Study on methodology for estimation of lac production in India

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1 Visit Us - DOI : /HAS/IRJAES/6.1/ International Research Journal of Agricultural Economics and Statistics Volume 6 Issue 1 March, e ISSN A Case Study Study on methodology for estimation of lac production in India GOVIND PAL Correspondence to : GOVIND PAL Directorate of Seed Research (ICAR), Kushmaur, MAU (U.P.) INDIA scientist.com Paper History : Received : ; Accepted : ABSTRACT : Estimation of lac production is required by the Government, lac-based industries, lac traders, exporters and importers and with the timely and accurate estimation of lac production they can plan their operations in time. The objective of present study is to develop methodology for estimation of lac production and processing at national level. The approach used in the present methodology was based on primary data and information. The study is conducted during the year to All lac produced in India moved through the lac markets/ lac traders. Survey of all big lac traders was helpful in estimation of lac production. As big lac traders are limited in number and they have close contact with the primary purchaser of lac who have knowledge of present crop condition and expected output. Further, all lac produced moved through the lac processing units. Survey of lac processing units was also helpful in estimating quantity of lac processed at national level and validation of lac production data. Five questionnaires were framed for collection of data and information during the field surveys. Lac production year in present study was April to March. Data and information for estimation of lac production and processing was collected throughout the year. Lac producing states have been classified in two group i.e. major lac producing states and minor lac producing states. Total 56 lac markets in major lac producing states and 11 lac markets in minor lac producing states have been identified for survey work. All twenty two lac processing centers/ secondary markets existing in the country was surveyed. Tabular analysis was used to analyze the survey data. Validation of lac production data at national level has been made by quantity of lac processed at national level, export and import. KEY WORDS : Lac, Estimation, Production, Processing HOW TO CITE THIS PAPER : Pal, Govind (2015). Study on methodology for estimation of lac production in India. Internat. Res. J. Agric. Eco. & Stat., 6 (1) : INTRODUCTION : Lac is a natural resin secreted by an insect known as Kerria lacca (Kerr.) which thrives on the tender twigs of specific host trees. The most common host trees for commercial lac cultivation are Butea monosperma (palas), Ziziphus mauritiana (ber) and Schleichera oleosa (kusum), besides several other trees of regional importance (Roonwalet al., 1958; Roonwal and Singh, 1958; Varshney and Teotia, 1967 and Sharma et al., 1997). The Indian lac insect has two strains commonly called kusmi and rangeeni. Both the strains produce two crop in each year. The two lac crops of rangeeni insects are summer season ( baisakhi) and rainy season ( katki). Similarly, lac crops of kusmi insect are summer (jethwi) and winter (aghani). Lac cultivation is an important source of income and has high potential for generating employment for both men and women in forest and sub-forest areas of Jharkhand, West Bengal, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Maharashtra and parts of Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat and NEH region. It is a very remunerative crop, paying high economic returns to the farmers and also foreign exchange to the country through its export. The export earning from lac and its value added products was Rs crores in the year (Pal and Bhattacharya, 2007) and Rs crores during (Anonymous, 2013). Estimation of lac production is required by the Government, lac-based industries, lac traders, exporters and

2 GOVIND PAL importers. With the timely and accurate estimation of lac production, all stakeholders can plan their operations in time. Besides knowing the present status, it would be helpful in regulating imports, planning for enhanced exports, reasonable prices and reliability in supply of lac based products. The cultivation of lac on a large number of hosts of different kinds, its production by numerous small growers, variations in the yield depending on the type and size of the host, cultivation practices and seasonal conditions, present serious difficulties in the estimation of production of this insect based crop. Considering these points, the present study was taken with the objective to develop methodology for estimation and validation of the lac production at national level. MATERIALS AND METHODS : All lac produced in country moved through the lac markets/ lac traders. Data and information on lac market arrival at important lac markets was collected through survey. Summation of market arrival of sticklac has indicated the lac production figures in the states and country. Big lac traders are limited in number and have close contact with the primary purchaser of lac who have knowledge of present crop condition and expected output. Survey of all big lac traders was helpful in estimation and prediction of lac production in the country. All lac produced in the country also moved through the lac processing units. Lac processors use the current harvested sticklac or stocked sticklac or imported sticklac. Summation of all sticklac processed in different centers, shows the quantity of lac processing in the country, which also helps in validation of lac production data. Export data was helpful in validation of lac production data. Survey of importers of lac was also helpful in generating the data on import of lac from various countries to different lac processing centers in India. Regular contact was made with the persons/organizations related to lac in India through correspondence, phone and personal visit for collection and updation of data. The study is conducted during the year to Questionnaire for collection of data : Five questionnaires were framed for collection of data and information during the field surveys. These were : Survey of lac markets Survey of lac processing centers Crop-wise arrival in the market Survey of imported lac 206 Table 1 : Major lac producing states with markets State District Markets Chhattisgarh Bilaspur Kota and Pendra Dhamtari Janjgir-Champa Kanker Korba Mahasamund Raipur Rajnandgaon Surguja Gatta Silli Sakti Antagarh, Bhanupratapur and Sambalpur Bhaisama Bazar, Hardi Bazar, Katghora, Korvi and Pali Pithora Jharkhand Garhwa Tandwa Madhya Pradesh Gumla Latehar Daltonganj Ranchi Simdega West Singhbhum Balaghat Chhindawada Hosangabad Mandla Seoni Chhura, Mainpur and Udanti Manpur and Mohala-chowki Balrampur and Ramanujganj Palkot and Raidih Chandwa and Latehar Daltonganj Bundu, Hembrom, Jonha, Khunti, Maranghada, Murhu, Soeko and Torpa Bano, Jaldega and Kolebira Bandgaon and Chakradharpur Baraseoni, Katangi, Lalbarra and Langi Damoh Pipariya Bichhia and Nainpur Barghat, Keolari and Khari Maharashtra Gondia Amgaon and Salekasa West Bengal Midnapur Katai and Moina Purulia Jhalda and Kalamati

3 STUDY ON METHODOLOGY FOR ESTIMATION OF LAC PRODUCTION IN INDIA Monthly processing at processing centers Lac production year : April to March Final assessment date : 30 th April Period of data collection : Data and information for estimation of lac production and processing was collected throughout the year. There were four rounds of survey every year. First quarter : April to June Second quarter : July to September Third quarter : October to December Fourth quarter : January to March Sampling and sample size : Lac producing states : Major lac producing states : Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and West Bengal are the five states which contributing around 95 per cent of the national lac production. Minor lac producing states : Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Gujarat, Meghalaya, Orissa and Uttar Pradesh are minor lac producing states of the country contributing around 5 per cent in national lac production. Selection of districts and markets : The number of districts in each state has been selected on the basis of lac production (more than 100 tons per year) for major lac producing states. In case of minor lac producing states important lac producing districts have been selected. Thus the total number of selected districts was 24 and 11 in major and minor lac producing states, respectively. Selection of lac markets has been made on the basis of catchment areas keeping in view that all lac produced in the catchment areas passes through the particular market. In each market 10 per cent of the total number of market functionaries (traders / middlemen) was selected for the survey (The minimum number was 2). The number of markets in each selected district of major lac producing states has been selected on the basis of lac production (more than 50 tons per annum). One main market in main lac producing district of minor lac producing states has also been selected for the lac production estimation purpose. Total 56 lac markets in major lac producing states and 11 lac markets in minor lac producing states have been identified for survey work. Major and minor lac producing states with markets has been presented in Table 1 and 2, respectively. Selection of lac processing centers / secondary markets : Twenty two lac processing centers exist in India in five states. In each lac processing centers/ secondary markets 10 per cent of the total number of processing units was selected for the survey (The minimum number was 1). List of lac processing centers / secondary markets in different states in India have been presented in Table 3. Table 2 : Minor lac producing states with markets State District Markets Andhra Pradesh Adilabad Utnoor Assam Karbi-Anglong Amsoi Bihar Gaya Malichak Gujarat Vadodara Chhotaudepur Orissa Balasore Nilagiri Keonjhar Koraput Mayurbhanj Nabarangpur Sundergarh Telkoi Ramgiri Udla Chandahandi Khandadhar Uttar Pradesh Sonbhadra Doodhi Table 3 : Lac processing centers /secondary markets in different states in India State Lac processing centers Jharkhand West Bengal Chhattisgarh M.P. Maharashtra Bundu, Khunti, Murhu, Chandil, Simdega, Chakaradharpur, Garhwa, Latehar and Daltonganj Balarampur, Jhalda, Howrah and Tulin Kathgora, Pendra, Sakti, Dhamtari, Kanker and Rajnandgaon Indore and Bankedhi Gondia 207

4 GOVIND PAL Export and import data on lac : The following data on export and import of lac and other lac related products was obtained from Directorate General of Commercial Intelligence and Statistics, Kolkata. - Monthly export data on lac in terms of quantity and value, - Monthly import data on lac in terms of quantity and value. Validation of lac production data : The recovery percentage and conversion factors used for validation of lac production data have been presented in Table 4. Lac production data have been validated by using two types of data i.e. quantity of lac processed and quantity of lac export. Validation of lac production by quantity of lac processed : Lac production estimation based on the survey of traders, manufacturers and exporters was validated by quantity of lac processing at national level with a view that quantity of lac processed at national level must be equal to the sum of lac production at national and imported lac in India in a particular year. This method of validation shows that there is variation of 795 tons (2.60 %) in production estimated figures during Validation of lac production by quantity of lac export : Lac production estimation has also been validated by Table 4 : Recovery percentage and conversion factors Items Recovery Items Conversion factor Sticklac to seedlac 56 % Seedlac to sticklac 1.78 Seedlac to shellac 82% shellac to sticklac 2.17 Seedlac to button lac 82% Button lac to sticklac 2.17 Seedlac to DDL 70% DDL to sticklac 2.56 Seedlac to bleach lac 82% Bleach lac to sticklac 2.17 Seedlac to aleuritic acid 15% Aleuritic acid to sticklac Shellac to gasket lac 90 % Gasket lac to sticklac 2.41 Table 5 : Lac production in India (in tons) Name of state Andhra Pradesh Assam Chhattisgarh Gujarat Jharkhand Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Meghalaya Orissa Uttar Pradesh West Bengal Total Table 6 : Amount of sticklac processed in India (in tons) Name of state Chhattisgarh Jharkhand Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra West Bengal Total* * included the quantity of imported lac in India

5 STUDY ON METHODOLOGY FOR ESTIMATION OF LAC PRODUCTION IN INDIA the figures of export, import, national production and internal consumption. Sum of sticklac equivalent quantity of export and sticklac equivalent quantity of internal consumption must be equal to sum of lac production at national level and quantity of imported lac in a particular year. This method of validation shows that there is variation of 5326 tons (17 %) during the lac production year This excess quantity may be available with exporters as stock and carried forward to the next year for export and internal consumption. Lac production in India : On the basis of survey conducted in the markets of different lac producing districts and states, the state-wise annual estimated production of sticklac for the year to have been presented in Table 5. The estimated figures of lac production at national level have been arrived by estimating district-wise and crop-wise lac production. Processing of lac in India : On the basis of survey conducted at different lac processing centers in the country, the state-wise annual estimated processing of sticklac for the year to have been presented in Table 6. The estimated figures of lac processing at national level have been arrived by estimating lac processing at all 22 centers exist in the country. Similar work related to the present topic was also done by Sarkar (2002); Sharan and Sundaram (1956) and Srivastava et al. (2006). Conclusion : The methodology for estimation of lac production and processing has been standardized considering all the lac produced at grower s level moved through the lac markets and lac processing units. The present estimation methodology is based on data and information collected from primary sources. Crop-wise, district-wise and state-wise lac production data are available with the use of present methodology. Reliable, 6t accurate and timely estimation of lac production would be helpful in precision planning by lac growers, lac traders, lac processors, exporters and policy makers. LITERATURE CITED : Anonymous (2013). Agricultural research data book Indian Agricultural Statistics Research Institute, Pusa, NEW DELHI (INDIA). Pal, G. and Bhattacharya, A. (2007). Export and import of lac and its value added products from India during In Nat. Resins & Gums. IINRG Newsletter, 11 (4): 1 (1): 4-5. Roonwal, M.L., Raizada, M.B., Chatterjee, R.N. and Singh, B. (1958). Descriptive account of the host- plant of the lac insect, Kerria lacca (Kerr) and the allied plants in the Indian region (Parts 1). Indian Lac Cess Committee, Ranchi, JHARKHAND (INDIA). Roonwal, M.L. and Singh, B. (1958). Supplementary list of lac host. In: Descriptive account of the host-plants of the lac insect, Kerria lacca (Kerr) and the allied plants in the Indian region (Part 2). Indian Lac Cess Committee, Ranchi, JHARKHAND (INDIA). Sarkar, P.C. (2002). Applications of lac Past, present and emerging trends. In Rec. Adv. Lac Cult., 1 : Sharma, K.K., Ramani, R. and Mishra, Y.D. (1997). An additional list of the host- plants of lac insects, Kerria spp. (Tachardiidae: Homoptera). J. Non-Timber Forest Products, 4(3/4): Sharan, A.K. and Sundaram, P.K. (1956). Production of sticklac in India. In Souvenir Silver Jubilee ( ) of Indian Lac Cess Committee, Ranchi : Srivastava, S., Prasad, D., Saha and Pal, G. (2006). Potential natural pesticides from lac host plants. In : Sustainable insect pest management, Division of Nematology, I.A.R.I., New Delhi Varshney, R.K. and Teotia, T.P.S. (1967). A supplementary list of the host plants of lac insects. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 64(3): h of Excellence 209