Biowaste 4 SP. Senior Scientist Ph.D. Anne-Belinda Bjerre

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1 Biowaste 4 SP Senior Scientist Ph.D. Anne-Belinda Bjerre

2 Biowaste for SP new EU project with partners from EU, Africa and Malaysia Program for Food, Agriculture and Fisheries, and Biotechnology Proposal full title: Processing of biowaste for sustainable products in developing countries Proposal acronym: Biowaste4SP Type of funding scheme: Specific International Cooperation Actions (SICA) Work Progr. topics addressed: KBBE : Conversion of biowaste in developing countries Name of the coordinating person: Dr. Anne-Belinda Bjerre Danish Technological Institute (DTI), Denmark

3 Partners in Biowaste4SP Participant nr. Participant organization name Participant Short name Org Type Country 1 Danish Technological Institute DTI Research Denmark 2 Swedish Environmental Research Institute IVL Research Sweden 3 TÜBİTAK Marmara Research Center TUBITAK Research Turkey 4 SIRIM Berhad SIRIM Research Malaysia 5 Council for Scientific and Industrial Research Institute of Industrial Research (CSIR-IIR) CSIR-GH Research Ghana 6 Council for Scientific and Industrial Research CSIR-ZA Research South Africa 7 Agricultural Research Centre ARC Research Egypt 8 University of Siena UNISI University Italy 9 Hassan II Institute of Agronomy and IAV Research Morocco Veterinary Medicine 10 Danish Technical University DTU University Denmark 11 Ethekwini Municipality ETM Public South Africa 12 Myagri Group of Companies MYAGRI SME Malaysia 13 BioVelop AB BV SME Sweden 14 Moroccan Association for Solid Waste AMADES NGO Morocco 15 African Institute for Capacity Development AICAD Research Kenya 16 World Association of Industrial and Technological research Organizations WAITRO NGO Malaysia

4 About Africa Africa is the world's second largest continent, and one of the world s fastest growing markets. Africa is the world's second-largest and second mostpopulous continent, after Asia: 30.2 million km² (11.7 million sq meters) including adjacent islands Africa covers about 5% of the Earth's total surface area and 20% of the total land area. Africa accounts for almost 15% of the World's human population: With almost a billion people led by Nigeria (135mil), Egypt (80mil), Ethiopia (76mil), Congo-Kinshasa (65mil) and South Africa (44mil). There are an estimated 2,000 languages spoken across the continent.

5 African agriculture accounts for about percent of Africa s GNP. Africa accounted for only 2 percent of world fertilizer consumption in 2003/04. Total fertilizer nutrient consumption in Africa increased with 4.3 percent. Nitrogen consumption increased with 3 percent and phosphate and potash consumption increased with 5.6 and 6 percent respectively. Although Africa comprises 58 countries, fertilizer consumption continues to be mainly restricted to 10 countries and nitrogen and phosphate fertilizer production capacity exists in only 8 countries. The main consumers in the region are Egypt, South Africa and Morocco. Total fertilizer consumption in sub-saharan African countries remains at approximately one percent of World fertilizer consumption.

6 Replacement of fossil fuel with biomass & Fertilizer Clark & Deswarte 2008

7 A step forward to fulfill this goal is.. to replace fossil fuel with renewable fuels and energy to replace fossil chemicals with biomass based chemicals and materials The biorefinery

8 Biorefinery of African biowaste feedstocks Definition of biorefinery: Integrated and combined processes for the conversion of biomass into a variety of food, feed, chemicals, biomaterials, and energy at the same time maximising the value of the biomass and minimising the waste Fertilizer

9 Cost is the critical challenge for success. Thus, easily accessible and low cost biomass feedstock is a prerequisite for making biobased production economically feasible. Industrial, agriculture and municipal biowastes have the potential to be that resource. However, it is of great importance to be aware of how to utilise the different sources of biowaste and for which purpose.

10 Knowledge about biowaste composition is crucial In order to do this in the best possible way, one has to know about chemical composition: 1) i.e. the biowaste contents of carbohydrates, both starchy and lignocellulosic based should be considered and evaluated as potential (and best) fermentation substrates for bioenergy carriers, chemicals, and food/feed ingredient (e.g. amino acids). 2) i.e. the biowaste ash contents, which are potential plant nutrients as in fertilizer. 3) and biowaste proteins, which are important ingredients in food and feed applications as well as fertilizer.

11 Objectives of Biowaste4SP The objective of the proposed project is to show and demonstrate the technical roadmap - a strategy - for efficient technological utilisation of selected significant biowaste in five African countries - Morocco, Egypt, Ghana, South Africa, and Kenya- derived from both the industrial and agricultural sector, thus, turning biowaste into a new resource for sustainable products.

12 WP1:. Sugar based raw materials: agriculture and food industrial waste Bioethanol, Lactic acid, Protein, Amino Acids WP2. Nutrient rich raw materials: agriculture waste and manure WP3: Sugar platform Pretreatment and enzymatic conversion WP4: Bioconversion Fermentation by SSF, SHF and solids state Biogas WP5: Biogas production WP7: Sustainability assesment and LCA WP8: Knowledge transfer, training and dissemination WP6: Compositing (DEMO) Incl. Specialty microorganisms production WP9: Project management Biofertilizer Process diagram and WP interactions of Biowaste 4 SP: Blue lines: Primary process flow Biowaste 4SP flowdiagram Orange lines: Green lines: Main product(s) Waste streams

13 Examples of biowaste ressources in Africa Sugars based biowaste (industrial food waste) Banana (whole fruit) biowaste Sweet potato biowaste Cassava (Manioc) biowaste Coffee biowaste Rice bran Rice straw Nutrient based biowaste Municipal solid waste Manure Rice straw Cassava leaves

14 Production of chosen significant agricultural products in Egypt, Morocco, Kenya, Ghana, and South Africa. Annual Production (metric tons) Egypt Morocco Kenya Ghana South Africa Bananas Cassava (2) Olives (2) Sorghum (2) Rice, Paddy (2) Sun flower seeds (2) Cotton (bales) (1) Source: 1) FAO, FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS, 2009; 2)

15 Biowaste 4 Sustainable Products in Africa Target products: Feed and food (protein and amino acids) Energy (biogas and bioethanol) Fertilizer (biofertilizer) Value-added products (lactic acid and health care products)

16 Potential biowaste resources and potential products from the conversion of these Biowaste Sugar Nutrient Protein Potential product rich rich rich Cassava + ET, LA, AA, DDGS, PRO Cassava leaves + + FZ, BG Banana + + ET, LA, AA, DDGS Rice hulls + ET, LA, AA, DDGS, VA Rice straw + + BG, FZ Cotton stock + + BG, FZ Olive waste + + BG, FZ Sun flower waste + + BG, FZ Soya waste + + BG, FZ Manure + BG, FZ Sewage sludge + BG, FZ (Key to abbreviations: ET_ ethanol ; LA_ Lactic acid; AA_ amino acids; PRO_ proteins; VA_ value added products ; BG_bio gas; FZ_ Fertilizer; DDGS_ Distillers dry grain solids ; in this context the solid rest after fermentation )

17 What kind of feedstocks are needed? Sugar based feedstocks Feed Energy Nutrient based feedstocks Fertilizer

18 In our project we will do process integration: Sugar based feedstocks + Nutrient based feedstocks Feed Energy Fertilizer Value added products

19 Development of whole crop biowaste biorefinery Starch Biowaste (banana, cassava etc) Food Feed Biofuel Fertilizer Lignocellulose

20 Banana: a sugars based Biowaste ressources in Africa, an example

21 Composition of banana Starch based material Lignocellosic based material

22 Banana amylopectin (starch) and cellulose (lignocellulose) both sugar polymers Cellulose Starch material amlylose/amylopectin

23 Plant cell walls contain C5 and C6 sugars and lignin Cellulose Hemicellulose Wheat straw in Denmark Lignin

24 Sugar platform from starch (1. generation) and from lignocellulose (2. generation) for bioethanol production 1. generation sugar platform: 2. generation sugarplatform: Substrate: Sugar (sucrose) from sugarcane and starch from maize or wheat. Milling and cooking (atmopheric pressure) before enzymatic hydrolysis. Optimised, cheap commercial enzymes available Substrate: Lignocellulosic materials (straw, corn stover, wood, waste) Chemical/physical pretreatment at high pressure and temperature necessary to facilitate enzymatic hydrolysis. More expensive, but now commercial enzymes that are still improving

25 Starch and cellulose both made of glucose amylose consists of glucose bound by alfa-1-4 linkages Cellulose consists of glucose bound by beta-1-4 linkages

26 Development of whole crop biorefinery Starch Banana (example!) Food Feed Biofuel Fertilizer Value-added Lignocellulose

27 Feed and food (protein and molasses) as byproducts from bioethanol production

28 1 st generation starch bioethanol Fuel ethanol (main product) Corn Kernels Starch Conversion Sugar Yeast Fermentation Distillation DDGS (fodder)

29 1 st generation starch bioethanol, DDGS and amino acid production from biowaste in Africa + a protein containing biowaste ressource Bioethanol (main product) 1 Enzymes 2 Lactic acid (main product) Pretreated banana starch + hemicellulose Sugar conversion C6-C5 Monomer sugar SSF Fermentation 3 Precipitation Purification or destillation DDGS (fodder) Amino acids Value added-products

30 Value-added product from rice bran

31 Chemical composition of rice bran Rice bran: Starch: up to 45% Fiber: 17-20% Protein: 14-16% Oil /fat: 4-5% Ash: 4% Moisture: 12-13%

32 Example: Rice processing Conventional / Short Roller-Milling Bran Flour 20-35% 65-80% Proteins, Fibre,Gluten, starch oils, soluble fibre MD, Glucose

33 Product Fraction overview Main products Especially for prebiotic content 0 Wheat Bran Notes: 1. A (*) after the product number means that it is an intermediate product only. 2. A (**) after the product means that it can be sold as is or processed further. 3. All % figures relate to the cereal bran. 6.5* Intermediate 6** Insoluble Fraction: 55-60% 0.5* Soluble fraction (intermediate): 40-45% 7 Xylo- Oligosaccharide :10-20% 8 Soluble Xylans, prebiotics: 10-20% 9** Aleurone-rich Protein 3-4% Insoluble Dietary Fibre: 18-25% Aleurone Rich Protein, Hydrol.: 3-4% 1 Glucose Syrup 15-25% 2** 3 Germ Rich Protein Xylan rich protein 7-15% 7-15% 2.5 GRP Hydrolyzed 7-15% 11 Aleurone-rich Oil: 0,5% 12** Defatted Aleuronerich Protein: 3-4% 12.5 DARP, Hydrolyzed 3-4% 4 Germ Oil 1,5-3% 5.5 DGRP, hydrolyzed 6-12%% 5** Defatted Germ Rich Protein 6-12%

34 Lactic acid from the rice bran starch

35 Process diagram, lactic acid production Rice bran Wet milling Separation Glucose syrup SSF by lacto bacillus Lactic acid solution Fibres Precipitation and purification Lactic acid

36 Fertilizer as by-product from biogas production

37 Biofuel : Biogas (byproduct) and Fertilizer (main product) All lignocellulosic biowaste streams will be mixed with municipal solid waste (and/or) manure and treated in a biogas plant Biogas Fertilizer

38 Biogas plants are multifunctional plants Production of Renewable Energy biogas (CH 4 ) Reduction of greenhouse gasses emission of CH 4 and N 2 O Agriculture Biogas Environment Recirculation of nutrients from organic waste products Energy Optimized distribution of nutrients from manure and organic waste

39 What happens in the biogas plant? Organic material is degraded Nutrients are mineralized Pathogenes and weed seeds are destroyed

40 Biofertilizer Composition (aim to be obtained during the project) Renewable and fossil free Organic rich solid fertilizer Fully loaded with all 14 essential plant nutrients Pelletized or compressed to reduce transport costs and facilitate storage

41 Biofertilizer produced in a biogas reactor Lignocellulosic residues (Sugar for biogas and lignin for fertilizer) Manure/municpal solid waste (nutrients N,P,K for fertilizer and more sugars for biogas) Biogas Fertilizer (liquid and solid)

42 Fertilizer finally made by composting of solids from biogas reactor (video from Malaysia) Composting of biomass : 2 times a day oxygen addition by forced air ventilation