and effective means of nematode management (Zuckerman and Esnard, 1994). Several ecologically sustainable management options are currently being assessed around the world for controlling nematode damage to plants. One of them is fungal endophytes. The term endophyte was coined by the German scientist Heinrich Anton De Bary in 1884 (Wilson, 1995) and refers to fungi or bacteria occurring inside plant tissues of their host without causing any apparent symptoms in the host (Petrini, 1991; Wilson, 1995). Fungal 230 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

245 endophytes have been detected in hundreds of plants, including many important agricultural crops such as wheat (Larran et al., 2002a), bananas (Pocasange et al., 2000; Cao et al., 2002), soybeans (Larran et al., 2002b), and tomatoes (Hallman and Sikora 1994a; Larran et al., 2001). Extensive research has been conducted on the use of mutualistic endophytes for the biological control of plant-parasitic nematodes (Hallmann and Sikora, 1994a, b; Dababat and Sikora, 2007a, b; Sikora et al., 2008). A wide range of plant-parasitic nematodes has been targeted for biological control with endophytes. Examples are the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita, the reniform nematode Rotylenchulus reniformis, the cyst nematode Globodera pallida and the burrowing nematode Radopholus similes (Sikora et al., 2008). The mechanisms of action responsible for biocontrol by endophytes include antibiosis, predation, pathogenesis, competition, repellence and induced resistance (Stirling, 199; Schuster et al., 1995; Hallmann and Sikora, 1996; Hallmann et al., 2001; Clay and Schardl, 2002; VU, 2005; Sikora et al., 2007). Plant root exudates contain simple carbon substrates, including primary metabolites like sugars, amino acids, and organic acids, in addition to a diverse array of secondary metabolites that are released into the rhizosphere and surrounding soil (Jones et al., 2004). This study investigates the effectiveness of root exudates from the fungal endophyte Nigrospora sp. in controlling the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne spp. on sengon (Paraserianthes falcataria). Materials and Methods Isolation of Fungal endophytes Endophytic fungi were isolated according to modified protocols of PETRINI (1986). The roots of sengon were washed twice in distilled water and then surface sterilized by immersion for 1 min in 70% (v/v) ethanol, 5 min in sodium hypochlorite (2.5 % (v/v) available chlorine) and 30 s in 70% (v/v) ethanol and then washed three times for 1 min each in sterilized distilled water. After surface sterilization, the samples were cut into 5-7 mm pieces and aseptically transferred to plates containing potato dextrose agar (PDA, ph 6.8, containing (g/l): potato 200; dextrose 20; agar 15) which had been autoclaved for 15 min at 121ºC and then aseptically supplemented with 100 mg/ml chloramphenicol (Pfizer) to suppress bacterial growth. Aliquots from the third wash were plated onto PDA to check that surface sterilization had been effective. The plates were incubated at 28ºC and any fungi present were isolated, purified and then maintained at 4ºC on PDA slopes for further identification. Fungi that had grown after 5 days incubation were identified after reference to Barnet & Hunter (1998); Dugan (2006). Preparation of Fungal endophyte Nigrospora sp. in Form of Powder The fungal endophyte Nigrospora sp. was propagated on rice medium. Rice that has been soaked for 3 h was put into 50 g bottles and autoclaved at 12 0 C for 30 min. Five pieces of endophytic fungi Nigrospora sp. were inoculated into the rice medium using a 5-mm diameter corkborer. Once the fungal endophyte started growing, the bottles were shaken to assure even growth. The bottles were then incubated at 30 0 C for 48 h, and the contents then blended to a powder prior to application. Preparation of Meloidogyne spp. Tomato plants from the field were uprooted and nematode eggs were extracted from galled roots using 1.5% NaOCl solution (Hussey and Barker, 1973). Roots were gently washed with tap water, cut into 1-2 cm pieces and macerated two times for 10 s each time in a Waring blender with tap water. Each 500 ml of the macerated solution was mixed with 258 ml of 4% Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 231

246 NaOCl (AppliChem) and manually shaken for 3 min. This suspension was poured over four nested sieves; 250 μm on the top, followed by 100 μm, 45 μm and 25 μm aperture sieve. Eggs remaining in the 25 μm sieve were rinsed with tap water, collected in a beaker and aerated in tap water for days at room temperature in the dark using an aquarium pump to facilitate hatching. Freshly hatched second stage juveniles (J2) were collected by a modified Bearmann technique. The juveniles in tap water suspension were used as inoculum. Preparation of Root Exudates of Fungal Endophyte Nigrospora sp. Provision of root exudates was implemented by the method De Waele and Elsie De Waele (1988). Thirty-day old sengon plants that had been applied with the powdered form of the fungal endophyte were removed carefully so as not to damage their root structure. Soil particles were removed with sterile water, and the plants placed in incubator with a 12 h:12 h ratio of dark and light each day for 12 days. Investigation of Concentration of Root Exudates containing Fungal Endophyte Nigrospora sp. against Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne spp. on Sengon Plant This was determined using the "Sand Block Test Method". Sifted and moistened sterile sand was placed into a sand block (7 3 2 cm). In Block I the exudate extract was applied 2.3 cm from 1500 individuals of second instar Meloidogyne spp. Block III is 6 cm from the tip of seedlings of planted sengon whose roots had previously been soaked in their respective treatment for 30 min (Figure 1). Figure 1. Sand Block Test MethodBlock I: Zone of Application of Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne spp.; Block II: Zone between Application of Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne spp. and root zone; Block III: Zone of Roots A completely randomized design was used in this study consisting of 7 treatments with 5 replications. The treatments were: AS0: Control (Sterile Water); AS1: Control (Root Exudate without fungal endophyte); AS2: 100 % Root Exudate with Fungal endophyte; AS3: 50 % Root Exudate with Fungal endophyte; AS4: 25 % Root Exudate with Fungal endophyte; AS % Root Exudate with Fungal endophyte; AS6: 6.25 % Root Exudate with Fungal endophyte. Results and Discussion The number of nematodes in block III in treatment AS2 (100% Root exudate with Fungal endophyte) was eight times less in treatment AS0 (sterile water control). Treatments AS 3 and AS4 (50% and 25% Root exudate with Fungal endophyte, respectively) also had significantly less nematodes than the control (Table 1). This finding indicates that root exudates containing endophytic fungi can inhibit the movement of nematodes Meloidogyne spp. towards plant roots as previously found by Sill (1982). 232 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

247 Table 1. Average number of larvae instars II Meloidogyne spp. in "Sand Block Test" 7 days after application of fungal endophyte Nigrospora sp. in root exudates Treatment Average Number of Larvae Instar II Meloidogyne spp. Block I Block II Block III AS AS AS AS AS AS AS In treatments AS5 and AS6 (12.5% and 6.25% Root exudate with fungal endophyte), the number of nematodes in block III was more than double that in AS0. There were no significant differences between treatments in the number of nematodes in block II. This finding illustrates that the administration of fungal endophytes in root exudates below the recommended dose can induce higher activity of the root-knot nematode. A similar phenomenon has been reported previously by Nur Amin (1994) who showed that there were more nematodes of Radopholus similis in infected roots of banana plants with an applied culture filtrate of the endophytic fungus Fusarium oxysporum A1 at a concentration of 6.25% then in the untreated control. Acknowledgement We would like to thank the Minister of National Education and Culture, Republic of Indonesia for the financial support provided for this study. References BARNETT, H. L. and B. B. HUNTER Illustrated genera of imperfect fungi. 4th ed. APS Press. St. Paul. Minnesota. pp CAO, L.X., YOU, J.L., ZHOU, S.N., Endophytic fungi from Musa acuminata leaves and roots in South China. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 18: DABABAT, A.A Importance of the mutualistic endophyte Fusarium oxysporum 162 for enhancement of tomato transplants and the biological control of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita, with particular reference to mode-of-action. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Bonn, Germany. DABABAT, A.A. AND SIKORA, R.A. 2007a. Influence of the mutualistic endophyte Fusarium oxysporum 162 on Meloidogyne incognita attraction and invasion. Nematology 9: DABABAT, A.A. AND SIKORA, R.A. 2007b. Importance of application time and inoculum density of Fusarium oxysporum 162 for biological control of Meloidogyne incognita on tomato. Nematropica, 37: DUGAN, F.M The Identification of Fungi: An Illustrated Introduction With key, Glossary and Guide to Literature.The American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul. Minnesota. pp HALLMANN, J. and SIKORA, R.A. 1994a. Occurrence of plant parasitic nematode and nonpathogenic species of Fusarium in tomato plant in Kenia and their role as mutualistic Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 233

248 synergists for biological control of root nematodes. International Journal of Pest Management 40: HALLMANN, J. and SIKORA, R.A., 1994b. Influence of Fusarium oxysporum a mutualistic fungal endophytic on Meloidogyne incognita of tomato. Journal of plant diseases and protection 101 (5): HUSSEY, R.S. and JANSSEN, G.J.W Root-knot nematodes: Meloidogyne species. In: Starr J.L., Cook R. and Bridge J. (Eds). Plant resistance to parasitic nematodes. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK. pp JONES, D. L., A. HODGE, and Y. KUZYAKOV Plant and mycorrhizal regulation of rhizodeposition. New Phytol. 163: LARRAN, S., PERELLO, A., SIMON, M.R. and MORENO, V. 2002a. Isolation and analysis of endophytic microorganisms in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) leaves. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 18: LARRAN, S., ROLLAN, C., BRUNO ANGELES, H., ALIPPI, H.E., URRUTIA, M.I., 2002b. Endophytic fungi in healthy soybean leaves. Investigación Agraria: Producción y Protección de Vegetales 17: NUR AMIN Untersuchungen uber die Bedeutung endophytischer Pilze fur die biologische Bekampfung des wandernden Endoparasiten Radopholus similis (Cobb) Thirne an Bananen. PhD-Thesis, 112 p. Bonn University. PETRINI, O Taxonomy of endophytic fungi of aerial plant tissues. In: Fokkema, N. J.; Heuvel, J. Van Den (Eds.). Microbiology of the Phyllosphere. Cambridge: University Press, pp PETRINI, O., Fungal endophytes of tree leaves. In: Andrews J.H., Hirano S.S. (Eds.), Microbial Ecology of Leaves. Springer-Verlag, NY, pp POCASANGRE L Biological enhancement of banana tissue culture plantlets with endophytic fungi for the control of the burrowing nematode Radopholus similis and the Panama disease (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense). Ph.D. Thesis, University of Bonn, Germany. SASSER, J.N. and FRAECKMAN, D.W A world perspective of nematology: the role of the society. In: Veech J.A. and Dickson D.W. (Eds). Vista on nematology. Society of nematologists, Hyatsville, Maryland, pp SIKORA, R.A. and CARTER, W.W Nematode interactions with fungal and bacterial plant pathogens-fact or fantasy. In: Vistas on Nematology. Veech J.A and Dickson D.W. (Eds.). Society of Nematologists. Hyattsville, Maryland, pp SIKORA, R.A., SCHAFER, K. and DABABAT, A.A Modes of action associated with microbially induce in planta suppression of plant-parasitic nematodes. Aust Plant Pathol 36: STIRLING, G.R Biological control of plant parasitic nematodes. CAB International, Wallingford, UK, p 282. WILSON, D Fungal endophytes which invade insect galls: insect pathogens, benign saprophytes, or fungal inquiunes? Oecologia 103: Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

249 OCCURRENCE OF LAC SCALES, Tachardina aurantiaca, IN PENINSULAR MALAYSIA Ong, S.P. 1), Neumann, G. 2), Che Salmah, M.R. 3), Khairun, Y. 3&4) & Kirton, L.G. 1) 1) Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Kepong, Selangor, Malaysia; 2) La Trobe University, Department of Zoology, School of Life Science, Faculty of Science, Technology and Engineering, Victoria 3086 Australia; 3) School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Penang, Malaysia; 4) Centre for Marine and Coastal Studies (CEMACS), Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia Corresponding author: Abstract Tachardina aurantiaca or commonly known as orange lac scale belongs to the family Kerriidae. These small sap-sucking lac insects are protected by a hard cover made of resinous compound. They can be found attached on branches and stems of trees and may cause branch dieback in heavy infestations. Adult females measure about 3 mm in diameter, globular and colour varies from bright yellow or orange to red. The males are elongated, measuring about 1.5 mm in length and orange to red in colour. The young of the lac scale, called crawlers, are elongate-oval and bright red, measuring about 0.5 mm in length. Field surveys in Selangor and Penang showed that T. aurantiaca usually occurs on planted trees such as Acacia auriculiformis or wild growing shrubs in disturbed areas. The honeydew produced by the lac scales attracts a number of tending ants including the aggressive and territorial weaver ants, Oecophylla smaragdina and the yellow crazy ant, Anoplolepis gracilipes. This lac scale is native to Malaysia, but is considered an invasive species in Christmas Island where, coupled with the yellow crazy ant as a mutualistic partner, it triggered an ecosystem meltdown endangering the entire ecosystem of the island. Keywords: Tachardina aurantiaca, Kerriidae, crawlers, disturbed areas, tending ants Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 235

250 236 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

251 LIST OF PARTICIPANTS Abdul Gafur RGE Fiber Research and Development, Town Site I, PT RAPP Complex, Pangkalan Kerinci 28300, Indonesia Achmad Maulana Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia Ade Darian Perdana Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia Ade Mulyawan Researcher Plant Protection Unit, RnD Sinarmas Forestry Region Jambi Adiin Kusuma Wardani Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia Agus Dwi Prasetia Putra Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia Agustian Virgi Ikhziana Graduate Student, from Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia Aji Hari Pratama Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia Anis Fauzi Forest Biotechnology and Tree Improvement Research Centre, Forestry Research and Development Agency (FORDA)Yogyakarta Indonesia Anto Rimbawanto Forest Biotechnology and Tree Improvement Research Centre, Forestry Research and Development Agency (FORDA)Yogyakarta, Indonesia Ardiyan Maulana Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia Arthur Y. C. Chung Forest Research Centre, Sabah Forestry Department, Sandakan, Sabah, Malaysia Asti Anjelita Kartikasari Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia Audrey Epeh Okang Grand Perfect SDN BHd Aulia L.P. Aruan RGE Fiber Research and Development, Town Site I, PT RAPP Complex, Pangkalan Kerinci 28300, Indonesia Bayo Alhusaeri Siregar Plant Protection Dept., Research and Development, Sinarmas Forestry, Indonesia Binesh Dayal Forestry Department Silviculture Research & Resource Development Division P. O. Box 2218 Government Buildings Suva, Fiji Islands Budi Tjahjono RGE Fiber Research and Development, Town Site I, PT RAPP Complex, Pangkalan Kerinci 28300, Indonesia Caroline Mohammed Tasmanian Institute of Agriculture, University of Tasmania, Tasmania Australia Chris Beadle The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), Australia Dedisoni Rahmanto Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia Denri Nugroho PT. Surya Hutani Jaya, Indonesia Desy Puspitasari Centre for Forest Biotechnology and Tree Improvement, Jalan Palagan Tentara Pelajar KM. 15 Purwobinangun Pakem Sleman Yogyakarta Indonesia Dipta Sumeru R. Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia Dwi Rahayu Pujiastuti PT. Sinar Hutani Jaya (Sinarmas Group), Jln. Camar RT 55 No. 95, Kel. Pelita, Samarinda, 75117, Indonesia Dwi T. Adriyanti Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia Edmund Gan Sabah Forest Industries SDN BHd Elis N. Herliana Department of Silviculture, Faculty of Forestry, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor, Indonesia or ipb.ac.id Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 237

252 Eliya Wirhadini C. Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia Ema Mucharromah Agriculture College, Bengkulu University, Jl. WR Supratman, Bengkulu, 38371, Indonesia Endah Yulia Plant Pest and Disease Sciences, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jln. Peta Gg. Sukamulya I No.53 Bandung, 40233, Indonesia Enggar Apriyanto Forestry Department, Bengkulu University Fadjar Sagitarianto Plant Protection Dept., Research and Development, Sinarmas Forestry, Indonesia Faozan Indresputra Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia Fauzan Nugraha P Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia Fauzi Abdillah Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia Ferrieren Curassavica Arfenda Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia Fransina S. Latumahina Phd Student At Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Gajah Mada, Indonesia Goh Aik Saeh Sabah Softwoods Berhad Hapsari Sekar Hamumpuni Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia Heru Indrayadi Plant Protection Dept., Research and Development, Sinarmas Forestry, Indonesia Indira Riastiwi Graduate Student, Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia Ika Putri Amianti Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia Kavileveettil Sankaran Kerala Forest Research Institute, Peechi , Kerala, India Kavita Gupta National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, Pusa Campus, New Delhi , India or Laxmi Syifa Arifah Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia Lee Su See Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kepong, Selangor, Malaysia Liliana Baskorowati Forest Biotechnology and Tree Improvement Research Centre, Forestry Research and Development Agency (FORDA)Yogyakarta, Indonesia M. Al-Amin Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences, Chittagong University, Chittagong-4331, Bangladesh M. Rahman Researcher Plant Protection Unit, RnD Sinarmas Forestry Region Jambi M.Arif Widyasmoko Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia Malihatun Nufus Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia Mardai S. P. Plant Protection Dept., Research and Development, Sinarmas Forestry, Indonesia Marthin Tarigan RGE Fiber Research and Development, Town Site I, PT RAPP Complex, Pangkalan Kerinci 28300, Indonesia Meilania Nugraheni Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia Mohd Farid A. Pathology Laboratory, Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM) Kepong, Selangor, Malaysia Muhamad Ikhsan Tri Haryanto Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia Musyafa Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia Naoto Kamata The University of Tokyo Chichibu Forest, The University of Tokyo, Hinoda-machi, Chichibu, Saitama , Japan Naval Pradika Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia Neo Endra Lelana Centre for Forest Productivity Improvement Research and Development, Jl. Gunung Batu No. 5 Bogor 16610, 238 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

253 Indonesia Nirma Yunita Sari Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia Nur Amin Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, South Sulawesi, 90245, Indonesia Nur Azizurohman Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia Nur Cahyono Adi Sugiyanto Graduate Student, Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia Nurina Yuanita Sari Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia Oka Karyanto Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia Ong Su Ping Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Kepong, Selangor, Malaysia Othman Bin Deris Conservator of Forest, Operational and Enforcement Unit, Perak State Forestry Department, Perak, Malaysia Pandu Yudha A.P.W Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia Paul A. Barber Arbor Carbon Pty Ltd, PO Box 1065 Willagee Central, WA, Australia, 6163 Pham Quang Thu Forest Science Institute of Vietnam, Hanoi, Vietnam Priyono PT. Serayu Makmur Kayuindo, Jl. Raya Kalibenda KM. 4 Kec. Sigaluh, Kabupaten Banjarnegara Puji Lestari Graduate Student, Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia Pujo Sumantoro Center of Research and Development, Perum Perhutani, Wonosari Street, Batokan, Tromol Pos 6 Cepu 58302, East Java, Indonesia Ramachandran Sundararaj Wood Biodegradation Division, Institute of Wood Science & Technology, 18th Cross Malleswaram, Bangalore , India or Richard R.P. Napitupulu Graduate Student, Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia Ricko Leowildi Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia Ridla Arifriana Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia Risa Ardhi Andari Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia Risky Hening Dwi Astuti Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia Roma Dian Andiyani Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia S.M. Widyastuti Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia Sapto Indrioko Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia Sanjaya Bista Entomology Division, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, Khumaltar, Lalitpur, Nepal Selvi Chelya Susanty Department of Silviculture, Faculty of Forestry, Bogor Agricultural University, Darmaga Campus, Bogor Septiana Jaya Mustika Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia Simon Taka Nuhamara Magister Biology Programe Study, Satya Wacana Christiian University Jl. Diponegoro Salatiga Sinom Sinung Probo Hapsoro Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia Siti Husna Nurrohmah Forest Biotechnology and Tree Improvement Research Centre, Forestry Research and Development Agency (FORDA)Yogyakarta Indonesia Siwi Purwaningsih Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia Sri Rahayu Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 239

254 Suyadi Siswowiyono Jatropha Oil Indonesia Monfor Nusantara, Jln. Raya Jampang Karihkil KM. 4, Desa Tegal Kemang, Parung, Bogor, Indonesia Syaiful Amri Saragih The University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, Yayoi 1-1-1, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo, Japan T. A. Suresh Kerala Forest Research Institute, Peechi , Kerala, India T. T. Trang Vietnamese Academy of Forest Sciences, Hanoi, Vietnam T.O. Sasidharan Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment (ATREE), Bengaluru, Wood Biodegradation Division, Institute of Wood Science and Technology,18th cross, Malleswaram, Bangalore , Karnataka, India Tectona Grandis Abimanyu Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia Tjoa Tju San PT. Serayu Makmur Kayuindo, Jl. Raya Kalibenda KM. 4 Kec. Sigaluh, Kabupaten Banjarnegara Tuan Marina Binti Tuan Ibrahim Forest Economis Section, Forest Planning and Economics Division, Jalan Sultan Saluddin, Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur, Forestry Department Peninsular Malaysia Ujang Wawan Darmawan Center For Forest Productivity Research and Development Jl. Gunung Batu No. 5, PO Box 331, Bogor 16610, Indonesia Utami Sanityasa Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia Uthaiwan Sangwanit Department of Forest Biology, Faculty of Forestry, Kasetsart University, Lardyaow, Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900, Thailand W. W. Winarni Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia Wahyu Prabawa Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia Warsun Jayari Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia Wida Darwiati Center for Forest Productivity Research and Development, Bogor, Indonesia Woro Setyo Sejati Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia Wulan Rochmah Dinas Kehutanan Provinsi Jawa Tengah Indonesia Yani Japarudin Sabah Softwoods Berhad Zailani Bin Man Conservator of Forest,Silviculture and Protection Unit, Perak State Forestry Department, Perak, Malaysia Zanuar Ajang S Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia Zulnaidah Binti Manan Forest Economis Section, Forest Planning and Economics Division, 99Jalan Sultan Saluddin, Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur, Forestry Department Peninsular Malaysia 240 Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics

255 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I-MHERE UGM Asia-Pacific Forest Invasive Species Network Asia Pasific Association of Forestry Institutions Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research Riau Andalan Pulp and Paper Perusahaan Hutan Negara Indonesia (Indonesian state forestry company) Serayu Makmur Kayuindo Dharma Satya Nusantara Proceeding of International Conference on The Impacts of Climate Change to Forest Pests and Diseases in The Tropics 241

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