Biomass for future biorefineries. Anne-Belinda Bjerre, senior scientist, ph.d.

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1 Biomass for future biorefineries Anne-Belinda Bjerre, senior scientist, ph.d.

2 Anne-Belinda Bjerre (Thomsen) Senior research scienist, B.Sc. Chem. Eng. Ph.d. in biotechnology 25 years of expertise within biological and chemical processes on waste management including 2G bioethanol production and biorefinery. Publications: 68 peer reviewed articles 55 printed abstracts and proccedings > 60 presentations at international conferences 6 patents

3 13th of July Biomass for future biofinery, platforms and classification Bioethanol from biomass Pretreatment technologies IBUS concept BioGasol concept LUNCH Ethanol production from straw (exercise) Algae for biofuel production (a case study) EuroBioref

4 14th of July Chemicals from biomass Top 30 list of chemical building blocks and selection criteria. Star diagrams and conversion technologies of selcted building blocks Cereal bran biorefinery for value-added products LUNCH Biocomposites Co-production of biogas and fertilizer Exercise: Identification of collaboration projects in Malaysia and Denmark

5 State of the art In 2050, world population will be about 11 billion people with same requireries for - food - energy -and materials Today, almost all energy and materials needed depend on depleting oil and natural gas ressources

6 State of the art 10% of the oil we extract is used to make organic chemicals and related materials. A remarkable additional 10% is used for energy to drive the chemical reactions. Clark & Deswarte 2008

7 Sustainability - one definition (the first) Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs Brundtland commission, 1987

8 A step forward to fulfill this goal is.. to replace fossil fuel with renewable fuels and energy to replace fossil chemicals with biomass based chemicals and materials The biorefinery

9 Why plant biomass? Plants are stored solar energy and (almost) CO 2 neutral Plant production: CO 2 + H 2 O + sunlight (chlorophyll) (CH 2 O)n + O 2 Combustion of plants (or plant products): (CH 2 O)n + O 2 Energy + H 2 O + CO 2 Without fossil oil and gas, plants are the ONLY organic substances for future energy carriers, materials and chemicals

10 Biomasses starch, crops and forrest residues, and waste

11 Plant cell walls contain sugars and lignin Cellulose Hemicellulose Lignin

12 Recycle (or renewable) times for biomass/chemical feedstocks Feedstocks Algae Agricultural crops Grasses Shrubs Trees Oil, Gas and Coal Recycle time 1 month 3 month 1 year 1 year 1-5 years 5-80 years 200 million years From : The enginnering of chemical reactions. 2 nd ed. Pp532 Oxford, 2005

13 Replacement of fossil fuel with biomass Clark & Deswarte 2008

14 Chemical compositions: biomass and petroleum Main differences: Petroleum components: Biomass components: Low density High reactivity with O2 (higher burning value) High density (small volume) Low(er) reactivity with O2 reduction in volume is needed The most expensive techologies in a biorefinery are pretreatment and fractionation ( 60% of production cost)

15 MtOE Choice of biomass resources for energy Wood Waste Crops Year IEA

16 Biorefinery Definition: Integrated and combined processes for the conversion of biomass into a variety of food, feed, chemicals, biomaterials, and energy at the same time maximising the value of the biomass and minimising the waste

17 Biorefinery and the wide range of products Kamm and Kamm 2004

18 Different types of biorefineries Phase I biorefinery : Single feedstock, single process and single major product Phase II biorefinery : Single feedstock, multiple processes and multiple products Phase III biorefinery: Multiple feedstocks, multiple processes and multiple major products

19 The four main features for identification, classification of a biorefinery system Platform: Products Feedstock Conversion processes

20 Phase I biorefinery the biodiesel process oil Clark & Deswarte 2008

21 Sofiproteol (France) state of the art: commercial stakeholders: private equity fonds, raw mat suppliers, application developers Oil crops (Rape +sunflower seeds) Pressing Oil Chem. reactions Estherification Chemicals + polymers Glycerine Biodiesel Animal feed Main product

22 Phase I biorefinery: 1 st generation starch bioethanol Fuel ethanol (main product) Corn Kernels Starch Conversion Sugar Yeast Fermentation Distillation DDGS (fodder)

23 Crop energies AG (Germany) State of the art: Commercial Owner: Südzucker Bioethanol GmbH Sugar crops (Sugar beet) Starch crops (wheat, barley etc.) Mechanical fractionation Enzymatic hydrolysis C6 sugars Fermentation Bioethanol Animal feed Main product Classification: C6 sugars refinery (Phase I BioRef)

24 Lignocellulose biorefinery Clark & Deswarte 2008

25 Inbicon IBUS (Denmark) State of the art: Pilot Owner: Inbicon A/S (subsidiary of DONG Energy) Lignocellulosic residues (straw) Pretreatment Hydrolysis Lignin C6 sugars C5 sugars Combustion Fermentation Separation/ destillation Electricity + heat Bioethanol Animal feed Classification: C6/C5 sugars and lignin refinery (Phase I BioRef)

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27 Phase II biorefinery Sugars Sugars

28 Lignol (Canada) State of the art: fully integrated, continous process pilot plant Stakeholders: Sustainable Development Technology Canada Lignocellulosic crops or residues Pretreatment Hydrolysis C5 sugars C6 sugars Lignin Hydrolysis Fermentation Upgrading Chemicals (furfural) Bioethanol Biomaterials (lignin) Classification: C6/C5 sugars and lignin refinery (Phase II BioRef)

29 Choren (Germany) State of the art: Demonstration Stakeholders: Agriculture, forestry, chemistry, transports sectors Lignocellulosic residues Pretreatment Gasification alternative pathway Syngas Combustion FT synthesis Electricity + heat Synthetic biofuels (FT) Classification: Syngas biorefinery (Phase I BioRef)

30 Whole crop biorefinery

31 Lignocellulosic crops Starch crops (wheat, barley etc.) Aventium Furanics (the Netherlands) State of the art: Concept Owners: Private funds, raw mat suppliers, aplication develoopers Pretreatment Mechanical fractionation Enzymatic hydrolysis Lignin C5 sugars C6 sugars Combustion Chem. conv. to furanics Electricity + heat Synthetic biofuels Chemicals + polymers Classification: C6/C5 sugars and lignin refinery (Phase III BioRef)

32 A Biorefinery: The rape plant case Efthalia Arvaniti, Anne Belinda Thomsen Biosystems Division, Risø National Laboratory for sustainable energy, DTU, P.O. Box 49, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark, Only in 2007, 18 Mt of rape (Brassica napus L.) were harvested in EU for canola oil and biodiesel production Biorefineries produce multiple added-value products from a single plant, by recycling streams, and practically exploiting all parts of the plant in the best way Applying a biological platform, eco-friendliness and reduced costs are put priority Facts of the Bio-REF biorefinery: 8 different groups working 5 process lines Biodiesel is produced by ethanol transesterification of oil with intracellular lipases. Glycerol is a also produced in a pure form Rapeseed cake is protein-rich fodder Glucosinolates present in rapeseed cake, can be used as soil conditioner and natural herbicide and insecticide, whereas when present in rapeseed cake lower quality of fodder. Pretreatment of straw with oxygen removes releases three materials. Cellulose (monopolymer of glucose) can be converted to ethanol via yeast fermentation, after hydrolysis of sugars with cellulolytic enzymes Hemicellulose (heteropolymer of C-6 sugars) can be converted into biohydrogen via a two stage reaction. In the first one, acetogenic and homoacetogenic bacteria operate on hydrogen production and VFA. And in the second stage, cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) via near-ir photosynthesis convert acetic acid into hydrogen and CO 2 Lignin can be burned for CHP. some part of the lignin that is oxidized in phenols can be processed to biogas, together with produced organic acids produced through the straw process line The project is funded by Det Strategiske Forskningråd

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