Fishponds host dis+nct communi+es

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1 Annex-11 Food Web and Microbes Fishpond Food Web O 2 CO 2 Photosynthetic Grazers NUTRIENTS Fish Chemosynthetic Fishponds host dis+nct communi+es Kapalaho Fishpond (Keaukaha, HAWAII) Hale O Lono (Keaukaha, HAWAII) Loko Waka Fishpond (Keaukaha, HAWAII) HFP Hale O Lono Kapalaho Kiholo Loko Waka Waiahole -0.3 Paepae O He eia (He eia, OAHU) Kiholo Fishpond (Kiholo, HAWAII) 1

2 Communi'es correlated to physical variables TEMPERATURE ( C) SALINITY ph FREE-LIVING 34 p = p = p = PARTICLE ASSOCIATED P < p = p =

3 Annex-12 Seasonal and Tidal Effects Hoʻoilo-Kona Dry Season- October through April l Winter (short cool days) l Large north and west swells, wave action, wave set up, mixing l Little wind, little rain l Fewer species spawning in this season. Strong mixing by winter swells, less exposure to SGD with wave set up and mixing, cleaning out of accumulated biomass and detritus. Kaʻu-Kona Wet Season- April through October l Summer (long hot days) l Long period south swells, little wave action on north facing shores l Winds: Kona, Hurricanes, Tradewinds l High frequency of late afternoon or early evening showers l Blooms, reproduction of macroalgae l Many species of fish spawning l Late in the season fish stocks are high Calm seas, more exposure to SGD (salinity, ph, nutrients, mixing) under calm conditions, build up of biomass in macroalgae and fish stocks. Effects of the tidal cycle Pulsing changes in salinity, nutrients, temperature and ph with the tidal cycle. With zonation. Percent difference change in resistivity between high at low tide at Kiholo Bay and Wailupe Beach. (Dimova et all 2012). 3

4 Organism(s) Phytoplankton and Bacteria- Macroalgae and Marine Plants- Animals- Ecosystems- Effects of SGD l Diatom blooms with DIP, DIN, and silicate. l Cascading effects of diatom blooms l Cyanobacteria can increase with diatom cascade, but can also decrease with diatom competition, increase with salinity. l Fecal indicator bacteria and viruses from anthropogenic waste sources. l Blooms are common where DIN pollution is high l Reduced biodiversity with DIN pollution l High macroalgae biomass possible at SGD seeps l Decreased biomass in some species with Increased competition and epiphytes l Reduction in coral cover and species diversity, reduced calcification, disease from bacteria l Increased fibropapillomatosis virus tumors in Chelonia mydas with algal blooms l Meiofauna and fish can increase or decrease with SGD l Dynamic, productive and structured l Zones of SGD tolerance 4

5 Annex-13 Fluctuations in Groundwater h"ps:// h"ps:// Midpoint of Transi1on Zone Seawater h"ps:// h"ps:// 5

6 KAHO2 KAHO3 Baseline period = 7/23/2007 to 12/31/2008 Baseline period = 9/25/2007 to 12/31/2008 h9ps:// h9ps:// 6

7 Annex-14 Ranges of Salinity What is the known ranges of water salinity levels in the 3dal pools and ponds and how are they measured? Anchialine Pool Salinity Ranges West Hawaii: I don t know NELHA: psu (n=278, 1993 present) Measurements Techniques UNlized at NELHA Grab Sample/Salinometer In-situ Measurement present a. Best understanding of the current state of knowledge about the known ranges of water and salinity levels in 8dal pools and ponds? State of Knowledge: NELHA has a comprehensive understanding of salinity concentra:ons in the three anchialine pond complexes it monitors since 1993 Makalawena vs. NELHA Anchialine Ponds Salinity (PSU) /1/86 Makalawena /1/91 1/1/96 Makalawena 2 12/31/00 Makalawena 3 1/1/06 NELHA A1 1/1/11 NELHA A2 Kawaihae Sea Level, mm above sta:on datum NELHA has NO level gauge measurements in the three anchialine pond complexes on its property. Data from the Kawaihae sea level gauge suggests a rise of ~6.9 mm/year (0.27 in./year). Global average sea level rise is ~3.1 mm/year (0.12 in./year) 1/1/16 NELHA A3 Sea Level 7

8 b. What are the cri,cal pieces of addi,onal research that might help improve knowledge if money,,me and energy were invested Mul$ple level and salinity sensors deployed in anchialine ponds in West Hawaii that communicate to a centralized database with access to a dashboard plo:ng real $me condi$ons and archiving raw data. The data generated can be analyzed to determine condi$ons outside of the normal environmental varia$ons. These abnormal condi$ons can trigger alerts to resource mangers so mi$ga$ve ac$ons can be implement, if necessary. Sensors Communica$ons Database Control Charts and Alerts 8

9 Annex-15 Kohaniki Monitoring Kohanaiki Monitoring Program 8 production wells and 8 monitor wells are sampled monthly All data is submitted to CWRM Equipment: Solinst Water Level Meter (Sounding Tape) Solinst Level Logger 3001: Date/Time, Submergence, Temp. (F), & Conductivity (µs/cm) Hach Chlorides Test Kit (titration) 9

10 MW Profile Data 10

11 Annex-16 Impacts on Limu Factors that Influence the Perception of Coastal Groundwater Discharge Groundwater Quality Pollutants (Nutrients) Receiving Water Biological Community Herbivore Populations Introduced Invasive Species Climate Change Precipitation Sea Level Rise 11