Biorefineries for Eco-efficient Processing of Biomass Classification and Assessment of Biorefinery Systems

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Biorefineries for Eco-efficient Processing of Biomass Classification and Assessment of Biorefinery Systems"

Transcription

1 IEA Bioenergy Task 42 on Biorefineries Biorefineries for Eco-efficient Processing of Biomass Classification and Assessment of Biorefinery Systems G. Jungmeier, J. Pucker Joanneum Research, Graz, Austria and the colleagues of IEA Bioenergy Task 42 Biorefineries PTF BPI 2010 October 7, 2010, Kuchl, Austria The Austrian participation in Task 42 of IEA Bioenergy is financed by the Federal Ministry for Transport, Innovation and Technology / Department for Energy and Environmental Technologies

2 Development Greenhouse Gas Emissions per Sector % Shares of total emissions % 17% 13% 14% chemical 8% industry: 4% of total oil consumption 2% of global GHG emissions 3% Source: IPCC

3 Outline Introduction Classification Assessment Examples Conclusions

4 IEA Bioenergy Scheme of a Biorefinery Biomass Resources oil starch sugar lignocellulose Biorefinery Bioenergy Bioproducts Based on different conversion processes: - bio-chemical - thermo-chemical - physical-chemical - liquid/gaseous transport biofuels electricity heat solid fuels bulk chemicals fine chemicals animal feed food materials fertilizer

5 IEA Bioenergy What is a Biorefinery? Biorefinery is the - sustainable processing of - biomass into a - spectrum of marketable products. Definition by IEA Bioenergy Task 42 Biorefineries

6 Outline Introduction Classification Assessment Examples Conclusions

7 The 4 Features to Classify a Biorefinery System IEA Bioenergy 1. Platforms 2. Products Biorefinery 3. Feedstock 4. Processes

8 Feature 1: Platforms of a Biorefinery System Platforms: intermediates from feedstock towards final products linkages between different biorefinery concepts final product of the biorefinery combined platforms possible (e.g. C6 & lignin, C5 & C6) IEA Bioenergy syngas lignin pyrolytic liquids fibres pulp C6 sugars Biorefinery Platforms green pressate C5 sugars proteins biogas oils hydrogen electricity heat

9 Application of Classification System Generic System Example IEA Bioenergy Feedstock Starch Mechanical process Mechanical fractionation process Hydrolysis Platform C6 sugars Biochemical process Fermentation Energy products Material products Bioethanol Animal feed

10 Organic residues and others Grasses Starch Sugar Lignocellulosic Lignocellulosic residues Oil Algae Oil based residues Separation Fractionation and/ or pressing Grain Straw Pretreatment Straw Pressing/ desruption Fiber separation Organic solution Gasification Lignin Pyrolysis, HTU Oil Hydrolysis Anaerobic digestion Extraction Syngas C6 sugars C5 sugars Pyrolytic liquid Water gas shift Separation Biogas Methanisation Fermentation Hydrogenation / Steam reforming Combustion Estherification H 2 Water electrolysis IEA Bioenergy Feedstock Platform Material products Legend process Mechanical/ Physical process Energy products Link among biorefinery pathways Thermochemical process Biochemical processes Biomethane Fertilizer Biomaterials Bio-H 2 Organic acids & extracts Bioethanol Synthetic biofuels (FT, DME ) Glycerine s & polymers Electricity and heat Food Biodiesel Animal feed

11 Organic residues and others Grasses Starch Sugar Lignocellulosic Lignocellulosic residues Oil Algae Oil based residues 1. Bioethanol from starch Separation Fiber separation Fractionation and/ or pressing Organic solution Grain Straw Gasification Pretreatment Lignin Straw Pyrolysis, HTU Pressing/ desruption Oil Hydrolysis Anaerobic digestion Extraction Syngas C6 sugars C5 sugars Pyrolytic liquid Water gas shift Separation Biogas Methanisation Fermentation Hydrogenation / Steam reforming Combustion Estherification H 2 Water electrolysis IEA Bioenergy Feedstock Platform Material products Legend process Mechanical/ Physical process Energy products Link among biorefinery pathways Thermochemical process Biochemical processes Biomethane Fertilizer Biomaterials Bio-H 2 Organic acids & extracts Bioethanol Synthetic biofuels (FT, DME ) Glycerine s & polymers Electricity and heat Food Biodiesel Animal feed

12 Organic residues and others Grasses Starch Sugar Lignocellulosic Lignocellulosic residues Oil Algae Oil based residues 1. Bioethanol from starch 2. Biodiesel from oil crop Separation Fiber separation Fractionation and/ or pressing Organic solution Grain Straw Gasification Pretreatment Lignin Straw Pyrolysis, HTU Pressing/ desruption Oil Hydrolysis Anaerobic digestion Extraction Syngas C6 sugars C5 sugars Pyrolytic liquid Water gas shift Separation Biogas Methanisation Fermentation Hydrogenation / Steam reforming Combustion Estherification H 2 Water electrolysis IEA Bioenergy Feedstock Platform Material products Legend process Mechanical/ Physical process Energy products Link among biorefinery pathways Thermochemical process Biochemical processes Biomethane Fertilizer Biomaterials Bio-H 2 Organic acids & extracts Bioethanol Synthetic biofuels (FT, DME ) Glycerine s & polymers Electricity and heat Food Biodiesel Animal feed

13 Organic residues and others Grasses Starch Sugar Lignocellulosic Lignocellulosic residues Oil Algae Oil based residues 1. Bioethanol from starch 2. Biodiesel from oil crop Separation Fiber separation Fractionation and/ or pressing Organic solution Grain Straw Gasification Pretreatment Lignin Straw Pyrolysis, HTU Pressing/ desruption Oil 3. Biomethane from organic residues Anaerobic digestion Extraction Syngas Hydrolysis C6 sugars C5 sugars Pyrolytic liquid Water gas shift Separation Biogas Methanisation Fermentation Hydrogenation / Steam reforming Combustion Estherification H 2 Water electrolysis IEA Bioenergy Feedstock Platform Material products Legend process Mechanical/ Physical process Energy products Link among biorefinery pathways Thermochemical process Biochemical processes Biomethane Fertilizer Biomaterials Bio-H 2 Organic acids & extracts Bioethanol Synthetic biofuels (FT, DME ) Glycerine s & polymers Electricity and heat Food Biodiesel Animal feed

14 Organic residues and others Grasses Starch Sugar Lignocellulosic Lignocellulosic residues Oil Algae Oil based residues 1. Bioethanol from starch 2. Biodiesel from oil crop 3. Biomethane from organic residues 4. FT-Fuels from lignocellulosic residues Anaerobic digestion Separation Fiber separation Fractionation and/ or pressing Organic solution Extraction Water gas shift Grain Straw Gasification Syngas Hydrolysis C6 sugars Pretreatment Lignin C5 sugars Straw Pyrolysis, HTU Separation Pyrolytic liquid Pressing/ desruption Oil Biogas Methanisation Fermentation Hydrogenation / Steam reforming Combustion Estherification H 2 Water electrolysis IEA Bioenergy Feedstock Platform Material products Legend process Mechanical/ Physical process Energy products Link among biorefinery pathways Thermochemical process Biochemical processes Biomethane Fertilizer Biomaterials Bio-H 2 Organic acids & extracts Bioethanol Synthetic biofuels (FT, DME ) Glycerine s & polymers Electricity and heat Food Biodiesel Animal feed

15 Organic residues and others Grasses Starch Sugar Lignocellulosic Lignocellulosic residues Oil Algae Oil based residues 1. Bioethanol from starch 2. Biodiesel from oil crop Separation Fiber separation Fractionation and/ or pressing Organic solution Grain Straw Gasification Pretreatment Lignin Straw Pyrolysis, HTU Pressing/ desruption Oil 3. Biomethane from organic residues 4. FT-Fuels from lignocellulosic residues Anaerobic digestion Extraction Water gas shift Syngas Hydrolysis C6 sugars C5 sugars Separation Pyrolytic liquid Biogas Methanisation Fermentation Hydrogenation / Steam reforming Combustion Estherification H 2 Water electrolysis IEA Bioenergy Feedstock Platform Material products Legend process Mechanical/ Physical process Energy products Link among biorefinery pathways Thermochemical process Biochemical processes Biomethane Fertilizer Biomaterials Bio-H 2 Organic acids & extracts Bioethanol Synthetic biofuels (FT, DME ) Glycerine s & polymers Electricity and heat Food Biodiesel Animal feed

16 Outline Introduction Classification Assessment Examples Conclusions

17 Assessment of Advantages & Disadvantages of Biorefineries Biorefinery Environmental aspects Economic aspects Social aspects Sustainability

18 What are Conventional Systems? IEA Bioenergy Biorefinery System C o n v e n t i o n a l S y s t e m s Bioenergy and Fossil System Fossil System Biomass Feedstock Biomass Feedstock Fossil Ressource Fossil Ressource Transport Conversion Distribution Transport Conversion Distribution Transport Conversion Distribution Transport Conversion Distribution Bioenergy & biomaterials Bioenergy Materials Energy & Materials Product services

19 Basics of Comparing Biorefineries to Conventional Systems Same amount of products with the same service Same amount and type of biomass must be considered Same amount of agricultural area and forestry area used Whole chain approach e.g. life cycle, value chain Relevant for all aspects of sustainability: economic, environmental and social

20 Outline Introduction Classification Assessment Examples Conclusions

21 Example 1: Demonstration IEA Bioenergy Plant IBUS Biorefinery Denmark Straw Liquid fraction Pretreatment Separation C5 Molasses Evaporation Condensate Fibre Enzymes Stillage separation Steam Solid biofuel Liquefaction Distillation Power plant Ethanol Fermentation Liquefied fibres Yeast

22 Example 1: Classification: IBUS Biorefinery Denmark IEA Bioenergy A Three Platform Biorefinery with Straw for Bioethanol C6&C5 Sugars and Lignin Lignin C6 sugars C5&C6 sugars

23 Conventional System Grains 0.2 t Biorefinery System Oil 0.3 t Oil Refinery Gasoline 4.6 GJ IEA Bioenergy Feed plant Animal Feed 3.1 GJ CHP Plant Electricity 3.6 GJ + Heat 8.7 GJ Straw 1 t EtOH- Plant Bioethanol 4.6 GJ Case in Denmark Not produced Set aside land Animal Feed 3.1 GJ 4.6 GJ Transportation fuel GJ Electricity GJ Heat GJ Animal Feed Lignin 0.4 t Electricity 0.6 GJ Heat 2.8 GJ Electricity 1.6 GJ + Heat 1.1 GJ Coal 0.3 t CHP Plant Electricity 2.0 GJ + Heat 7.6 GJ

24 Example 2: Demonstration IEA Bioenergy Plant Green Biorefinery, Austria Feedstock: Mixture of grass, clover, lucerene silage Products: - Organic acids (lactic and amino acids) - Fertilizer - Biomethane - Optional: fibres products

25 Example 2: Demonstration IEA Bioenergy Plant Green Biorefinery, Austria A Two Platform Biorefinery with Grass for Biomethan - Biogas, Green Pressate Grasses Fractionation and pressing Fiber separation Anaerobic digestion Biogas Organic solution Green pressate Extraction Biomaterials (fiber products ) Biomethane Fertilizer Organic acids (lactic and amino acids)

26 Conventional System Biogas and raw oil Biorefinery System Biorefinery and natural gas Raw oil 0.3 t Grasssilage 1 t Case in Austria Natural gas Mech. Extraction Intermediate 0.3 t Product production Biogasplant Biogasplant Product production Product 0.25 t Biomethan 0.1 MWh Biomethan 0.09 MWh Biobased products 0.25 t Methan 0.01 MWh IEA Bioenergy 0.1 MWh Methan and 0.25 t Products

27 Example 3: Wood Bioethanol Biorefinery Wood chips Pretreatment Lignin Drying Hydrolysis Pyrolysis Biooil Fermentation Residues Char Separation Combustion Bioethanol Electricity Heat Phenols

28 Conventional System Biorefinery System Gas 2.2 GJ Oil 6 GJ Wood 1 t Natural oxidation Wood biorefinery Power plant Oil Refinery Phenols 0.01 t Gasoline 5 GJ Heating plant Bioethanol 5 GJ Phenols 0.01 t Electricity 1.2 GJ + Heat 0.7 GJ Electricity 1.2 GJ Heat 0.7 GJ 5 GJ Transportation fuels GJ Electricity GJ Heat t Phenols

29 Conventional Systems for Wood Bioethanol Biorefinery Systems Supplied Product energy services Heat Electricity Transportation service *) Phenols 110 GWh/a 175 GWh/a 1,000 Mio. km/a 5,600 t/a Wood bioethanol biorefienery wood Wood polygeneration, con. phenols wood oil Wood CHP **), gasoline, con. phenols wood gasoline oil Wood heating, natural gas, gasoline, con. phenols wood natural gas gasoline oil Fossil reference system oil natural gas gasoline oil *) Bioethanol: t/a **) Combined heat and power Conventional systems

30 Annual Greenhouse Gas Emissions Fossil reference system Wood heating, natural gas, gasoline, con. phenols Wood CHP, gasoline, con. phenols Wood polygeneration, con. phenols Wood bioethanol biorefienery % - 88% - 29% 288 CO2 CH4 N2O - 10% Greenhouse Gas Emissions [1,000 t CO 2 -eq./a]

31 Annual Primary Energy Demand Fossil reference system 5.91 Wood heating, natural gas, gasoline, con. phenols Wood CHP, gasoline, con. phenols Wood polygeneration, con. phenols Wood bioethanol biorefienery - 84% - 90% - 33% - 9% Reduction fossil energy Cumulated Primary Energy Demand [PJ/a] Fossil energy Biomass Others

32 Outline Introduction Classification Assessment Examples Conclusions

33 IEA Bioenergy Conclusions + Outlook Task 42 will identify the 12 most interesting biofuel driven biorefineries Task 42 Biorefinery works out examples for sustainability assessment Conventional system includes fossil and biomass based systems (e.g. for heat&electricity) Comparative assessment of systems on whole chain approach by using same amount of biomass and land Unique classification possible via platforms, products, feedstock and processes Biorefinery systems coproduce bioenergy and biomaterials (key driver transportation biofuels)

34 IEA Bioenergy IEA Bioenergy-Task42 Website More information: