New Sulphur requirements, Best Practice and the Way Ahead

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1 New Sulphur requirements, Best Practice and the Way Ahead Motorways of the Sea Conference Markku Mylly Executive Director Gothenburg/ 9-10 November 2015

2 Content EMSA short introduction of the Agency Sulphur Directive EMSA s role Inspections of compliance experience up to date Future challenges 2016 and onwards 2

3 European Maritime Safety Agency 3

4 Sulphur Directive - EMSA s role Assist the EC in the implementation of the Sulphur Directive (i.e. Action plan, Sulphur Inspection Guidance, Sulphur inspectors trainings) Support the EC preparation of the Implementing Acts (i.e. frequency of inspections and sampling, sampling method/points) Facilitate harmonised reporting of implementation and enforcement (e.g. Union Information System: THETIS-S) Act as Technical Secretariat in the European Sustainable Shipping Forum (i.e. Sub-groups Implementation, LNG, Scrubbers, etc) Organise Ad-Hoc Expert Groups with industry and Member States (i.e. workshops on implementation, emission abatement methods, etc) Annual review of MS reports on compliance with the sulphur standards Define frequency of sampling of marine fuels being used on board ships for each MS in accordance with the provisions of the implementing acts; Perform visits to Member States to verify the effective implementation for the S-Directive Develop inventories of shipping emissions based on shipping activity data for domestic, short sea and international shipping through a functionality in THETIS-S 4

5 MARPOL Annex VI Adopted in 1997, entry into force in 2005 Aiming at minimizing airborne emissions from ships (SOx, NOx, ODS, VOC, CO2) Revised Annex VI in October 2008, entry into force in July 2010 (with significant tighter emissions limits) 77 IMO Parties have so far ratified Annex VI (incl. 24 EU MS) (94.77% of world merchant shipping tonnage) Regulation 4 Equivalents - use of alternative compliance methods (at least as effective in terms of emission reductions as required) 5

6 EU 'Sulphur Directive' (1999/32/EC) Sulphur content in heavy fuels and gas oil regulated in the EU since 2000 (including marine gas and diesel oil) Directives 2005/33/EC & 2012/33/EU brought EU legislation in line with MARPOL (1997 and 2008 changes) Integral part of EU policy on Air Quality control: reduce SOx (and PM) shipping emissions due to combustion of marine fuel with high sulphur content through cost-effective measures prevent their contribution to air pollution -which harm human health and the environment becomes higher than the one from land-based sources Inspections and Sampling frequency: Commission Decision (EU) 2015/253 6

7 EU Sulphur Directive Sulphur Limits (Articles 4a and 4b) outside EU SECAs inside EU SECAs Exceptions Ships at berth in EU ports (includes at anchor) 0.10% (Not if timetable < 2 hrs or engines switch off and shore-side electricity) Passenger ships (on regular services to/from EU ports) From % 0.50% 0.10% Ships using Approved Emission Abatement Methods Other ships/cases 3.50% 7

8 2015 Inspection Obligation 8

9 Inspections per Ship Type 9

10 Inspections versus Non Compliances 10

11 Non Compliances per Type 11

12 Emission Abatement Methods 12

13 Sampling during Inspections 13

14 Fuel related Non Compliances 14

15 Inspections with Penalties Applied 15

16 Inspection Effort Evolution 16

17 2016 and onwards EMSA will calculate inspection requirements for each Ms (Article 3.1 of I.A) EMSA will calculate sampling and analysis obligations for each MS (Article 3.2 of I.A) THETIS-S to be further enhanced to incorporate alerts created by remote sensing technologies EC & MSs with the support of EMSA to develop a targeting mechanism for ships calling EU ports; Furhter cooperation between THETIS-S and THETIS (to cater cooperation with RU & CAN) 17

18 2016 and onwards EMSA will develop shipping emissions inventories, with the aim of quantifying the range of emissions in EU waters as well as the contribution of shipping to emissions on land. New functionality in THETIS-S to establish and evaluate the inventories of shipping emissions based on historical shipping activity data for domestic, short sea and international shipping. 18

19 2016 and onwards Quantify emissions (SOx, NOx and PM) resulting from combustion of marine fuel for international and domestic shipping, covered by the AIS data; provide Member State access to the outcomes covering their waters; Assess the effects on air emissions of specific measures introduced such as the stricter Sulphur requirements under S-Directive 1999/32/EC; assess whether the cost-effective strategy of the Commission and the Member States put in place for monitoring of compliance and enforcement has brought concretely results in the achievement of environmental and health objectives of Directive 1999/32/EC as amended; 19

20 ESSF- Exhaust Gas Cleaning Systems WP Work-Package Title 1 Dry scrubbing technology 2 EGCS waste handling (sludge & washwater) 3 Fuel oil quality and availability 4 Approval aspects related to EGCS in the MED, IMO EGCS Guidelines 5 Trials vs commissioning applying rules 6 Possibility of using HFO during commissioning 7 Washwater discharge criteria 8 Verification and approval of ph criteria 9 On operational non-compliance scenarios 10 Safe NaOH handling/logistics Expert group discussing key topics involving EGCS systems focus: barriers to EGCS business case 3 submissions to IMO (2 more in preparation to PPR3) Ongoing work on Washwater criteria, Operational guidance 20

21 ESSF- LNG as a Marine Fuel WP Work-Package Title 1 Hoses and connections 2a 2b 2c Simultaneous bunkering while loading/unloading cargo and/or embarking/disembarking passengers. SIMOPS Safety distances Bunkering Guidelines 3 Training 4a 4b Gas quality, heating value and CO2 reduction potential Standard bunker delivery note 5 EU co-financed projects and their objectives 6 LNG pricing Expert group discussing key topics involving LNG focus: barriers to LNG deployment as an alternative Marine Fuel 2 submissions to IMO Steering of EU studies on LNG as fuel Ongoing work on LNG Bunkering Guidance 21

22 EMSA Studies LNG as a Marine Fuel EMSA Study on Standards and Rules for Bunkering of Gas- Fuelled Ships Regulatory Frame analysis addressing LNG as a marine fuel special focus in Bunkering. 22 Gaps identified (legal and technological/knowledge) Overview of different EU Member States preparedness for operating LNG as a Marine Fuel. 22

23 EMSA Studies Biofuels & Methyl/Ethyl Alcohols EMSA Study on Biofuels ECOFYS, 2012 Study on the applicability of different biofuels for marine applications. Focus on the availability, production and use of biofuels as alternative fuels for shipping. EMSA Study on Methyl/Ethyl Alcohol SSPA, 2015 (ongoing) Study focused in particular on Methanol/Ethanol as an alternative fuel for marine applications. Study ongoing, covering Life Cycle aspects, availability and Safety Potential contribution to ongoing work at IMO on the development of Guidelines for Methanol as fuel for shipping. 23

24 MARPOL Other ECA s in the future 24

25 Conclusions & Way Ahead How to do better targeting of ships (i.e. alerts, sniffing, etc) Further harmonization and best practices (i.e. prosecution levels, etc) Need for further Guidance (i.e. fuel sampling, EGCSs break downs, etc) Long term view (i.e new limits, continuous monitoring in stack) THETIS-S (i.e. extending to other countries, further developments) Differences between PSC and Sulphur (inspections by same authority) Emission Inventories 25

26 Thank you! emsa.europa.eu twitter.com/emsa facebook.com/emsa