CHAPTER 43 CHEMICAL SPILLS AT SEA: CASE STUDIES

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1 CHAPTER 43 CHEMICAL SPILLS AT SEA: CASE STUDIES Michel Marchand Rue Alain Colas, BP 0 43, 9604 BREST (France) 43. MARITIME TRANSPORT OF CHEMICAL PRODUCTS Over the last 0 years there has been considerable development in the transport and handling of hazardous chemical products. Ships that transport chemical products carry a whole range of products that often pose a number of problems and risks in the case of accidents. Hazardous substances can be transported by sea either in bulk or packaged form. Products in bulk are transported either by chemical carriers, as in the case of liquid substances at an ambient, or in some cases elevated, temperature, or by gas carriers if gaseous substances are involved. The capacity of tankers for chemical products varies from 400 m 3 to 40,000 m 3, and tanks vary from 70 m 3 to,000 m 3. The capacity of ships carrying liquefied gases also varies and can reach 00,000 m 3. International construction norms for ships carrying chemical products are defined by the International Maritime Organization: the IBC code for chemical products in bulk (IMO, 998a), the IGC code for liquefied gases in bulk (IMO, 993), and the BC code for solids in bulk (IMO, 998b). The most common chemical products to be transported in bulk can be classified into the following categories: Chemical products made in large quantities, the most common being sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, nitric acid, chlorhydric acid, caustic soda, and ammonia Molasses and alcohols Vegetable oils (e.g., soya, palm nut, sunflower) and animal oils (e.g., lard, fish oils) Petrochemical products, e.g., benzene, xylene, phenol, styrene Coal tar products (e.g., phenol, naphthalene) Annex II of the MARPOL 73/78 Convention deals with pollution caused by hazardous liquid substances transported in bulk. These substances are classified into four categories (A, B, C, D) according to hazards (decreasing) to the marine environment. Regulations imposed on the maritime transport of chemical substances carried in packaged form are described in detail in the IMDG Code, integrated into Annex III of the MARPOL 73/ 78 Convention. The IMDG Code classifies hazardous substances transported by sea into nine classes of products: 43.

2 43. CHAPTER FORTY-THREE. Explosives. Gases 3. Flammable liquids 4. Flammable solids 5. Oxidizing substances and organic peroxides 6. Toxic and infectious materials 7. Radioactive materials 8. Corrosive materials 9. Miscellaneous dangerous substances and articles With regard to the chemical risk involved in transport by sea, many operational guides have been published by various international, regional, and national authorities. Examples of these are the IMO manuals (IMO, 99, 999), the REMPEC (Regional Marine Pollution Emergency Response Centre for the Mediterranean Sea) Manuals (REMPEC, 996, 999), the Helsinki Baltic Sea Convention (HELCOM, 99), the North Sea Bonn Agreement Manual (Bonn Agreement, 994), and other national documents, such as the Dutch-developed ELSA (Emergency Level Scale Procedure) software (Bonn Agreement, 990). 43. METHODOLOGY In the first stage, before studying chemical incidents or accidents, we have taken into consideration statistics on the most frequently accidentally spilled chemical products and facilities available in ports. This was made possible by using the statistical data of the U.S. Coast Guard (U.S. Coast Guard, 999). In the second stage, we collected incidents that were brought to our attention and had occurred in the Bonn Agreement zone. We extended the analysis to other recorded incidents in European waters and elsewhere so as to be able to have enough representative information concerning chemical risks. The framework used, according to the information available, is as follows: Scene of the accident: place and causes Chemical products involved: product(s), type of transport, properties, and hazards Development and organization of response actions: personnel, risk evaluation, plan adopted, and means developed Environmental impact: chemical monitoring and impact on the environment Report: comparison of comments on what should have been done and what was done, the organization of the response actions, the evaluation of the impact, and a general report An almost complete analysis of 3 incidents, according to information available, has been possible. For convenience we have classified them into the following groups according to the type of maritime transport (packaged form or in bulk) and, if products were transported in bulk, according to behavior after being spilled at sea:. Products transported in packaged form. Dissolvers in bulk 3. Floaters in bulk

3 CHEMICAL SPILLS AT SEA: CASE STUDIES Sinkers in bulk 5. Gases or evaporators in bulk These incidents are listed in Table 43.. More details about the incidents are provided in the Appendix STATISTICAL APPROACH The statistical study made by the U.S. Coast Guard (U.S. Coast Guard, 999) in the United States from 99 to 996 lists 43 spills of hazardous substances from ships or port installations, for an average of 85 spills each year. The total of these spills is 7,500 tons, half in sulfuric acid. The nine most frequently spilled products are those that dissolve in water (sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, caustic soda), products that evaporate and dissolve in water (acrylonitrile, vinyl acetate), and petrochemical-based products that float and/ or evaporate (benzene, toluene, xylene, styrene). These are shown in Table 43.. Fifty-four percent of the spills are from ships (mainly carrier barges) and 66% are from facilities (when the spill comes from the facility itself or from a ship in dock). A complementary study made over a period of 3 years (98 to 994) on the 0 most important port zones reports 88 spills of hazardous substances, representing incidents each year. As far as we know, such statistics are not available for Europe or, more specifically, for the area covered by the Bonn Agreement EVENTS AND RISKS Events Most events reported happened at sea while the vessel was moving. Of all the chemical incidents reported (Table 43.), only four happened in port or in nearby zones; the entrance to the port of Zhanjiang (the No. Chung Mu accident in China), in Tokyo Bay (the Yuyo Maru No. 0 accident in Japan), in Rio Grande do Sul (the Bahamas accident in Brazil), and in the Elba River (the Oostzee accident in Germany). The last event was the only one that happened in the Bonn Agreement zone. The conditions of these incidents have been classed into two broad groups, one linked to navigation risks, usually following bad weather conditions causing the loss of part of the cargo, a shipwreck, or a collision, the second linked to an initial internal event on board ship, such as fire, a faulty structure onboard, or a false maneuver (the ballast of the ship, the stowage of the cargo, even the deliberate dumping of substances). The main elements of these conditions ( cases reported out of the 3 treated) are summarized in Table The difference between the two types of maritime transport, transport in packaged form (38% of incidents) and transport in bulk (6% of incidents), can be seen in the table. Bad weather conditions and the resulting consequences (3 cases out of, 6%) are the main causes of incidents including, in order of importance, ship collisions (5 cases), shipwrecks (3 cases), grounding (3 cases), and loss of cargo during navigation ( cases) Risks Broadly speaking, there are two types of risks involved in chemical incidents, which, to some extent, are independent of the type of maritime transport of the products, whether

4 43.4 CHAPTER FORTY-THREE TABLE 43. Summary of Chemical Incidents at Sea Name of ship Year Chemical products Country Maritime zone. Products transported in package Sinbad 979 Chlorine Holland North Sea Cason 987 Sodium, aniline, creosol, Spain Atlantic diphenyl methane diisocyanate Perintis 989 Lindane France Channel Oostzee 989 Epichlorhydrin Germany North Sea Elba River Ariel 99 White spirit Holland North Sea Sherbro 993 Pesticides France Channel/ North Sea Rosa M 997 Hazardous materials France Channel Apus 998 Flammable solids Holland North Sea (fire-lighters) Ban-Ann 998 Sulfur-phosphine Holland North Sea Ever Decent 999 Hazardous materials Great Britain North Sea. Dissolvers in bulk Anna Broere 988 Acrylonitrile (DE) Holland North Sea Dodecylbenzene (F) Alessandro Primo 99 Acrylonitrile (DE) Italy Mediterranean Dichloroethane (SD) Panam Perla 998 Sulfuric acid (D) Atlantic Bahamas 998 Sulfuric acid (D) Brazil Atlantic 3. Floaters in bulk Lindenbank 975 Coconut oil (F) Hawaii Pacific Kimya 99 Sunflower oil (F) Great Britain North Sea Grape One 993 Xylene (FE) Great Britain Channel No. Chung Mu 995 Styrene (FE) China China Sea Allegra 997 Palm nut oil (F) France Channel 4. Sinkers in bulk Norafrakt 99 Lead sulfur (S) Holland North Sea Fenes 996 Wheat (S) France Mediterranean 5. Gases or evaporators in bulk Yuyo Maru No Propane (G) Butane Naphtha Japan Tokyo Bay Ascania 999 Vinyl acetate (ED) Great Britain North Sea (D): dissolver; (DE): dissolver that evaporates; (ED): evaporator that dissolves; (F): floater; (FE): floater that evaporates; (G): gas; (S): sinker; (SD): sinker that dissolves.

5 CHEMICAL SPILLS AT SEA: CASE STUDIES 43.5 TABLE 43. Accidental Spills of Hazardous Substances (U.S.A., ). Total: 43 spills Frequently spilled products Sulfuric acid Toluene Caustic soda Benzene Styrene Acrylonitrile Xylene Vinyl acetate Phosphoric acid Number of spills Behavior classification D FE D E FE DE FE FD D (D): dissolver; (DE): dissolver that evaporates; (E): evaporator; (FD): floater that dissolves; (FE): floater that evaporates. carried in bulk or in packaged form. These are risks involving the personnel (crew, response personnel, the local population) and the environment. Risks that affect human health come from reactive substances (reactivity with air or water or between the products themselves) and toxic substances. Maximum hazard was clearly shown in the grounding of the Cason (Spain, 987), following a fire on board the ship, which was carrying a number of toxic and strongly reactive flammable substances (reactivity of sodium, which in contact with water forms highly flammable hydrogen gas) and whose product identification and classification (IMDG Code) were unknown during the first few hours after the accident. The evaluation of the chemical risks of ships in difficulty when they are carrying diverse hazardous materials is also a priority in certain incidents, such as the Rosa M (France, 997), and the Ever Decent (Great Britain, 999). Certain substances that are transported in large quantities can pose very serious risks to human health. Cylinders ( ton each) of chlorine, a highly reactive, toxic, and corrosive gas lost by the Sinbad (Holland, 979) are an example of the problems involved in transport in TABLE 43.3 Origins of Chemical Incidents Causes of incidents Transport in packaged form Transport in bulk Total Bad weather conditions Navigation and loss of cargo Grounding Shipwreck Collision Incident on board ship Fire Faulty construction False maneuvers a Deliberate dumping 0 3 a Arrival of the cargo, pumping operation, ballast balancing.

6 43.6 CHAPTER FORTY-THREE packaged form. Fumes of epichlorhydrin leaking from the damaged drums on the Oostzee (Germany, 989) seriously damaged the health of the ship s crew; as several years later cases of cancer, probably linked to the incident, were diagnosed in several people, some of whom died soon after. As far as transport in bulk is concerned, four types of products must be noted as being particularly reactive and hazardous. Acrylonitrile (Alessandro Primo, Italy, 99; Anna Broere, Holland, 988) is a toxic product, both flammable and explosive (it may polymerize spontaneously). Styrene (No. Chung Mu, China, 995) can polymerize in the form of a violent exothermic reaction. Leakages of sulfuric acid on board ship (Panam Perla, Atlantic, 998; Bahamas, Brazil, 998) cause risks to the ships themselves, diluted acid being much more corrosive to steel than concentrated acid. A mixture of acid with water also gives off explosive hydrogen. Vinyl acetate is a flammable and polymerizable plasticizing product; in the case of the Multitank Ascania incident (Great Britain, 999), the exclusion zone was evaluated as km long and km wide. Hazards to the environment are varied, especially when there is a loss of pesticide products, as in the case of almost 00,000 packages of thiocarbamate (Sherbro, France, 993), which drifted from the coast of France to the coasts of Belgium, Holland, and Germany; the loss of a container of 5 tons of lindane (Perintis, France, 989); and a spill of,600 tons of lead sulfur (Nordfrakt, Germany, 99) resulting in an input of lead equal to the global amount of the metal over the whole of the North Sea. Substances considered as nonpollutants such as vegetable oils (Lindenbank, Hawaii, 975; Kimya, Great Britain, 99; Allegra, France, 997) can also lead to the mortality of certain marine species in the environment with coating of feathers of birds, or skin of mammals, or to disturbances affecting the use of local amenities. Even a substance as inoffensive as wheat, a food product (Fenes, France, 997), can cause risks. Wheat fermentation in the marine environment, in an anoxic environment, results in the release of hydrogen sulfide (H S), a highly toxic gas which makes it necessary for intervening personnel to wear protective masks on the site RESPONSE ACTIONS AND CONCLUSIONS Response actions taken during reported events obviously differ according to the conditions of the incidents or accidents, the offending chemical products, and the risks involved. It is possible, however, to show a certain number of significant or specific elements in all chemical incidents at sea. Information concerning the ship s cargo and an evaluation of chemical risks are of primary importance before any operational decision is made, especially when the ship is carrying a wide variety of chemical products in packaged form. Information concerning the cargo is not always immediately available, as shown in the case of the Cason (Spain) and, to a lesser extent, in the case of the Ever Decent (Great Britain). The method of loading the containers is also to be taken into account although the rules are not always respected (Rosa M, France). The evaluation of the chemical risk involved is an essential element which can rely on national chemical emergency centres (Multitank Ascania, Great Britain) and on direct cooperation with the chemical industry (Sherbro, France; Sindbad, Holland). The establishment of a specialized intervention team to deal with chemical risks was underlined by the incident of the Multitank Ascania (Great Britain) and has been recommended since the incident of the Rosa M (France). Initial response action can be carried out by the ship s crew, whose effectiveness depends on their professional competence and that of the captain. It may be excellent, as seen during the Multitank Ascania (Great Britain) incident before they abandoned ship, or a disaster, as seen in the incident during the unloading of the sulfuric acid from the Bahamas (Brazil).

7 CHEMICAL SPILLS AT SEA: CASE STUDIES 43.7 Outside response action varies. A number of incidents (Multitank Ascania, Great Britain; Rosa M, France) show the importance of action taken during emergency towing. Delays in the transporting of means of intervention and bad weather conditions can seriously affect the efficiency of previously planned operations (Cason, Spain). In a port, the facilities required to lighten the weight of a chemical carrier in difficulty, whether onshore or onboard, are not always foreseen, as shown in the transfer of a cargo of sulfuric acid from the Bahamas (Brazil). Specific or nonspecific tools used in chemical incidents are also mentioned. Different ways of dispersing a chemical pollutant in water and in air are used to evaluate risks to human health (air) and impact on the environment (water) (Anna Broere, Holland; Alessandro Primo, Italy) as well as the different ways in which floating objects or products drift (Sherbro, France; Allegra, France). Remote sensing with sensors normally used for detecting oil slicks is also effective when following drifts of vegetable oil (Allegra, France). An evaluation of the state of the shipwreck (Alessandro Primo, Italy) or a search for spilled products, such as cylinders of chlorine (Sindbad, Holland) can be undertaken by underwater remote control vehicles or by sound. Fires on board chemical carriers necessitate certain safety measures, taking into account the risk of explosion. An evaluation of hot points shown by an infrared (IR) camera was used during the incident of the Multitank Ascania (Great Britain). Intervention onboard a ship in difficulty involves a large quantity of equipment, often very specialized, and including protective clothing, the monitoring of any contamination, information concerning emergency procedures, and the organization of means of evacuation (Anna Broere, Holland; Alessandro Primo, Italy). The efficiency of the response action depends on the competence of each member of the personnel involved and the coordination of the actions taken. The experience gained during the intervention operation on the shipwrecked Anna Broere (Holland) to recover acrylonitrile proved to be useful some three years later during a similar operation, after the Alessandro Primo (Italy) shipwreck. The organization of the crisis of the Multitank Ascania (Great Britain) incident was made much easier by an antipollution exercise on chemical risks that had been practiced two weeks earlier. Time involved in the operations can vary from to 3 months (Anna Broere, Holland; Cason, Spain; Alessandro Primo, Italy), 8 months (Fenes, France), 0 months (Bahamas, Brazil), or several years, as in the case of research carried out on sunken cargo (Sinbad, Holland). Communication is extremely important during chemical incidents, first on an operational level, between different personnel involved (the refusal of dialogue between the captain of the Bahamas (Brazil) and the port authorities had a disastrous effect compared with the initial incident), and secondly with the public, who are always very anxious about chemical risks. The Cason (Spain) and to a lesser extent the Rosa M (France) are examples of what happens when communication is poor. Toxic effects of a chemical incident can be extremely harmful to intervening personnel during the intervention phase (wheat fermentation and the production of hydrogen sulfide (H S) during the recovery operation of the cargo of the Fenes, France), in the long term it may involve medical monitoring over several years (exposure of the crew of the Oostzee, Germany, to toxic fumes of epichlorhydrin). Impact on the environment necessitates a monitoring of the quality of the environment and a study of the eventual effects on the flora and fauna, as in the long-term monitoring of a toxic substance spill (Cason, Spain; Perintis, France). This is equally necessary for substances considered nonpollutants, such as vegetable oils (Kimya, Great Britain). Indirect effects on the environment must also be considered as in the remobilization of toxic metals absorbed in sediments because of a decrease in ph caused by an acid spill (Bahamas, Brazil) or the production of hydrogen sulfide as a consequence of wheat fermentation by sulfatereducing bacteria (Fenes, France).

8 APPENDIX Conditions of Reported Incidents, Risks Involved, and Operational Action Ship Events Chemical products Risks Action Reports Transport in packaged form Sinbad* (979 Holland) Cason (987 Spain) Perintis* (989 France) 43.8 Loss of part of the cargo at sea during bad weather conditions. Fire on board ship. Grounding on the coast. Shipwreck during a storm. Loss of 5 cylinders of chlorine ( ton each). A number of hazardous substances including diphenyl methane diisocyanate (MDI) orthocresol, aniline, sodium. Transport of pesticides, lindane: (5.8 tons), permethrine (.0 tons), cypermethrine (0.6 tons). Loss of lindane containers during towing. Risks involved in the recovery of the cylinders in fishermen s trawler nets. Product toxic, harmful to human health (inhalation) and reactive, producing a corrosive acid with water. Cargo initially unknown, products toxic to the environment and harmful to human health, reactive products leading to explosive reactions. Contamination of the environment. Locating by sound and rapid recovery of 7 cylinders of chlorine. Recovery of 5 other cylinders by fishermen (lack of safety measures). Search five years later for other cylinders: 7 found and destroyed in the zone (unacceptable risk involved in a recovery exercise due to corrosion). Thirteen cylinders still missing. European cooperation (task force) and IMO expertise for identification of the cargo. Plans to unload hazardous materials from the ship hampered by bad weather conditions and fire on board. The operation necessitated three months work. Monitoring of water and air contamination. Evacuation of the local population. Search (unsuccessful) for a lindane container. Immediate recovery, by the British MPCU, of drums of permethrine and cypermethrine found near the wreck. Surveillance of the contamination of the marine environment in the zone where the container was presumed lost. Search for lost cargo in the zone. Operation carried out over several years (five years). Destruction of chlorine cylinders in the zone. Difficulty in evaluating risks involved without having any immediate information concerning the cargo. Delay in transporting intervention equipment to the site. Intervention operation hampered by bad weather conditions. Communication with the public. Franco-British cooperation. Cooperation on a national level between operational personnel (Navy, Cedre, Ifremer, etc.)

9 APPENDIX Conditions of Reported Incidents, Risks Involved, and Operational Action Ship Events Chemical products Risks Action Reports Transport in packaged form 43.9 Oostzee* (989 Germany) Ariel* (99 Holland) Sherbro* (993 France) Rosa M* (997 France) Apus* (998 Holland) Ban-Ann* (998 Holland) Bad stowing and deterioration of drums because of bad weather conditions. Incident on the Elba River. Loss of drums at sea (cause unknown)loss of 45 drums of white spirit when ship grounded on the coastline. Loss of 88 containers after bad weather conditions at sea. Ship in trouble (listing more than 0 ), after a fault in the balancing of the ballast. Loss of a trailer on board a ferry. Deliberate dumping of packets of chemical products at sea. Epichlorhydrin leakage from damaged drums. Contamination of the environment from drum leakages. 0 containers of hazardous materials, mainly pesticides, including thiocarbamate (Apron Plus) (88,000 packets). 70 tons of hazardous materials (liquid gases, flammable solids, corrosive substances, and oxidized substances). Loss of a trailer s container of,00 boxes of fire lighters, grounded on the coastline. Packets of an active product containing sulfurphosphine (Detia-Ex-B) used against vermin. Toxic substance (fumes) of a carcinogenic nature. A flammable product. Recovery of drums grounded on the coastline. Grounding of packets along the French, Dutch, and German coasts. A danger to the environment and a product which reacts with water, forming a toxic gas (phosphine). Intervention work on board ship during a potential chemical risk. Product harmful to human health (ureumformaldehyde). Pollution on the environment (kerosene). Reactive product, reacting to humidity and causing a toxic gas. Inspection of the ship, the crew taken to hospital for medical checks. Towing and unloading of the ship in safe conditions. Cleaning operation on board. Unloading of badly stowed containers in the port of Brest. Special storage (under tarpaulin) of containers of hazardous materials classified 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8, while respecting the compatibility of the products. Calculation of the drifting of 5 containers lost at sea. Three containers of pesticides were spilled at sea, 9% recovered on beaches in France, Germany, and Holland. Information concerning the type of cargo on board. Towing and voluntary grounding of the ship outside the port zone (Cherbourg). Water pumped from the ballast to rebalance the ship correctly. Recovery of fire lighters over several m 3 of sand on the beaches. Costs reimbursed by the ship s owner. Recovery and destruction of packets grounded on the coastline. Proceedings taken against the ship s owner and captain. Long-term effects (toxic fumes) on the crew (several years). Cooperation between the countries concerned. Technical advice from the chemical industry. Cooperation of personnel during the operation to ensure the safety of unloading the ship. Rapid towing of the ship in difficulty. Need for a specialized team to evaluate chemical risks involved.

10 APPENDIX Conditions of Reported Incidents, Risks Involved, and Operational Action (Continued) Ship Events Chemical products Risks Action Reports Ever Decent* (999 Great Britain) Collision of a container ship with a liner. Fire on-board the container ship. A number of containers of hazardous materials, especially cyanide, organic lead, and pesticides. Chemical risk from fire on board ship. Towing. Fire fighting. Control of air contamination (fear of cyanide). Difficulty in knowing the exact type of cargo. Transport in bulk dissolvers Anna Broere* (988 Holland) Alessandro Primo (99 Italy) Panam Perla (998 Atlantic) 43.0 Collision with another ship. Shipwreck as the result of a storm. Incident on board ship, tank no longer watertight. Acrylonitrile (547 tons) (DE) Dodecylbenzene (500 tons) (F) Acrylonitrile (549 barrels) (DE). Dichloroethane (3,03 tons) (SD). Sulfuric acid (00 tons) (D). Risks linked to acrylonitrile (cf. above). Acrylonitrile toxic product, flammable and explosive. Gives off toxic fumes (HCN) in the event of fire. Dichloroethane: product harmful to human health. Corrosive product, reactive with water with a risk of ignition and explosion (formation of hydrogen). Harmful to human health, adverse effect on the environment Establishing of a safety perimeter (0 miles for navigation, 300 m for air transport). Unsuccessful attempts to lift the ship. Ship cut into two and cargo lightened. Environmental monitoring during the whole operation. Work done is under safe conditions (protective clothing, chemical control). Localization of the wreck ( 08 m) by a remote control underwater vehicle. Beginning of a cargo recovery operation two months after the accident (priority given to the acrylonitrile). Total time of the operation: three months. Recovery of 900 tons of acrylonitrile,,750 tons of dichloroethane, and 50 tons of water for cleaning. Recovery operation involving pumping the acid (00 tons) from the double hull. Operation completed one week after being told of the leakage. Neutralization of acid lost (3.4 tons) by bicarbonate. Time involved in the complex operation: two months. Effective cooperation between various teams of intervention personnel. Advantages from a past experience (the Anna Broere shipwreck). Maximum safety recovery work (fire alarms, emergency training of intervention personnel, protective clothing, and medical and evacuation services on site). Speed of operations carried out.

11 APPENDIX Conditions of Reported Incidents, Risks Involved, and Operational Action (Continued) Ship Events Chemical products Risks Action Reports Transport in bulk dissolvers Bahamas (998 Brazil) Incident on board ship (error in the manipulation of the pumping system during unloading) culminating in abandoning ship. Sulfuric acid (,700 tons) (D). (Cf. above). An internal crisis on board ship was kept secret, resulting in a catastrophe. No means of stocking the diluted acid (very corrosive) on land or on another ship, neutralization impossible because no basic neutralizing agent was available. Cargo slowly pumped and dumped in the port as the tide was going out with a chemical monitoring of ph. Court order to dump the cargo out at sea (operation to lighten the weight using another chemical carrier):,000 tons of acid. Towing and scuttling in international waters. Total time of the incident: 0 months. Initial errors leading to a crisis linked to the ship s dilapidated condition (8 years old) and to the incompetence of the crew. Lack of communication with the port authorities. Need for a local port structure and an emergency plan to treat chemical incidents. Impact on the environment: direct and indirect impact by the reactivation of toxic metals absorbed in the sediment. 3 Transport in bulk floaters Lindenbank (975 Hawaii) Kimya* (99 Great Britain) Grape One* (993 Great Britain) No. Chung Mu (995 China) 43. Grounding on an atoll. Stranding during a storm. Fault on board ship (ballast) and shipwreck. Collision with another ship at the entrance of the port of Zhanjang. Coconut oil (8,000 tons) (F) and other food products. Sunflower oil (,500 tons) (F). Xylene (3,04 tons) (FE). Spill of 30 tons of styrene (FE). Impact on the environment. Impact on the environment. Weak, but very flammable pollutant. Reactive product (exothermic polymerization), flammable, and irritant. Impact on the environment (fishing and marine culture produce). Raising of the ship stranded on a coral reef. Unloading of 8,000 tons of cargo in the water. Raising of the ship. Crew evacuated and winched to safety. Ship stranded and shipwrecked with the cargo in the Channel. Attempt to limit the leakage and to stop the spill by using dams. Organoleptic tests carried out on fishing produce. Environmental monitoring of species affected by the pollution. Impact on the environment due to a layer of coconut oil. Environmental monitoring confirms the impact of such a spill on an intertidal environment. Intervention to seal a nonprotected hole (diving equipment adapted).

12 APPENDIX Conditions of Reported Incidents, Risks Involved, and Operational Action (Continued) Ship Events Chemical products Risks Action Reports Allegra* (997 France) Collision with another ship in the Channel due to foggy weather. Palm nut oil (700 tons) (F). Impact on the environment. Monitoring of the stranding of the product at sea (observation by air and by sea). Recovery of oil residues on the coast ( tons). Franco-British cooperation. Positive use of remote sensing. 4 Transport in bulk sinkers Nordfrakt* (99 Germany) Fenes (996 France) Shipwreck due to the displacement of the cargo. Grounding. Lead sulfur (,600 tons) (S). Loss of,600 tons of wheat (S). Impact on the environment. Wheat fermentation. Intoxication risk of gaseous fermentation products (H S) on intervention personnel. Raising of the wreck and its cargo. Pumping of the ship s fuel and oil. Pumping of the cargo (wheat), dumped over 0 m on the sea bed; transferred onto a barge and reimmersed into the sea to very low depths. Displacing the shipwreck. Total time of the operation: eight months. Toxic risk (hydrogen sulfide) linked to the fermentation of wheat in the sea, necessitating protective clothing (masks) during personnel intervention. 5 Transport in bulk gases or evaporators 43. Yuyo Maru No. 0 (974 Japan) Multitank Ascania* (999 Great Britain) Collision in Tokyo Bay. Fire on board ship due to bad weather conditions. Propane, butane, naphtha (G). Vinyl acetate (,750 tons) (ED). Flammable gaseous products. Flammable and polymerizable product, natural product possibly carcinogenic. Towing and anchoring out at sea in Tokyo Bay. Ship caught on fire. Evacuation of the crew because of a fire on board ship. Ship stranded at least half a mile from the coast. Establishment of a temporary 5 km exclusion zone, necessitating the evacuation of 00 inhabitants. Reconnaissance by helicopter of the hot spots on board ship (risk of explosion) using the ship s IR camera. Towed by a tug. Advantages of a chemical exercise two weeks earlier. Positive action taken by the crew before abandoning ship. Importance of an intervention team in times of chemical risks. Importance of the disposal of emergency towing equipment. (D): dissolver; (DE): dissolver that evaporates; (ED): evaporator that dissolves; (F): floater; (FE): floater that dissolves; (G): gas; (S): sinker; (SD): sinker that dissolves.

13 CHEMICAL SPILLS AT SEA: CASE STUDIES REFERENCES Bonn Agreement Introduction of the Emergency Level Scale Procedure for Accidental Spills, in 0th Meeting of BAWG OTSOPA, Brussels, January 6 9 Bonn Agreement Working Group OTSOPA, London. Bonn Agreement Bonn Agreement: Counter-Pollution Manual, ed. Bonn Agreement, London. Helsinki Baltic Sea Convention (HELCOM). 99. Manual on Co-operation in Combating Marine Pollution within the Framework of the Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area, 974 (Helsinki Convention), vol. 3, Response to Incidents Involving Chemicals. International Maritime Organization (IMO). 99. Manual on Chemical Pollution, Section, Search and Recovery of Packaged Goods Lost at Sea, IMO, London. International Maritime Organization (IMO) International Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Liquefied Gases in Bulk (IGC Code), IMO, London. International Maritime Organization (IMO). 998a. International Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk (IBC Code), IMO, London. International Maritime Organization (IMO). 998b. Code of Safe Practice for Solid Bulk Cargoes (BC Code), IMO, London. International Maritime Organization (IMO) Manual on Chemical Pollution, Section, Problem Assessment and Response Arrangements, IMO, London. Regional Marine Pollution Emergency Response Centre for the Mediterranean Sea (REMPEC) Compendium of Notes on Preparedness and Response to Maritime Pollution Emergencies Involving Hazardous Substances, REMPEC, IMO, and UNEP, Malta. Regional Marine Pollution Emergency Response Centre for the Mediterranean Sea (REMPEC) Practical Guide for Marine Chemical Spills, REMPEC, IMO, and UNEP, Malta. U.S. Coast Guard Most Spills Near Gulf; Most Spillage Inland; Most Were Acid, Hazardous Substances Spill Report, vol., no. 8, April.