1 Vocabulary: Directions: Review key vocabulary, words may appear in quizzes and/or tests. You are not required to write the definitions but are encouraged to review them online Chapter 14 area strip mining contour strip mining high-grade ore low-grade ore mineral mineral resource mountaintop removal open-pit mining Chapter 15 coal crude oil liquefied natural gas (LPG) liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) natural gas net energy nuclear fusion oil sand Chapter 16 active solar heating system cogeneration combined heat and power systems (CHP) energy efficiency geothermal energy ore overburden reserves smelting strip mining subsurface mining surface mining peak production petrochemicals petroleum proven oil reserves shale oil synthetic natural gas (SNG) tar sand unproven reserves passive solar heating system photovoltaic (PV) cells solar cells Chapter 18 acid deposition air pollution atmospheric pressure carbon oxides industrial smog nitrogen oxides nitric acid Chapter 19 carbon capturing and storage (CCS) ozone ozone ozone layer particulates photochemical smog primary pollutants secondary pollutants stratosphere sulfur dioxide sulfuric acid temperature inversion troposphere volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
2 Study Guide Questions (SGQ): Directions: Answer in complete sentences in your composition books. (must be handwritten) Chapter Define mineral resource and list two major types of such resources. 2. Describe three uses of rock as a resource. 3. Describe the life cycle of a metal resource. 4. Describe three major harmful environmental effects of extracting, processing, and using nonrenewable mineral resources. 5. What is surface mining? 6. Define strip mining and distinguish among area strip mining, contour strip mining, and mountaintop removal mining. 7. What is subsurface mining? 8. Describe three harmful environmental effects of mining. 9. What is smelting and what are its major harmful environmental effects? 10. Describe the conventional view of the relationship between the supply of a mineral resource and its market price. 11. What are five effects of a mineral becoming scarce? 12. Discuss the pros and cons of the U. S. General Mining Law of Describe the opportunities and limitations of finding substitutes for scarce mineral resources. 14. Describe the benefits of recycling and reusing valuable metals. List five ways to use nonrenewable mineral resources more sustainably. Chapter Describe our history of energy use over the last three hundred years. 2. What is net energy and why is it important for evaluating energy resources? 3. Explain why the nuclear fuel cycle has a low net energy yield and thus must be subsidized to compete in the open marketplace. 4. What is crude oil (petroleum) and how is it extracted from the earth and refined? 5. What percentages of the commercial energy use in the world and in the United States are provided by crude oil? 6. What is the peak production for an oil well and for the world? 7. What is a petrochemical and why are such chemicals important? 8. Discuss the question of how long global and U. S. supplies of conventional crude oil might last. 9. What are the major advantages and disadvantages of using conventional oil as an energy resource? 10. What is tar sand, or oil sand, and how is it extracted and converted to heavy oil? What are some environmental problems related to the use of this resource? 11. What is shale oil and how is it produced? 12. What are the major advantages and disadvantages of using heavy oils produced from tar sand and shale oil as energy resources? 13. Define natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and liquefied natural gas (LNG)? 14. What three countries have most of the world s natural gas reserves? 15. What are the major advantages and disadvantages of using conventional natural gas as an energy resource? 16. What are three sources of unconventional natural gas and what major problems are related to the use of these resources? 17. What is coal and how is it formed? 18. How does a coal-burning power plant work? 19. What three countries have the largest proven reserves of coal? Describe the use of coal in China. 20. Describe the problem of coal ash waste. 21. Explain why there is no such thing as clean coal. 22. What are the major advantages and disadvantages of using coal as an energy resource? 23. What is synthetic natural gas (SNG)? What are the major advantages and disadvantages of using liquid and gaseous synfuels produced from coal? 24. How does a nuclear fission reactor work and what are its major safety features? 25. Describe the nuclear fuel cycle. 26. Describe some of the consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident.
3 27. What are the major advantages and disadvantages of relying on the nuclear fuel cycle as a way to produce electricity? 28. Compare the advantages and disadvantages of using the nuclear fuel cycle and coal to produce electricity. 29. How do nuclear power plant operators store highly radioactive spent fuel rods? 30. Why are spent fuel rods vulnerable to terrorist acts? 31. What is the connection between commercial nuclear power plants and the spread of nuclear weapons? 32. How can we deal with the highly radioactive wastes produced by the nuclear fuel cycle? 33. What can we do with worn out nuclear power plants? 34. Discuss whether using nuclear power can reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil. 35. What role is nuclear power likely to play in slowing projected global climate disruption caused in part by emissions of carbon dioxide? What role might new-generation nuclear power plants play? 36. What is nuclear fusion and what is its potential as an energy resource? 37. Describe what happened to conventional nuclear power and its possible role in the future. Chapter Explain why we can think of energy efficiency as an energy resource. 2. What percentage of the energy used in the United States is unnecessarily wasted? 3. List four widely used energy-wasting technologies. 4. What are the major advantages of reducing energy waste? 5. Describe three ways to save energy and money in (a) industry, (b) transportation, (c) new buildings and (d) existing buildings. 6. What is cogeneration (combined heat and power or CHP)? 7. How could we encourage electric utility companies to reduce their energy waste? 8. What is a smart grid and why is it important? 9. Describe the trends in fuel efficiency in the United States since the 1970s. 10. Explain why the price of gasoline is much higher than what consumers pay at the pump. 11. Distinguish among hybrid, plug-in hybrid, and fuel- cell motor vehicles. 12. Describe the possible connection between wind farms and plug-in hybrid cars. 13. Summarize the search for better batteries and describe two promising new developments. 14. What is a living roof? 15. What is the importance of a white or light-colored roof? 16. What is a superinsulated house? 17. Compare the efficiency of incandescent, compact fluorescent, and LED light bulbs. 18. Explain how using compact fluorescent light bulbs can reduce overall air pollution from toxic mercury. 19. What are green buildings and why are they important? 20. List six ways you can save energy where you live. 21. Give three reasons why we waste so much energy. 22. List five advantages of relying more on a variety of renewable energy sources and describe two factors holding back such a transition. 23. Distinguish between a passive solar heating system and an active solar heating system and discuss the major advantages and disadvantages of such systems for heating buildings. 24. Discuss the major advantages and disadvantages of concentrating solar energy to generate hightemperature heat and electricity. 25. What is a solar cell (photovoltaic or PV cell) and what are the major advantages and disadvantages of using such devices to produce electricity? 26. What are the major advantages and disadvantages of using hydropower? 27. What is the potential for using tides and waves to produce electricity? 28. What is a wind turbine? What is a wind farm? 29. What are the major advantages and disadvantages of using wind to produce electricity? 30. Explain why the United States is the Saudi Arabia of wind energy. 31. What are the major advantages and disadvantages of burning wood to provide heat and electricity? 32. What are biofuels and what are the major advantages and disadvantages of using biodiesel and ethanol to power motor vehicles? 33. Evaluate the use of corn, sugarcane, and cellulose plants to produce ethanol. 34. Describe the potential for using algae and bacteria to produce gasoline and diesel fuel. 35. What is geothermal energy and what are three sources of such energy?
4 36. What are the major advantages and disadvantages of using geothermal energy as a source of heat and to produce electricity? 37. What are the major advantages and disadvantages of using hydrogen as a fuel and to produce electricity and to power motor vehicles? 38. List three general conclusions of energy experts about possible future energy paths for the world. 39. List five major strategies for making the transition to a more sustainable energy future. 40. Describe three roles that governments play in determining which energy resources we use. Chapter Describe the major differences between the troposphere and stratosphere. 2. What is air pollution? 3. Distinguish between primary pollutants and secondary pollutants and give an example of each. 4. Describe the effects of lead as a pollutant and how we can reduce our exposure to this chemical. 5. Describe a chemical method and a biological method for detecting air pollutants. 6. Distinguish between industrial smog and photochemical smog in terms of their chemical composition and formation. 7. What is a temperature inversion and how can it affect air pollution levels? 8. What is acid deposition and how does it form? What are its major environmental impacts on vegetation, lakes, human-built structures, and human health. 9. List three major ways to reduce acid deposition. 10. What is the major indoor air pollutant in many developing countries? 11. What are the top four indoor air pollutants in the United States? 12. Describe indoor air pollution by radon- 222 and what can be done about it. 13. Briefly describe the human body s defenses against air pollution, how they can be overwhelmed, and the illnesses that can result. 14. Approximately, how many people die prematurely from air pollution each year in the world and in the United States? What percentage of these deaths are caused by indoor air pollution? 15. Describe air pollution laws in the United States. 16. Summarize the positive effects of such laws and discuss how the laws can be improved. 17. List the advantages and disadvantages of using an emissions trading program. 18. Summarize the major ways to reduce emissions from power plants and motor vehicles. Chapter Describe atmospheric warming and cooling over the past 900,000 years and during the last century. 2. How do scientists get information about past temperatures and climates? 3. What is the greenhouse effect and why is it so important to life on the earth? 4. How have human activities affected atmospheric greenhouse gas levels during the last 275 years and especially in the last 30 years? 5. List the major human activities that add CO 2, CH 4, and N 2O to the atmosphere. 6. After studying past climate change and the nature of the earth s climate system for almost three decades, what two general conclusions did most of the world s climate scientists agree on about atmospheric warming over the past 30 years? How did scientists arrive at these two general conclusions, and why was this such a rare event? 7. How do scientists use models to make projections about future temperature changes? 8. How can positive feedback loops affect future temperature changes and thus global climate? Give two examples of such loops. 9. Describe the contribution of waste heat from energy conversion devises to projected climate disruption. 10. Describe how each of the following might contribute to projected atmospheric warming and resulting global climate disruption: (a) CO 2 emissions, (b) a hotter sun, (c) the oceans, (d) cloud cover and (e) air pollution. What are three effects of increasing atmospheric CO 2 levels on the oceans?
5 11. Briefly describe how projected climate disruption is likely to affect: (a) drought, (b) ice cover, (c) permafrost, (d) sea levels, (e) extreme weather, (f) biodiversity, (g) crop yields, and (e) human health during this century. 12. List seven examples of climate tipping points we could be approaching. 13. What are five factors that make it difficult to deal with the problem of projected climate disruption? 14. Describe the interactions among science, politics and climate. 15. Describe John Sterman s bathtub analogy as it applies to CO 2 emissions. 16. What are three major prevention strategies and three major cleanup strategies for dealing with projected climate disruption? 17. List six steps that governments could take to help slow projected climate disruption. 18. What is a pollutant and why is CO 2 being classified as a pollutant? 19. What are the advantages and disadvantages of using taxes on carbon emissions or energy use to help reduce greenhouse gas emissions? 20. What is cap-and-trade and what are the advantages and disadvantages of using it to help reduce greenhouse gas emissions? 21. What are the pros and cons of developing an international treaty to help deal with the threat of projected climate disruption? 22. What is the U. S. city of Portland, Oregon, doing to help reduce its greenhouse gas emissions? 23. What is China doing to help reduce its contribution to the climate disruption? 24. What is the United States doing to help reduce its contribution to this problem? 25. List five ways in which you can reduce your carbon footprint. 26. List five ways in which we can prepare for the possible long- term harmful effects of climate change. 27. Describe how human activities have depleted ozone in the stratosphere, and list five harmful effects of such depletion. 28. How are the problems of atmospheric warming and ozone depletion connected?