1 Module 1: LNG Fuelled Vessels Design Training Dr Evangelos Boulougouris University of Strathclyde
2 Background-Environmental Regulations
3 Trans-European Transport Networks (TEN-T)
4 The aims of TEN-T Interfaces Interoperability Continuity of services Finance transport infrastructure projects
5 Marco Polo
6 European Union s Solution Marco Polo Alleviate congestion and pollution promoting greener modes More than 500 companies approached the programme since 2003 Five categories of projects under the program "Marco Polo Main category designed to switching to other means of transport such as rail or sea Four categories include catalyst actions that promote Motorways of Sea between major ports, actions to avoid traffic which reduce the transport volumes, and common learning actions Further opportunities for funding are available (European Investment Bank-EIB)
7 Motorways of the Sea (MoS)
8 Aims and Results of MoS Aims Extend existing & introduce new intermodal maritime supply chains in Europe Transfer freight transport from road to sea Necessities More efficient than road transport Greater sustainability Results Reduction of road congestion & environmental impact of freight transport Improvement in access to European markets
9 Sea areas selected to be "Motorways" Baltic Southwestern and Southeastern Europe seas Western Europe seas
10 On The MoS Way Network (OTMW-N)
11 Background upcoming regulations on the reduction of CO2 footprint in the shipping industry lead ship owners to search for alternative energy sources and new technologies LNG is a solution as it is a very clean energy source at low price and high safety standards There is a clear need for training and capacities building and interest from the sector's stakeholders
12 Objectives To promote The use of LNG fuel as a cheap and clean fuel for the shipping industry aiming to: Reduce transport cost Meet the tight emission limits The understanding and the appreciation of the pros and cons of LNG s use as a marine fuel Developing a new culture in all the actors (onboard and offshore) to understand their role to the safe operation of LNG fuelled ships To bridge the different perspective that the crew onboard and at the port have, creating a common understanding.
14 Training Modules Module 1: LNG fuelled vessels design training Module 2: Safety of LNG handling on plant, bunkering station and on board vessels (7th September to 11th September 2015-World Maritime University) Module 3: LNG cargo and ballast management training on LCHS simulator (Date tbc- City of Glasgow College) Module 4: Manoeuvring of LNG driven vessel, special conditions and operations (Date tbc- City of Glasgow College) Module 5: Propulsion and power generation training of LNG driven vessel (Date tbc)
15 Module 1 LNG Fuelled Vessels Design Training
16 Contents 1. Background-Environmental Regulations 2. Shipping Industry Overview 3. Compliance Strategies of Owners with the Regulations 4. LNG Supply Chain 5. Design of LNG Fuelled Vessels 6. Case Studies-Existing Vessels Powered with LNG 7. Standards and Guidelines for Natural Gas Fuelled Ship Projects
17 Learning Outcomes Realize the current situation of shipping industry Familiarize with the new environmental measures (regulations) adopted by IMO Introduce the alternative solutions Approach to LNG ship logistics Understand the main principles in design of LNG fuelled vessels Observe the basic alterations in contrast with the conventional vessels Deepen at the operation of alternative parts of LNG fuelled vessels
18 Course Programme
19 IT tools Local Students: In classroom presentations and tutorials Distant Learning Students Use of Spontania for real-time participation to the courses (available for Microsoft, Mac & Android platforms) All lectures will be recorded and uploaded for future use by registered students
20 Instructions for Spontania Local Students: In classroom presentations and tutorials Distant Learning Students Use of Spontania for real-time participation to the courses (available for Microsoft, Mac & Android platforms) Go to using preferably Chrome or Firefox browsers Download the Spontania software and use session ID All lectures will be recorded and uploaded for future use by registered students
21 Troubleshooting Please report any problems at:
22 What is Design?
23 is the visualisation and depiction of form. Design is the mental process which must intervene between the conception of a specific engineering intention and the issue of drawings to the workshop. is the optimum solution to the sum of the true needs of a particular set of circumstances. is a creative, iterative process serving a bounded objective. Engineering Design is the use of scientific principles, technical information and imagination in the definition of a mechanical structure, machine or system to perform pre-specified functions with the maximum economy and efficiency.
24 Design Spiral
25 Different Perspectives Levander (IMDC 2003)
26 Ship Types
27 Owner s Requirements The design of a ship starts with the statement of the owner s requirements Most forward looking owners are basing their requirements on a careful analysis of their needs and/or on market research Can be categorized into: Performance (amount and type of cargo, speed, range etc.) Availability (maintenance policy, reliability etc.) Utility (flexibility/ability to change role, loading/discharging cargo etc.) Cost (initial, running, maintenance etc.)
28 Design of LNG fuelled ship The design of an LNG fuelled ship will come as a requirement from the owner It is going to have a significant impact on the design, altering: The propulsion systems The general arrangement The structure of the ship The stability The endurance The cargo carrying capacity The naval architect will have to adopt the design to the owner s requirements and comply with all the applicable rules and regulations
29 Environmental regulations
30 Emissions from the Shipping Industry The environmental impact of shipping can be divided into five categories: SO X emissions Particulate Matter (PM) emissions NO X emissions CO 2 emissions Waste (solid and liquid waste).
32 Emissions from the Shipping Industry An important part of the global anthropogenic emissions In 2007 about: o 15% in NO X o 9.4% in SO 2 o 2.7% in CO 2 The 2014 IMO study re-estimated CO 2 to 2.2% and global NOx and Sox to 13% and 12% respectively Between 1990 and 2007, emissions of key pollutants (NO X, SO 2, PM) and greenhouse gases (GHGs) (mainly CO 2 ) increased from 585 million tons in 1096 in shipping industry
33 Emissions from the Shipping Industry In 2005 emissions NOX, SO2, PM and CO2 in the Mediterranean Sea were estimated at 2, 1.45, and 87.6 million tons. Mediterranean Sea has 50% higher total emissions from ships compared with other European seas
34 Air Pollution in European Agenda The Convention MARPOL 73/78 of the IMO, is the main International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships. Air pollution is regulated in Annex VI "Regulations for the Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships" (since 2005). More stringent measures adopted by the IMO in relation to SO X and NO X emissions are introduced with the revised Annex VI to MARPOL. The EU in the White Paper on Transport o has set a target to reduce greenhouse gas emissions at least 40% by 2050 (compared to 2005) in absolute terms for the maritime sector o shipping industry should also contribute to the reduction of local and global emissions
35 Air Pollution in European Agenda EU legislation aligned with IMO requirements with Directive 2012/33/EU o stricter sulfur limits for marine fuels (1.00% until December 31, 2014 and 0.10% as of 1 January 2015) o in marine areas outside SECAs (3.50% by June 18, 2014 and initially 0.50% from 1 January 2020*) *depending on the outcome of a review by MEPC, to be concluded in 2018, as to the availability of the required fuel oil, this date could be deferred to 2025
36 Regulations imposing sulfur limits according to Annex VI by MARPOL
37 Programs Concerning Reductions of the Environmental Footprint Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI), is an international directive regulating energy efficiency (new ships) Management Plan of the Energy Performance History (SEEMP), is an international directive on energy efficiency (all ships) Rules of Tier I, Tier II and Tier III for NOx emissions from ship engines
38 Tier I-II-III NOx requirements applies only to newbuildings and is divided into three tiers. Criteria: Date of construction Operational area
39 Upcoming Environmental Regulations for Shipping Industry MBM: Market Based Measures, e.g. the cost of CO2 est $/ton Source: DnV
40 Emission Control Area (ECAs) The introduction at the global level of emission control area (ECA's) is an attempt to address this issue and reduce the environmental footprint of the maritime industry. Stricter requirements for emissions are regulated at specifically defined geographical areas ECA s set for emissions SOx or NOx or both types of emissions from ships
41 Emission Control Area (ECAs) Outside an ECA established to limit SOx and particulate matter emissions Inside an ECA established to limit SOx and particulate matter emissions 4.50% prior to 1 January % prior to 1 July % on and after 1 January % on and after 1 July % on and after 1 January % on and after 1 January 2015
42 Emission Control Area (ECAs) Baltic Sea area o as defined in Annex I of MARPOL (SO x only) North Sea area o as defined in Annex V of MARPOL (SO x only) North American area (entered into effect 1 August 2012) o as defined in Appendix VII of Annex VI of MARPOL (SO x, NO x and PM) United States Caribbean Sea area (entered into effect 1 January 2014) o as defined in Appendix VII of Annex VI of MARPOL (SO x, NO x and PM)
43 Emission Control Area (ECAs)
44 What is LNG?
45 There are two types of Liquid Gas Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Mainly Propane (C 3 H 8 ) and Butane (C 4 H 10 ) Liquefies at ~5 15 C Energy Density = 46.1 MJ/kg / 26 MJ/l Gas is heavier than air Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Mainly Methane (CH 4 ) Liquefies at atmos. Energy Density = 45 MJ/kg / 22.5 MJ/l Gas is lighter than air
46 What is LNG?
47 What is LNG? The last big change (coal to oil) was 100 years ago so LNG is THE NEXT BIG THING
48 LNG in Shipping Is it new? In 1951 Chicago Stockyards (William Wood Prince) make the first experiments in shipping LNG 1954 they built a 5500 cbm LNG river barge with 5 cylindrical balsa lined tanks The barge named Methane carried LNG from Louisiana to Chicago on Mississipi In 1957 Constock (Conoco and Chicago Stockyards) with North Thames Gas Board started an LNG seaborne transportation study and they converted a cargo ship to the Methane Pioneer