CONVERSION FACTORS. Standard conversion factors for liquid fuels are determined on the basis of the net calorific value for each product.

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1 CONVERSION FACTORS The data which have been supplied by the countries in original units are converted to the common unit, terajoules (TJ), by using standard conversion factors or, in the case of solids, specific factors, where available, as indicated below. Specific factors are displayed for production and for imports. The ones for production are also used for exports and stock changes. All the other flows use a conversion factor which is a weighted average between both. Where no specific factor is listed for a particular country, the standard factor is used to convert all data. Standard conversion factors for liquid fuels are determined on the basis of the net calorific value for each product. The conversion of fuelwood (solid volume, GJ/m 3 ) is based on an average 20-30% moisture content. When data on the transformation of fuelwood into charcoal are incomplete, estimations assume that it requires 6 cubic metres of fuelwood to produce 1 metric ton of charcoal, equivalent to an approximately 53% transformation efficiency on an energy basis For users wishing to convert the data from terajoules (TJ) to other common units: one thousand tons of coal equivalent (1,000 TCE) has traditionally been defined as comprising TJ, and one thousand tons of oil equivalent (1,000 TOE) as TJ. One calorie corresponds to joules and is the amount of energy which will raise the temperature of one gramme of water by one degree Celsius. xxiii

2 STANDARD NET CALORIFIC VALUES (Terajoules per thousand metric tons, unless otherwise stated) Hard coal Brown coal Peat 9.76 Oil shale 8.90 Coal coke Patent fuel Brown coal briquettes (BKB) Coal tar Coke-oven gas (original unit is TJ) 1.00 Gasworks gas (original unit is TJ) 1.00 Recovered gases (original unit is TJ) 1.00 Other coal products Peat products 9.76 Conventional crude oil Natural gas liquids Additives and Oxygenates Other hydrocarbons Feedstocks Refinery gas Ethane Liquefied petroleum gas Naphtha Aviation gasoline Motor gasoline Gasoline-type jet fuel Kerosene-type jet fuel Other kerosene Gas-diesel oil Fuel oil White spirit and SBP industrial spirits Lubricants Paraffin waxes Petroleum coke Bitumen (asphalt) Other oil products Natural gas (original unit is TJ on a GCV basis) 0.90 Fuelwood, wood residues and by-products (10 3 m 3 ) 9.14 Bagasse 7.72 Animal waste (original unit is TJ) 1.00 Black liquor (original unit is TJ) 1.00 Other vegetal material and residues (original unit is TJ) 1.00 Biogasoline Biodiesels Bio jet kerosene Other liquid biofuels Biogases (original unit is TJ) 1.00 xxiv

3 STANDARD NET CALORIFIC VALUES (continued) (Terajoules per thousand metric tons, unless otherwise stated) Industrial wastes (original unit is TJ) 1.00 Municipal wastes (original unit is TJ) 1.00 Charcoal Nuclear heat (original unit is TJ) 1.00 Electricity (GWh) 3.60 Heat (original unit is TJ) 1.00 xxv

4 PRODUCTION, EXPORTS AND CHANGES IN STOCKS HARD COAL Standard factor Argentina Australia Bangladesh Botswana Brazil Bulgaria Canada Chile China Colombia Czech Republic Egypt France Georgia Germany India Indonesia Italy Kazakhstan Korea, Democratic People s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kyrgyzstan Malaysia Mexico Mongolia Mozambique New Zealand Niger Norway Pakistan Peru Poland Russian Federation South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Tajikistan Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom United States Uzbekistan Viet Nam Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) Zambia Zimbabwe xxvi

5 PRODUCTION, EXPORTS AND CHANGES IN STOCKS BROWN COAL Standard factor Albania Australia Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Canada Czech Republic Germany Greece Hungary India Indonesia Korea, Democratic People's Republic of Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Mexico Mongolia Montenegro New Zealand Philippines Poland Romania Russian Federation Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Tajikistan Thailand T.F. Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Turkey United States Uzbekistan COKE OVEN COKE Standard factor Australia Austria Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Brazil Canada xxvii

6 PRODUCTION, EXPORTS AND CHANGES IN STOCKS COKE OVEN COKE China Colombia Czech Republic Estonia Finland France Germany Hungary Italy Japan Kazakhstan Korea, Republic of Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Other Asia Poland Russian Federation Slovakia South Africa Spain Sweden Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom United States PATENT FUEL Standard factor France Germany Hungary Korea, Republic of Russian Federation United Kingdom BROWN COAL BRIQUETTES Standard factor Australia Czech Republic Germany xxviii

7 PRODUCTION, EXPORTS AND CHANGES IN STOCKS PEAT Standard factor Austria Belarus Burundi Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Finland Ireland Russian Federation Sweden OIL SHALE Standard factor Israel xxix

8 IMPORTS HARD COAL Albania Argentina Austria Azerbaijan Bangladesh Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Brazil Bulgaria Canada Chile China China, Hong Kong SAR Colombia Croatia Czech Republic Denmark Egypt Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Ireland Israel Italy Japan Kazakhstan Korea, Democratic People s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kyrgyzstan Latvia Luxembourg Malaysia Mauritius Mexico Moldova, Republic of Morocco Namibia Netherlands New Zealand xxx

9 IMPORTS HARD COAL Norway Other Asia Pakistan Peru Poland Portugal Romania Russian Federation Serbia Slovakia Slovenia South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Sweden Switzerland T.F. Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Tajikistan Thailand Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom United States Uruguay Viet Nam Zambia Zimbabwe BROWN COAL Albania Austria Bosnia and Herzegovina Cambodia Canada Croatia Czech Republic France Germany Greece Hungary xxxi

10 IMPORTS BROWN COAL Israel Italy Kazakhstan Korea, Republic of Mexico Montenegro Netherlands New Zealand Other Asia Philippines Poland Romania Russian Federation Serbia Singapore Slovakia Slovenia Switzerland T.F. Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Ukraine United States Uzbekistan COKE OVEN COKE Australia Austria Belgium Brazil Canada China Czech Republic Denmark Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Italy Japan Kazakhstan Korea, Republic of xxxii

11 IMPORTS COKE OVEN COKE Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands Norway Other Asia Peru Poland Portugal Romania Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland T.F. Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Turkey United Kingdom United States Uruguay PATENT FUEL Austria Belgium France Germany Netherlands Poland Slovakia United Kingdom BROWN COAL BRIQUETTES Austria Belgium Czech Republic Denmark Germany Hungary Luxembourg Poland Slovakia xxxiii

12 IMPORTS PEAT Finland Sweden T.F. Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia xxxiv