Monitoring site - Indian Creek

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1 Indian Creek Watershed Management Plan GIS and EPA Bacteria Indicator Tool (BIT) February 17, Indiana GIS Conference Bloomington Monroe County Convention Center Stacey Jarboe, Stantec t Consulting

2 Presentation Outline Indian Creek Watershed Overview Water Quality Problems Bacteria Indicator Tool (BIT) Intro BIT Inputs BIT Results

3 Background What is a watershed? Large HUC Small HUC

4 Background Watershed Management A Good Approach The Big Picture Monitoring site - Indian Creek

5 Indian Creek Watershed Drains 256 square miles Harrison, Floyd, Clark Counties Over 66 miles of impaired streams Numerous karst features, including Binkley Cave

6 Indian Creek Watershed Grant Funded Clean Water Act Section 205(j) Grant : Watershed Coordinator & Committee Public Outreach Water Quality Monitoring Inventory Sinkholes (Presentation Tomorrow) Watershed Management Plan

7 Indian Creek Watershed Goal Foster economic development, preserve environmental quality and enhance the quality of life for all who live and work in the Indian Creek Watershed Approach to address water quality issues prior to IDEM TMDLs

8 Indian Creek Watershed Soils and Septic

9 Indian Creek Watershed Karst Features Sinks Sinks - 14,850

10 Indian Creek Watershed Karst Features Unique Watershed Sinks of Indian Creek No Flow Downstream Opportunity to protect Blue River Harrison Spring

11 Indian Creek Watershed E.Coli Monitoring Results

12 Indian Creek Watershed IDEM 303(d) 3(d) List Bacteria Main Pollutant of Concern Recreational Use Support Elevated E. Coli -2006: 36.7 miles -2008: 66 miles Indian Creek TMDLs scheduled

13 Indian Creek Watershed Bacteria Main Pollutant of Concern Recreational Use Impairments Due to elevated bacteria, 66 miles of streams are considered d impaired for primary contact recreational use. Primary Contact Recreation = Swimming

14 Indian Creek Watershed Bacteria Main Pollutant of Concern Potential ti Sources of E. Coli Human Sources Wastewater treatment plants in non-compliance Stormwater Failing Septic Systems Animal Sources Livestock Wildlife, Pets Monitoring Site Floyd County Bacteria Indicator Tool -better understanding of sources

15 Bacteria Indicator Tool Introduction EPA spreadsheet tool estimates relative contribution of bacteria sources from Land-Based Sources Septic systems Cattle in streams Site 6 Algae

16 Bacteria Indicator Tool Limitations - Does not simulate transport to streams or sinkholes from non- point sources - unless used with Hydrological Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF) - Results reflect accumulation on land

17 Bacteria Indicator Tool Inputs Overview Run on 24 subwatersheds Tool Inputs for each subwatershed Land Use/ Land cover Animal census Animal access to streams Manure application Septic systems & failure rates Wildlife data

18 Bacteria Indicator Tool Outputs Overview Bacterial Indicator Tool Outputs Counts / acre / day from land based sources Counts / day from direct inputs to water Cattle in streams Failing septic systems

19 BIT Inputs: Land Use / Land Cover Step 1: Reclassify Land Use Source: 2001 Land Cover in Indiana, Derived from USGS

20 BIT Inputs: Land Use / Land Cover Step 1: Reclassify Land Use BIT Land Use Classes: Built-upup = 21 Low Int. Res; 22- High Intensity Res; 23-Commercial/ indust./transportation Crop = 82-Row Crops Pasture =81- Pasture/ Hay Forest = 41- Deciduous Forest, 42-Evergreen Forest, 43- Mixed Forest Not Included d 11 open water; 33 transitional; 85 urban recreational grasses; 91 & 92 wetlands (<0.004% of total area)

21 BIT Inputs: Land Use / Land Cover Step 2: Identity Tool No clipping data for 24 subsheds Note: If using a shapefile, remember to recalculate acreage field

22 BIT Inputs: Land Use / Land Cover Step 3: Dissolve Dissolve tool: Aggregate the data based on: Watershed # BIT Class BIT Detail Statistics: Sum of Acres

23 BIT Inputs: Land Use / Land Cover Data Entry Save as Excel Workbook (.xls) Reformat using Pivot table Copy and Paste data into BIT

24 BIT Inputs: Agricultural Animals Process Overview 1. Large farms (CAFO/CFO) subtracted (Source: IDEM) 2. Census of Ag Numbers evenly distributed 3 CAFO/CFO Numbers 3. CAFO/CFO Numbers were added back to appropriate subwatersheds

25 BIT Inputs: Agricultural Animals Step 1: Create Framework Table in ArcMap Starting w/ the shapefile we created for Land Use, Create shapefile with Subwatershed Boundaries Land Use Boundaries AND County Boundaries Save DBF in as.xls and start calculation tables in Excel

26 BIT Inputs: Agricultural Animals Step 2: Excel Calculations Workbook Known: Acres of pastureland / county Animals / county Acre of pastureland / subwatershed Calculate: Animals per acre of pastureland for each county Finally animals in each subwatershed Repeat Excel calculations for each livestock type Add large farm #s into WS were located

27 BIT Inputs: Agricultural Animals Step 3: Data Entry Use Pivot Tables to format data as needed in BIT Copy and Paste Saves time More accurate that manual entry

28 BIT Inputs: Agricultural Animals Final Data Entry Table SUBWATERSHED BEEF CATTLE SWINE (HOGS) DAIRY CATTLE CHICKENS HORSES SHEEP OTHER P P P P P P P P P P TOTAL

29 BIT Inputs: Agricultural Animals Embedded Calculations The BIT calculates counts/acre/day of accumulation in soil Embedded formula s and production rates for each animal type

30 BIT Inputs: Agricultural Animals Manure Application Rates Manure Application Rates (by month) were obtained from IDEM and Purdue Defaults were used

31 BIT Inputs: Agricultural Animals Grazing County Extension offices were consulted regarding local grazing patterns Assumed cattle have access to streams during grazing months Default values were used Example: Beef Cattle confined- Dec, Jan, Feb, March

32 BIT Inputs: Number of Septic Systems and Failure Rates Census blocks were used to calculate population per subwatershed Calculate l demographics script - VERY USEFUL Data from Hoosier Environmental Council and County Health Departments were used for failure rates and % of households on septic

33 BIT Inputs: Wildlife Limited data available for counts of wildlife Defaults were used

34 BIT Results Land Based Bacteria Sources Results indicated loadings are: Lower in Floyd Co Higher in western Harrison Higher in lower Indian Ck Does not account for: Cattle in streams Septic systems Karst system

35 BIT Results Septic Systems as a Point Source Septic System Results Tool indicated direct loadings from failing septic systems are: Higher in Floyd Co Lower in Harrison Overall lower than cattle in streams

36 BIT Results Cattle In Stream Cattle in Streams Results Tool indicated direct loadings from cattle in streams are: Lower in Floyd Co Higher in Harrison Overall higher than septic systems

37 BIT Results Septic Systems Estimated Fecal Coliform from Failing Septic Systems Estimated Fecal Coliform Inputs to Water from Failing Septic Systems 3.00E E+09 (Counts / Day) Fecal Coliform 2.00E E E E E+00 P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 P7 P8 P9 P10 P11 P12 P13 P14 P15 P16 P17 P18 P19 P20 P21 P22 P23 P24 Subwatershed

38 BIT Results Cattle in Streams Estimated Fecal Coliform Inputs from Cattle to Water Estimated Inputs to Water from Cattle in Streams From USEPA Bacterial Indicator Tool 6.00E E+13 Fecal Coliform (C Counts / Day) 4.00E E E E E+00 P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 P7 P8 P9 P10 P11 P12 P13 P14 P15 P16 P17 P18 P19 P20 P21 P22 P23 P24 Subwatershed

39 BIT Conclusion BIT Analysis Benefits Compare Subwatersheds Compare Relative Source Contributions More informed and targeted strategies for water quality improvement For more information:

40 Questions? Stacey Jarboe Stantec Consulting Services Inc Stantec Booth Today 350 Missouri Ave Suite 100 and Tomorrow Jeffersonville, IN