Making Cellulosic Ethanol Work - for Africa

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1 Making Cellulosic Ethanol Work - for Africa Michael Persson, VP Inbicon (DONG Energy) European African Symposium - December 2008

2 Agenda DONG Energy / Inbicon Innovation in DONG Energy Challenges for bio-fuels today Inbicon technology a part of the solution Biofuels in Africa

3 is an integrated energy company PRODUCTION OPTIMISATION SALES AND DISTRIBUTION NATURAL GAS PRIVATE CLIENTS OIL PUBLIC CLIENTS RENEWABLE ENERGY BUSINESS CLIENTS COAL WHOLE- SALE BIOMASS ENERGY EXCHANGES

4 Vision is to make renewable energy reliable and make traditionel energy sustainable CO 2 neutral More and reliable renewable energy Energy saving Dependent on weather and seasons Remove CO 2 from power plants Reliable CO 2 emitting

5 develops sustainable energy We will triple our capacity of renewables energy before 2020 Our coal-based power plants will continuously be best-in-class clean and efficient In 2008 we will invest 47 mill. in research and development of sustainable energy technologies DONG Energy established the subsidiary "Inbicon" to develop and commercialise cellulosic ethanol

6 As a first step to systematic innovation we have defined an innovation system Our innovation system has got three phases In phases before the innovation system proper, ideas may be conceived through networking and scouting, or deliberate ideation activities After being accelerated, a new business may need continued support through a dedicated transition effort SCOUTING IDEATION TRANSITION NEW BUSINESS PARTNERSHIPS, TECHNOLOGY 6 ACQUISITIONS AND SALES

7 Bio-fuels are being questioned today Food vs. fuel debate Is the environmental impact positive enough?

8 Intelligent use of biomass is the answer Ethanol Ethanol replaces oil in transportation Cellulosic biomass (Waste) C5 molasses C5 molasses increases food production - or replaces more oil in transportation - or produces biochemicals Lignin biofuel Biofuel replaces coal in power and heat generation

9 Bio-ethanol potential in Africa - sugar cane and cellulosic will dominate Source: DuPont Danisco Cellulosic Ethanol LLC, 2008

10 1. generation bio-ethanol technology 1G Mech. treatment Hydrothermal treatment Enzymatic Hydrolysis Fermentation Stripping/ Destill. Water/ solubles/ solids separation 2G How do we make the transition to cellulosic ethanol?

11 Inbicon technology 1G Mech. treatment Hydrothermal treatment Enzymatic Hydrolysis Fermentation Stripping/ Destill. Water/ solubles/ solids separation 2G Existing technology can be used Mech. treatment Fermentation Hydrothermal treatment Enzymatic Hydrolysis Stripping/ Destill. Water/ solubles/ solids separation DONG Energy core technology Inbicon Core Technology

12 Pretreatment breaks down the cell structure Atomic Force Microscope: Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University: Cellulose microfibrils: nanometer Lignin particles: nanometer Wheat straw (5 10 cm) Pretreatet wheat straw

13 Enzymatic liquefaction

14 Ethanol (g/kg) Fermentation (SSF) T (hours) Ethanol concentration: 12 % vol

15 Inbicon advantages Efficiency/ low cost High dry matter in the process reduces energy consumption Equipment can be smaller Flexibility advantage Technology can be used for various biomasses and waste The Inbicon Core Technology can be used as pre-treatment for production of various products Integration advantage Improves efficiency In-house knowledge of power plants +20 years of operating experience

16 High dry-matter process Efficiency/ low cost provides high efficiency and low cost Flexibility advantage Integration advantage Competitor Technology (15 % Dry-matter) Reference Inbicon Technology (40 % Dry-matter) Steam consumption reduced by 59 %! Power consumption reduced by 32 %! Investment reduced by 17 %! Substantial savings in energy and investment, when the Inbicon high dry-matter technology is used

17 The technology can be Efficiency/ low cost Flexibility advantage Integration advantage used in many applications Waste Mech. treatment Hydro thermal treatment Enzymatic Hydrolysis Inbicon Core Technology Fermentation Catalytic Process Various feedstock Various high value products

18 Power plant integration Efficiency/ low cost Flexibility advantage Integration advantage increases efficiency further 57,6 GJ Inbicon Ethanol 16,0 GJ Demonstration Plant Kalundborg 15,0 GJ Straw lignin Animal feed 18.8 GJ Steam Power Stream Input [GJ] Output [GJ] Straw 57,6 Ethanol 16,0 10,1 GJ Multifuel Asnæsværket Power Plant Power Animal feed Biofuel (lignin) Efficiency > 71%! 15,0 10,1

19 Inbicons feasibility model Efficiency/ low cost shows the technology is competitive Flexibility advantage Integration advantage China 80 EU Depreciation Raw material Enzymes Energy Salaries Depreciation Raw material Enzymes Energy Others Royalty Inbicon price Bio pellets Molasses Inbicon Price Partner premium Market price Salaries Depreciation Raw material USA Others Royalty Inbicon price Bio pellets Molasses Inbicon Price Brazil Partner premium Market price Enzymes Energy Salaries Others Royalty Inbicon price Bio pellets Molasses Inbicon Price Partner premium Market price Depreciation Raw material Enzymes Energy Salaries Others Royalty Inbicon price Bio pellets Molasses Inbicon Price Partner premium Market price

20 Inbicon ethanol technology works 10+ years experience with biomass handling Inbicon has validated all process steps in pilot plants A demonstration plant will prove the technology

21 Biomass handling is well known DONG Energy has more than 10 years experience with biomass for power plants 1.3 mio tons biomass was burned in 2007

22 The technology has worked in the pilot plant since 2005 Capacity 100 kg/hr primarily used for technological development

23 Second larger pilot plant and distillation column Pilot plant 1ton/hr for mechanical development Distillation column is a slightly modified standard equipment

24 A demonstration plant is under construction to take the technology to industrial scale Input: 30,000 t wheat straw Output: 5.4 mill. l ethanol 8,250 tons biofuel 11,250 tons C5- molasses Pre-qualified enzyme suppliers: Danisco Genencor and Novozymes Location: Kalundborg, Denmark Investment: 40 mill, incl. 10 mill gov't support

25 The construction is well underway already Danish minister of climate and energy took part in the celebration of start of construction Sept. 5., 2008

26 Inbicon results Inbicon technology is optimised on wheat straw Succesfully tested on bagasse and corn stover All process steps validated Dry matter % in all process steps Only enzymes, yeast and water added 12% vol. ethanol after fermentation Succesfull distillation (less than 0.1 % in stillage) 100 t/day Demonstration plant under construction

27 Requirements for Cellulosic Ethanol in Africa Sufficient volume of biomass must be available L-T supply agreements Sustainability requirements fulfilled, incl. land use Funding for plant and infrastructure must be available Distribution infrastructure available A supportive, sustained policy towards biofuels

28 Upsides for cellulosic ethanol in Africa No conflict with food production Can help establish self-suffiency in energy High need for ethanol and other products fuel, feed and lignin biofuel are all in highly needed Duty free access to EU: "Everything but arms" agreement with EU Fair-trade fuel? THANK YOU