1 Lecture 7 Water Quality Monitoring: Estimation of fecal indicator bacteria
2 FECAL INDICATOR BACTERIA Fecal indicator bacteria, which are directly associated with fecal contamination, are used to detect the possible presence of waterborne pathogens by assessing the microbiological quality of water. Fecal material from warm-blooded animals may contain a variety of intestinal microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, and protozoa) that are pathogenic to humans. For example, bacterial pathogens of the Salmonella, Shigella and Vibrio can result in gastroenteritis and bacillary dysentery, typhoid fever, cholera, etc. The presence of E. coli in water is direct evidence of fecal contamination from warmblooded animals. A few strains of E. coli are pathogenic, such as E. coli O157:H7, but most strains are not. Densities of other indicator bacteria (total coliforms, fecal coliforms, and fecal streptococci) can be, but are not necessarily, associated with fecal contamination. Despite this limitation, total coliforms are used to indicate ground-water susceptibility to fecal contamination. Fecal coliforms also are used as a measure of water safety for bodycontact recreation or for consumption . Usually, five types of fecal indicator bacteria i.e. total coliform bacteria, fecal coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli (E. coli), fecal streptococci, and enterococci  are identified and quantified. Following methods can be used to test for indicator bacteria: Total count of bacteria. In this method, total number of bacteria present in a milliliter of water is counted. The sample of water is diluted; 1 ml of sample water is diluted in 99 ml of sterilized water. Then 1 ml of diluted water is mixed with 10 ml of agar or gelatin (culture medium). This mixture is then kept in incubator at 37 C for 24 h or at 20 C for 48 h. After that, the sample is taken out from incubator and colonies of bacteria are counted by means of microscope. The product of the number of colonies and the dilution factor gives the total number of bacteria per ml of undiluted water sample. Membrane-filtration method: In this method, the sample is filtered through a sterilized membrane of special design due to which all bacteria get stained on the membrane. The member is then put in contact of culture medium in the incubator for 24 hours at 37 C.
3 The membrane after incubation is taken out and the colonies of bacteria are counted by means of microscope. Liquid broth method, using the presence-absence format or the most-probablenumber (MPN) format: In this method, the detection is done by mixing dilutions of a sample of water with lactose broth and keeping it in the incubator at for 48 h. The presence of acid or carbon dioxide gas in the test tube indicates presence of E-coli. After this, the standard statistical tables (Maccardy s) are referred and the Most Probable Number (MPN) of E-coli per 100 ml of water is determined. MPN is the number which represents the bacterial density which is most likely to be present. COMPLETE ASSESSMENT OF THE QUALITY OF THE AQUATIC ENVIRONMENT Chemical analyses of water and aquatic organisms Biological tests such as toxicity tests and measurements of enzyme activities Descriptions of aquatic organisms including their occurrence, density, biomass, physiology and diversity Physical measurements of water temperature, ph, conductivity, light penetration, particle size of suspended and dissolved material, flow velocity, hydrological balance, etc. . Following water quality parameters need to be determined to assess quality of water : Dissolved oxygen Usually decreases as discharge increases. Used as a water quality indicator in most water quality models. Biochemical oxygen A measure of oxygen-reducing potential for waterborne discharges. demand (BOD) Used in most water quality models. Temperature Often increased by discharges, especially from electric power plants. Relatively easy to model. Ammonia nitrogen Reduces dissolved oxygen concentrations and adds nitrate to water. Can be predicted by most water quality models. Algal concentration Increases with pollution, especially nitrates and phosphates. Predicted by moderately complex models. Coliform bacteria An indicator of contamination from sewage and animal waste Nitrates A nutrient for algal growth and a health hazard at very high
4 Phosphates Toxic organic compounds Heavy metals concentrations in drinking water. Predicted by moderately complex models. Nutrient for algal growth. Predicted by moderately complex models. A wide variety of organic (carbon-based) compounds can affect aquatic life and may be directly hazardous to humans. Usually very difficult to model. Substances containing lead, mercury, cadmium, and other metals can cause both ecological and human health problems. Difficult to model in detail. Table Monitoring systems used to determine the quality of water in water bodies and liquid effluents  Parameter Sampling or monitoring system General ph ph meter ISO ( ), Water Quality Standards APHA, ASTM, BS, DIN, SCA BOD Determine dissolved oxygen concentration in the test solution before and after incubation (APHA, ASTM, BS, DIN, ISO, SCA); 40 CFR, Part 136; USEPA Method COD Digest with potassium dichromate in strong acid solution with silver sulfate as catalyst after sample homogenization (APHA, ASTM, BS, DIN, ISO, SCA); 40 CFR, Part 136; USEPA Method AOX USEPA Method 1650 (titrimetric) TSS Filtration 40 CFR, Part 136; USEPA Method 160.2; APHA, BS, DIN, ISO, SCA Total dissolved Pretreatment with membrane filtration, followed by evaporation APHA, BS, solids (TDS) DIN, ISO, SCA Phenol Extract with MIBK, followed by GC analysis USEPA Methods 420.1, Sulfide React with dimethlphenylenediamine and ferric chloride in acid solution to form methylene blue; USEPA Methods 376.1, Oil and grease Extract with light petroleum, evaporate solvent, and measure weight USEPA Method Organic compounds Total organic UV oxidation followed by infrared analysis USEPA Method 415.1; APHA, carbon ASTM, DIN, ISO, SCA Organics 40 CFR, Part (GC, GC/MS, HPLC, ASTM D ) PAHs Gas chromatography with flame ionization detection Pesticides Gas chromatography; 40 CFR, Part 136.3, Table 1-D.
5 Inorganic substances General 40 CFR, Part 136.3, Table 1-B. reference Metals Arsenic Atomic absorption spectroscopy; APHA, ASTM, SCA Cadmium Atomic absorption spectrometry; APHA, ASTM, BS, DIN, ISO, SCA Chromium Atomic absorption spectrometry; APHA, ASTM, BS, DIN, ISO, SCA Lead Atomic absorption spectrometry; APHA, ASTM, BS, DIN, ISO, SCA Mercury Flameless atomic absorption spectrometry; APHA, ASTM, BS, DIN, ISO, SCA Nickel Atomic absorption spectrometry; APHA, ASTM, DIN, SCA Inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry; ASTM, DIN, SCA Zinc Atomic absorption spectrometry; APHA, ASTM, BSI, DIN, ISO, SCA Note: See UNEP, Technical Report 27, for details. APHA, American Public Health Administration, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater; ASTM, American Society for Testing and Materials Standards, Annual, vols , 11.02; BS, British Standards Institute, Water Quality, BS-6068; CFR, United States, Code of Federal Regulations; DIN, German Industrial Standard Methods for the Examination of Water, Wastewater and Sludge, DIN ; ISO, International Organization for Standardization, Water Quality Standard Method; SCA, Standing Committee of Analysts, U.K. Department of the Environment, Methods for the Examination of Waters and Associated Materials. REFERENCE  6/ _ /Rendered/INDEX/E20040v20P PUBLIC10UHB VN0ESPP.txt  World Bank Group Pollution Prevention and Abatement Handbook : toward Cleaner Production, Washington DC, USA,   World Bank in collaboration with the United Nations Environment Programme and the United Nations Industrial Development Organization,