Solar PV System with Grid Interconnections and Inc MPPT Control

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1 Solar PV System with Grid Interconnections and Inc MPPT Control Harinder Singh * ; Ankita Rani * ; Krishan Arora ** * M.Tech Scholar, ** Assistant Professor, School of Electronics & Electrical Engineering, Lovely Professional University, Punjab, India Abstract: Solar PV cells are in field of energy from a long time now. But, in recent years their utilisation increases rapidly in commercial field or to say commercial aspect. The technology gets its advancement and also the fossil fuels are reducing day by day so it further enhances their cause of using solar power. But still, a lot to do with into this field. Like we have a major obstacle in the form of detection of maximum power output from a PV cell. Some techniques of high peak power transfer are discussed into the literature for same. P&O and incremental conductance (I.C) are some of MPPT techniques are discussed. Keywords: INC (incremental conductance), PV array, Simulink model. I. INTRODUCTION In present world, as the consumption of power is increasing day by day. So, research for obtain renewable energy is also growing. The energy obtained from the renewable energy sources are future energy sources as the fossil fuel are limited. A lot of researches are made in past year in development and enhancement of power system which are depends on sea, wind,solar power etc. Into all of these the sun s energy is used as most reliable.another benefit is that this energy is environment friendly. Although these type of systems have high initial costs and minimum efficiency. To overcome these situations PV panels are used at their maximum power tracking capabilities. This technology is good option as due to low maintenance requirement, eco-friendly and no pollution and fuel costs. The efficiency of PV generation units is low as PV cells are exhibits to non-linear voltage vs. current character tics. Non linearity like panel temperature and solar insolation are included [2]. This non linearity s are used to make algorithms and by which PV array give quick response & extract the maximum power results into efficient operation. In addition place in places with no alternative different use, like deserts and roofs, or prove to the electricity for remote locations, where the electricity done not any network. The latter kind of installations has understood off-grid facilities and customarily the foremost economical completely different to get electricity within the isolated areas. Hence, most of the PV power generation takes place from the grid-connected installations, where facility could feed at intervals electricity network. Actually, it's the expansion of business within the developed countries like Federal Republic of Germany that in 2010 is out and away the world leader within the PV current generation which will be followed by state, USA, Japan and Italia [3]. II. MPPT(MAXIMUM POWER POINT TRACKING) The solar power modules can be operated at maximum power they are capable of production. So, we need some system that may help to track the ISSN: Page 377

2 maximum power of a module. This technique is known as MPPT. Main point of this is that it is a electronic based system that not physically move the module like in mechanical tracker. This will enhance output electrical power of PV module by variation into electrical operating point of system by this mean a additive power is generated which increases battery charge current.we also use MPPT in addition of some other tracking system.but both may completely different. conversation. This process works as same amount of power can be exchange by different level of current and voltage. Same technique is used to have a high current output and battery voltage as a operating level voltage. Until the controller voltage is higher than battery voltage by 5% or more than the output current of array will be higher than input. Solar panels has ability to extract most of power with the help of MPPT. Main principle that is employed is given as this algorithm will change PV array operating voltage to battery level voltage and enhance the output current of system. So, we know that into this technique there is not any movement of the PV array. This technique will lower down the voltage and enhance the current. The output of the array is stabilized by a process called DC to DC Vin Vout Solar Array Iin MPPT Iout Power Supply Figure. 1 : Basic Block Diagram Basic solar cell equations is given by, Where, K Ki Botlzmann s constatnt, 1.38*10-19 J/K S/C current temp coefficient at I scr ISSN: Page 378

3 Q Electron charge.1.6*10-23 C ƛ Solar irradiation in W/m 2 Iscr Short circuit current at 25 0 Celsius I lg Light generated current E go Band gap for silicon A Ideality factor T r Reference temperature I or Cell saturation current at Tr R sh Shunt resistance R s Series resistance Figure 2 : Equivelant PV Cell III. INCREMENTAL CONDUCTANCE MPPT The voltage change is taken into consideration by measuring incremental change of array current and voltage. This is quite efficient method rather than P&O but the requirement of computation is quite high into this method. This may generate oscillations into output power. The comparison of incremental conductance to array is done if outcome is same then error signal is zero and point is MPP. ISSN: Page 379

4 Figure 3: Incremental conductance The incremental conductance algorithm gives a better tracking efficiency, control over power and very high response by changing automatically to maximum power point by using the previous power point and by comparing the value then the power point will automatically shift to that point thereby sensing intelligently and by the use power electronics now-a-days everything will be done by reducing the losses to a minimal range and very reliable in operation. IV. SIMULATION CIRCUIT Figure 4: Simulation model of MPPT Array using Incremental Conductance ISSN: Page 380

5 V. RESULTS AND FINDINGS Figure 5 : Output of boost converter In Figure 5, author has seen the fluctuations due to change into the irradiations into the atmospheric conditions. Response of system can be improved by using some advance MPPT such as the modified neural MPPT algorithm. Figure 6 : Output voltage waveform of inverter From Figure 6, author has observed that voltage reaches to very high value before 0.1 second and decreases after 0.1 second. At 0.5 second the value again increases and then settles down before 0.6 second. After that the voltage is approximately sinusoidal. ISSN: Page 381

6 CONCLUSION This work gives approach of using INC technique to solve MPPT problem into PV array that is connected to grid. The output of the PV array is quite better in terms of voltage. Required model for adaptive INC algorithm is designed. Further we improve this response by using some advance technique with low down THD of given output. REFERENCES [1] TrishanEsram and Patrick L.Chapman, Comparison of Photovoltaic Array Maximum Power Point Tracking Techniques, IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, Vol. 22, No. 2, June [2] Hung-I Hsieh, Jen-Hao Hsieh, et al., A Study of High- Frequency Photovoltaic Pulse Charger for Lead-Acid Battery Guided by PI-INC MPPT. [3] K.H. Hussein, I. Muta, T. Hoshino and M. Osakada, Maximum photovoltaic power tracking:an algorithm for rapidly changing atmospheric conditions, IEEEploc.-Gener. Transmission and Distribution, Vol. 142, No. 1, Jan [4] C.Thulasiyammal and S Sutha, An Efficient Method of MPPT Tracking System of a Solar Powered Uninterruptible Power Supply Application, 1st International Conference on Electrical Energy Systems, [5] NoppadolKhaehintung and PhaophakSirisuk, Application of Maximum Power Point Tracker with Self-organizing Weight tuning Controller for Solarpowered Traffic Lights, IEEE, [6] C. S. Chin, P. Neelakantan, et al., Weight tuning Based MPPT for Photovoltaic Modules Influenced by Solar Irradiation and Cell Temperature, UKSim 13th International Conference on Modelling and Simulation, [7] PanomPetchjatuporn, PhaophakSirisuk, et al., A Solarpowered Battery Charger with Meta-heuristic approach Maximum Power Point Tracking Implemented on a Low-Cost PIC-microcontroller. [8] S. Yuvarajan and JulineShoeb, A Fast and Accurate Maximum Power Point Tracker for PV Systems, IEEE, [9] Prof.Dr.IlhamiColak, Dr.ErsanKabalci and Prof.Dr.GungorBal, Parallel DCAC Conversion System Based on Separate Solar Farms with MPPT Control, 8th International Conference on Power Electronics - ECCE Asia, The ShillaJeju, Korea, May 30-June 3, [10] S. G. Tesfahunegn, O. Ulleberg, et al., A simplified battery charge controller for safety and increased utilization in standalone PV applications, IEEE, [11] Yuncong Jiang, Ahmed Hassan, EmadAbdelkarem and Mohamed Orabi, Load Current Based Analog MPPT Controller for PV Solar Systems, IEEE, [12] ArashShafiei, AhmadrezaMomeni and Sheldon S. Williamson, A Novel Photovoltaic Maximum Power Point Tracker for Battery Charging Applications, IEEE, [13] Ali F Murtaza, Hadeed Ahmed Sher, et al., A Novel Hybrid MPPT Technique for Solar PV Applications Using Perturb & Observe and Fractional Open Circuit Voltage Techniques. [14] Weidong Xiao, Nathan Ozog and William G. Dunford, Topology Study of Photovoltaic Interface for Maximum Power Point Tracking, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 54, No. 3, June [15] Jun Pan, Chenghua Wang and Feng Hong, Research of Photovoltaic Charging System with Maximum Power Point Tracking, The Ninth International Conference on Electronic Measurement & Instruments ICEMI, ISSN: Page 382