INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Volume 2, No 1, Copyright 2010 All rights reserved Integrated Publishing Association

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1 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Volume 2, No 1, 2011 Copyright 2010 All rights reserved Integrated Publishing Association Research article ISSN Assessment of Physico-Chemical properties and sewage pollution indicator bacteria in surface water of River National Botanical Research Institute (NBRI) Lucknow Industrial Toxicology Research Institute (IITR) Lucknow* doi: /ijes ABSTRACT This study was aimed to estimate current status of Physico-chemical chararacterstics and level of sewage pollution indicator bacteria and their variation at whole stretch of river Gomti. The sampling covered from upstream to downstream regions of the river representing pre monsoon (Jan-April), monsoon (May-Aug), and post monsoon (Sept-Dec) in two years i.e and Eight water samples are subjected to Physico-chemical analysis like Water temperature, Total Solids, Total Dissolved Solids, Total Suspended Solid, Conductivity, ph, COD, BOD and DO. The bacteriological study of these samples included bacteriological parameters like Total Coli (TC), Faecal Coli (FC) and Faecal Streptocoli (FS) has given the information regarding the suitability of the water for various uses like drinking and other domestic applications. The results are based on Spatial Variation, Seasonal Variation and Temporal Variation. Conclusions revealed that large number of drains in Lucknow city and industrial discharge is mainly responsible for pollution in river Gomti. Keywords: Physico-chemical parameters, Sewage pollution indicator bacteria, River Gomti 1. Introduction Fresh water is essential for agriculture, industry and human existence; it is a finite resource of earth. Without adequate quantity and quality of fresh water sustainable development will not be possible (N.Kumar, 1997, Mahananda et al., 2005). Fresh water resource are becoming deteriorate day-by-day at the very faster rate. Now water quality is a global problem (Mahananda et al., 2005). The healthy aquatic ecosystem is depended on the biological diversity and Physico-chemical characteristics (Venkatesharaju et al., 2010). Microorganisms are widely distributed in nature and diversity of microorganisms may be used as an indicator for organic pollution (Okpokwasili and Akujobi, 1996). Bacteriological quality of drinking water usually shows concentration of particular species of bacteria and their occurrence (Sandy and Richard 1995). High levels of fecal-indicator bacteria can be indicated by presence of pathogenic microorganisms present in water body. Higher the level of indicator bacteria is directly propositional to faecal contamination and greater the risk of water-borne diseases (Pipes, 1981). Cryptosporidiosis, typhoid fever, Cholera, dysentery, hepatitis are some of the common waterborne diseases that spread through contaminated water. Human faecal material is generally caused greater risk to human health because it contains human enteric pathogens (Scott et al., 2003). Contaminated water can cause eye, ear, nose, and throat infections also. Faecal coli and Faecal streptococci are most widely used indicator bacteria (Kistemann et al., 2002; Pathak and Gopal, 2001; Harwood et al., 2001; Vaidya et al., 2001). Bacteria concentration in a sample of water means the number of bacteria colonies present in per 100 milliliters (col/100ml) of water sample. Discharge of organic wastes human excreta, sewage waste, polythenes, municipal garbage and toxic discharge from the factories Received on July 2011 Published on September

2 increasing bacterial pollution in the river Gomti. This waste flow into the storm drains, mixing with common water and subsequently posing a serious threat to the water ecology, animals and human; spatially in Lucknow and Barabanki district. Faecal polluted water may cause health hazard for bathers due to the presence of several microbial pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoa (Mohamed et al, 2008). The present investigation reveals the Physico-chemical and bacteriological characteristics and their spatial, seasonal and yearly variations in the river water during the year 2008 and The aim of the study is to revealed out the pollution status of whole stretch of river Gomti in terms of Physicochemical and bacteriological characteristics in Uttar Pradesh. 2 Materials and Method 2.1 Study Area River Gomti flows through a vast stretch with numerous small and big tributaries and forms a great river before joining the river Ganga at Udyar Ghat near Jaunpur district. The water is mainly used for drinking purpose. Irrigation is also an important aspect of this river water. Eight water samples from eight different locations were selected from upstream to downstream and analyzed to access the bacteriological pollution in river Gomti, during three seasons and two years. The sampling location description of river Gomti is given below: River Location Description Course Gomti Neemsar Sampling location is near the Devi Lalita s temple. Water at is good in quality and clean in nature. It is used for fishing, irrigation and bathing. Fish population is very good. Gomti Bhatpur Water is clear. Main activity observed at this site is fishing. Gomti Gaughat Sampling point is near the pumping station. From here water is pumped to Jal Sansthan for water supply in whole city. Gomti Mohan Meakin Sampling point is between the Lal pul and Shahid Smarak. Water is dirty and black in color. It is not suitable for any purpose. Gomti Piperaghat This sampling location is near the Piperaghat bridge. Water at is black in color, smelled bad, and very dirty in nature. It is not suitable for any purpose. Gomti Barabanki This sampling location is near the Gangaganj area. Water is not good in quality. This is the second most polluted site of river Gomti. Gomti Sultanpur This sampling location is less polluted than Barabanki and Lucknow. Gomti Jaunpur Sampling site is near the shahi pul. Water is not so polluted. Sampling Sampling was carried out in two different years i.e and 2009 in three different seasons i.e. pre monsoon (Jan-April), monsoon (May-Aug), and post monsoon (Sept-Dec) to the mid flow of river Gomti at different locations selected from upstream to downstream i.e. Neemsar, Bhatpur, Gaughat, Mohan Meakin, Piperaghat, Barabanki, Sultanpur and Jaunpur. Triplicate Samples of surface water were collected in sterile glass bottles and immediately transported to the laboratory in an ice bucket at 4 o C for analysis. 338

3 Physico-chemical analysis: The temperatures of the samples were noted at the sampling point itself. The samples were put to examination in the laboratory of Indian Institute of Toxicological Research (IITR) to determine some physico-chemical parameters. Analysis was carried out for various water quality parameters such as Temperature of Water, Total solids (TS), Total Dissolved solids (TDS), Total Suspended Solids (TSS), ph, Conductivity, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), and Dissolved Oxygen (DO) using standard method. The reagents used for the analysis were AR grade and double distilled water was used for preparation of solutions. Bacteriological analysis: The bacteria indicators of sewage pollution i.e. Total Coli (TC), Faecal Coli (FC), and Faecal Streptocoli (FS) were analyzed together and the ratio of FC/FS were also calculated. Analysis of these indicator bacteria were enumerated using the Multiple Test Tube Method (APHA 20 th edition). The analysis was carried out in the laboratory of Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (IITR), Lucknow. Statistical analysis: A two tailed (α=2) probability p<0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. All statistical analyses were preformed on STATISTICA (version 6.0). 2.2 Results and Discussion The Spatial, Seasonal and Temporal averages of physico-chemical and bacteriological characteristics are given in Table 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and Correlation Coefficient between various physico-chemical parameters and bacteriological parameters are showed in Table 7. Temperature: The fluctuation in river water temperature usually depends on the season, geographic location, sampling time and temperature of effluent entering the stream (Ahipathy, 2006). Temperature of river water ranged from a minimum of o C to o C at different locations (Table 1) and in different seasons (Table 2). Spatial variations showed near about same trend of Temperature at all sampling locations (Table 1). High Seasonal variations were observed at all the sites (Table 2). Temporal variations indicates increasing trend at all the sites (Table 3). Temperature showed significant positive correlation with ph and Dissolved Oxygen and significant negative correlation with Total Solids, Dissolved Solids, Suspended Solids, Chemical Oxygen Demand, Biological Oxygen Demand, Total Coliform (TC), Faecal Coliform (FC) and Faecal Streptocoli (FS) (Table 7). Total Solids (TS): During the study average of Total Solids were found to be higher at Barabanki site and lower at Sultanpur site (Table1). Seasonal variations revealed significantly higher values in post monsoon season and lower in pre monsoon season (Table 2). Yearly averages of shows comparatively decreasing trend of Total Solids in the next year (Table.3). Correlation analysis shows positive correlation of Total Solids with Total Dissolved Solids, conductivity, COD, BOD, Total coli, Faecal Coli and Faecal Strepto coli and had negative correlation with Suspended Solids, ph and Dissolved Oxygen (Table 7). Total Dissolved Solids (TDS): Spatial variations shows comparatively increasing level of Dissolved Solids at Barabanki Site in comparison to other sites. In water, total dissolved solids are composed mainly of carbonates, bicarbonates, chlorides, phosphates and nitrates of calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium and manganese, organic matter, salt and other particles (Mahananda et al., 2010). Seasonal variations revealed slightly higher values in Post monsoon season in contrast to other two seasons it may be due to accumulation of carbonates 339

4 and bicarbonates after heavy rainfall. Yearly averages shows comparatively decreasing trend of Dissolved Solids in next year. Correlation analysis shows significant positive correlation of ph with all the parameters except Suspended Solids and Dissolved Oxygen. Total suspended solids (TSS): During the study Spatial Variation analysis shows higher values of Suspended Solids at Lucknow i.e. Gaughat, Mohan Meakin, Piperaghat (Table 1) it might be due to presence of high organic matter and lowest values were found to be at Control site i.e. Neemsar and Bhatpur. The total suspended solids are composed of carbonates, bicarbonates, chlorides, phosphates and nitrates of calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, manganese, organic matter, salt and other particles. Seasonal analysis revealed higher values of Suspended Solids in Post monsoon. It might be due to run off from many bathing Ghats, drain water discharge and garbage dump sites (Table 2). Its lower values were found to be in pre monsoon. Yearly averages shows increasing trend of Suspended Solids (Table 3). Correlation analysis shows its positive correlation with ph and Dissolved Oxygen (Table 7) Ph: Present investigation reveals that there was no great difference found in ph values in Spatial (Table 1), Seasonal (Table 2) and Temporal analysis (Table 3) which indicates the alkaline nature of river water, may be due to high temperature which causes reduction in solubility of CO 2 (Mahananda et al., 2010). Correlation analysis reveals significant positive correlation with Dissolved Oxygen, Suspended Solids, Water temperature and negative correlation with Conductivity, COD, BOD, Total Coli, Faecal Coli and Faecal Streptocoli (Table 7). Conductivity: Increasing levels of conductivity and cations are the products of decomposition and mineralization of organic materials (Abida, 2008). In the present study Barabanki site showed higher value of Conductivity in contrast to other sites due to higher discharge of industrial effluent to the river (Table 1). Seasonal variations showed higher value in pre-monsoon and lower value in monsoon due to dilution with rain water. Yearly averages showed decreasing level of Conductivity was found in the next year at all sites. Conductivity showed significant positive correlation with all the parameters except Dissolved Oxygen, Total Dissolved Solids and Total Solids (Table 7). Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD): The measure of COD determines the quantity of organic matter found in water. This makes COD useful as an indicator of organic pollution in surface water (King et al., 2003 and Faith, 2006). Spatial Variations shows comparatively higher values at Barabanki and Lucknow (Gaughat, Mohan Meakin, and Piperaghat) in contrast to other sites (Table 1). Seasonal averages of COD values disclose marginal variations in all the three seasons (Table 2). Slight decreasing trend was observed in yearly averages (Table 3). Correlation analysis showed positive correlation with BOD, DO, Conductivity, Total Dissolved Solids Total Solids, Total Coli, Faecal Coli while Faecal Streptocoli and negative correlation with Conductivity, Total Dissolved Solids and Total Solids (Table 7). Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD): Biological oxygen demand increases due to biodegradation of organic materials which exerts oxygen tension in a water body (Abida, 2008). Sources of BOD include leaves; dead plants and animals; effluents from various industries specially pulp and paper mills, Wastewater treatment plants and food-processing plants; failing septic systems; and wastewater runoff (USEPA 1997). Spatial analysis reveals that BOD value was found to be more at Lucknow (that is Gaughat, Mohan Meakin (MM) 340

5 and Piperaghat) and Barabanki because of direct merging of sewage waste, drain water discharge and industrial effluent at sampling sites while BOD was found within range at Control site that is Neemsar and Bhatpur (Table 1). Seasonal and Temporal analysis shows marginal variations in all the three seasons (Table 2) and both of years (Table 3). Correlation analysis of BOD exhibit significant positive correlation with ph. Suspended Solids and water temperature and had negative correlation with, COD, Conductivity, Total solids, Total Dissolved Solids (Table 7). Dissolved Oxygen (DO): The average value of DO levels (6.5mg/l) indicates the average quality of river water (APHA 2005). During the study DO values were found maximum at Control Site (Neemsar + Bhatpur) which might be due to good productivity of aquatic plants and algae at the river bank and minimum at Barabanki site due to higher level of organic pollution (Table1). Seasonal Variations showed near about similar trend. No variation was found in yearly averages at all sites (Table3.). DO showed significant positive correlation with ph, Suspended Solids, Water Temperature and negative correlation with Conductivity, COD, BOD, Total Solids, Total Dissolved Solids, Total Coli (TC), Faecal Coli (FC) and Faecal Streptocoli (FS) (Table 7). Bacteriological Parameters: The Bacteriological characteristics of river Gomti is summarized in Table 4, 5, 6 and Fig.1, 2, 3. Table 4 showed that the mean level of Total Coli (TC) at Lucknow side (Gaughat + Mohan Meakin + Piperaghat) were found to be very high than the other sides. Continuously increase in population of Lucknow is mainly responsible for increased level of pollution. More than 95% of drain water often added during flushing to carry down a drain, pathogen, and organic matters like faeces, food, vomit, waste paper, dead plant, and humus. Most of them are discharging their waste in to river directly. Rather than, poor people living near the river, discard their shit at river bank throughout the Lucknow. On comparing, the mean level of Total Coli (TC), Faecal Coli (FC), Faecal Streptocoli (FS) at Control side (Neemsar + Bhatpur) were found to be significantly (p<0.05 or p<0.01) different and lower than the respective level at Barabanki, Sultanpur and Jaunpur (Table 4). The association of bacteriological parameters in three different seasons i.e. pre monsoon, monsoon and post monsoon of both of the years i.e and 2009 were summarized in Table 5 and Fig 2. Table 5 showed that except Total Coli (TC), Faecal Coli (FC), Faecal Streptocoli (FS) and FC/FS were found to be higher in Monsoon season than the respective level found in Pre monsoon and Post monsoon. Higher bacterial population during monsoon due to increased land run off and higher faecal inputs in to river from various sources. An increase in the Faecal Coliform level after rainfall was also reported by Shehane et al., Table 6 and Fig 3, showed the association of all bacteriological parameters in both of the years i.e and A little bit variation in all bacteriological parameters were found in both of the years. To see the results, it is clear that at all the sampling locations, in all the seasons and in both of the years, Total Coli, Faecal coli and Faecal Streptocoli of river water were beyond the permissible limit and was not suitable for drinking purpose without pretreatment. 341

6 Table 1: Summary (Mean SE, n=10) of Physico-chemical parameters at different locations- Spatial Variations Parameters Control (Neemsar + Bhatpur) Lucknow (Gaughat+M. M+Piperaghat ) Barabanki Sultanpur Jaunpur Temp. Water Total Solids Dissolved. Solids Suspended. Solids Ph a Conductivit y COD a a bc bc BOD a a bc bc DO a a bc bc Table 2: Summary (Mean SE, n=10) of Physico-chemical parameters in different seasons- Seasonal Variations Parameters Pre monsoon Monsoon Post monsoon Temp. Water ab a Total Solids Dissolved Solids Suspended b a Solids Ph b a Conductivity a COD BOD a DO Table 3: Summary (Mean SE, n=10) of Physico-chemical parameters in two different years- Temporal Variations 342

7 Parameters Temp. Water * Total Solids ** Dissolved Solids ** Suspended Solids ns Ph ** Conductivity * COD ** BOD ns DO ns Table 4: Summary (Mean SE, n=15) of bacteriological parameters in different locationsspatial Variations Parameters Control (Neemsar +Bhatpur) Lucknow (Gaughat +Mohan Meakin + Barabanki Sultanpur Jaunpur Piperaghat) a b Total Coli b b Faecal Coli (FC) a b b b Faecal Strepto Coli (FS) a b b b FC/FS b 0.11 Note: a p<0.05 or a p<0.01 in comparison with Control, b p<0.05 or b p<0.01 in comparison with Lucknow c p<0.05 or c p<0.01 in comparison with Barabanki, d p<0.05 or d p<0.01 in comparison with Sultanpur Table 5: Summary (Mean SE, n=10) of bacteriological parameters in different seasons- Seasonal Variations Parameters Pre monsoon Monsoon Post monsoon Total Coli Faecal Coli (FC) Faecal Strepto Coli (FS) FC/FS b a 343

8 a a Note: p<0.05 or p<0.01 in comparison with Monsoon b p<0.05 or b p<0.01 in comparison with Post monsoon Table 6: Summary (Mean SE, n=10) of bacteriological parameters in two different years- Temporal Variations Parameters Total Coli (TC) Faecal Coli (FC) Faecal Strepto Coli (FS) FC/FS Note: ns- p>0.05, **- p< ns ns ns ** Table 7: Correlation coefficients between the Physico-chemical parameters and bacteriological parameters in the stretch of river Gomti Temp. Water TS TDS SS ph Cond. COD BOD DO TC FC FS Temp. Water 1.00 TS TDS SS ph Cond COD BOD DO TC FC FS Note: TS= Total Solids, TDS= Total Dissolved Solids, SS= Suspended Solids, Cond. =Conductivity, COD= Chemical Oxygen Demand, BOD= Biological Oxygen Demand, DO=Dissolved Oxygen, TC= Total Coli, FC= Faecal Coli, FS= Faecal Streptocoli

9 Mean values Mean values Mean values Assessment of Physico-Chemical properties and sewage pollution indicator bacteria in surface water of River Total Coli Faecal Coli (FC) Faecal Strepto Coli Control Lucknow Barabanki Sultanpur Jaunpur Locations Figure 1: Bar graph showing spatial variations of different bacteriological parameters in water of river Gomti Pre monsoon Monsoon Post monsoon Seasons Total Coli Faecal Coli (FC) Faecal Strepto Coli Figure 2: Bar graph showing seasonal variations of different bacteriological parameters in water of river Gomti Years Total Coli Faecal Coli (FC) Faecal Strepto Coli Figure 3: Bar graph showing temporal variations of different bacteriological parameters in water of river Gomti. 345

10 Figure 4: Bar graph showing correlation between Physico-chemical parameters and bacteriological parameters. 3. Conclusion The present study revealed that water quality of river Gomti from upstream to downstream was found to be more polluted with reference to bacteriological parameters rather than all physico-chemical parameters. The high values of sewage pollution indicator bacteria detected, revealed that the microbiological quality of water of river Gomti was very poor, unsafe and not acceptable for any purpose especially in Lucknow and Barabanki districts. The main cause of the Coliform pollution is the total absence of the wastewater treatment system for all cities situated along side of Gomti River. The deterioration in water quality is found due to the regular outfalls of more than 26 drains only in Lucknow. A number of industries discharge their industrial effluent in to river especially in Barabanki and at other locations. Due to presence of such huge amount of pollutants in to surface water, river lost their self purifying nature, resulting high level of pathogenic bacteria. Despite the above scenario, the people use the water of river Gomti for various purposes. That s why proper treatment of waste water before merging in to river Gomti needed for good water ecology and to avoid various human diseases 4. References 1. Abida B. and Harikrishna, (2008). Study on the Quality of Water in Some Streams of Cauvery River, Journal of Chemistry, ISSN: , 5(2), Ahipathi M.V., and Puttaiah, E.T (2006). Ecological Characteristics of Vrishabhavathi River in Bangalore (India), Environmental Geology, 49,pp Faith Ngwenya, (2006). Water Quality Trends in the Eerste River, Western Cape, A mini thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Magister Scientiae, Integrated Water Resources Management in the Faculty of Natural Science, University of the Western Cape. pp

11 4. Harwood, V.J., Brownell, M., Perusek, W., Whitelock, J.E (2001). Vancomycinresistant Enterococcus sp. Isolated from waste water and chicken feces in the United States. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 67 (10) H.B.Mahananda, M.R. Mahananda, and B.P. Mohanty, (2005) Studies on the Physico-chemical and Biological Parameters of a Fresh Water Pond Ecosystem as an Indicator of Water Pollution. Ecology Environment & Conservation.11 (3-4), pp Kistemann, T., Claben, T., Koch, C., Dangendorf, F., Fischeder, R., Gebel, J., Vacata, V., Exner, M., (2002). Microbial load of drinking water reservoir Tributaries during extreme rainfall and runoff. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 68, Mohamed Hatha, Abhirosh chandran, and Sherin Varghese, (2008). Increased Prevalence of Indicator and pathogenic bacteria in the Kumarankom Lake: A function of salt water Regulator in Vembandu Lake, A Ramsar site, along west coast of India. The 12 th World Lake Conference: Mahananda, M.R, (2010). Physico-Chemical analysis of surface water and ground water of Bargarh District, Orissa, India. International Journal of Research and Review in Applied Sciences, 2 (3), pp N. Kumar, (1997) A View on Freshwater environment, Ecology. Environment & Conservation. 3, (3-4). 10. Okpokwasili, G.C., Akujobi, T.C (1996). Bacteriological indicators of tropical water quality. Environmental Toxicology and Water Quality. Vol. (11), Pathak, S.P., Gopal, K (2001). Rapid detection of Escherichia coli as an indicator of faecal pollution in water. Indian Journal of Microbiology. 41, Pipes, W.O (1981). Bacterial indicators of pollution. CRC Press Inc., Boca Raton, FL, p River Rehabilitation: Literature Review, Case studies and Emerging Principles. WRC Report No. 1161/1/ Scott, T.M., Salina, P., Portier, K.M., Rose, J.B., Tamplin, M.L., Farrah, S.R., Koo, A., Lukasik, J (2003). Geographical variation in ribotype profiles of Escherichia coli isolates from human, swim, poultry, beef and dairy cattle in Florida. Applied Environmental.Microbiology 69 (2), Sandy C, Richard F (1995). Quality and Standard for Drinking Water Chapter 3 Environmental Health Engineering in the Tropics. And Introductory Textbook Wiley Inter Science. 2nd Edition. ISBN , p Shehane, S.D., V.J. Harwood, J.E. whitelock, and J.B.Rose (2005). The influence of rainfall on the incidence of Microbial faecal Indicators and the dominant sources of faecal pollution in a Florida river. Journal of Applied Microbiology. 98,

12 17. USEPA, Manual on Monitoring Water Quality. EPA 841-B Venkatesharaju K., Ravikumar. P., Somashekar. R. K., Prakash. K. L (2010). Physico- Chemical and Bacteriological Investigation on the river Cauvery of Kollegal Stretch in Karnataka. Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology, 6(1), pp