Multiple Choice Write the letter that best answers the question or completes the statement on the line provided.

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1 Name Class Date Chapter 6 Humans in the Biosphere Chapter Test A Multiple Choice Write the letter that best answers the question or completes the statement on the line provided. 1. The arrival of Europeans in the Hawaiian Islands changed the islands by introducing a. new crops. c. pigs and rats. b. new ways of farming. d. all of the above 2. Early hunters and gatherers in North America are responsible for a. natural plant and animal populations. b. a major extinction event of large animals. c. producing new varieties of crops. d. inventing technology such as manufactured tools. 3. A resource, such as air or parts of the oceans, that is open to anyone is often preserved and protected by a. national organizations. b. everyone. c. the country near which it is located. d. no one. 4. Which is a way to limit deforestation? a. use more wood products b. plant and harvest trees on tree farms c. increase carbon dioxide levels d. fertilize the soil 5. The sulfur and nitrogen compounds in smog combine with water to form a. ozone. c. acid rain. b. ammonia. d. chlorofluorocarbons. 6. An example of a sustainable-use practice is the use of beneficial insects like ladybugs to a. harm natural resources. b. pollinate plants. c. control unwanted pests. d. eat unwanted plants. 7. The number of different species in the biosphere is called a. biodiversity. c. genetic diversity. b. ecosystem diversity. d. species diversity. Chapter 6 Test A 67

2 Name Class Date 8. Biodiversity is valuable in the biosphere because it a. gives us interesting things to look at. b. tells us about many other species. c. is the biological life-support system of our planet. d. provides humans with resistance to disease. 9. One property that makes DDT hazardous over time is that DDT is a. an insecticide. c. nonbiodegradable. b. a perfect pesticide. d. deadly to herbivores. 10. All of the following are threats to biodiversity EXCEPT a. biological magnification of toxic compounds. b. habitat fragmentation. c. invasive species. d. species preservation. 11. As DDT moves up the trophic levels in food chains, its concentration a. stays the same. c. increases. b. decreases. d. is eliminated. 12. The goals of conservation biology include all of the following EXCEPT a. wise management of natural resources. b. protection and management of individual species. c. preservation of habitats and wildlife. d. introducing foreign species into new environments. 13. Protecting ecosystem diversity is a goal of a. the green revolution. b. conservation biology. c. the captive breeding program. d. the United Nations. 14. Some scientists think that global warming is a. a natural variation in climate. b. a result of human activity. c. melting the polar ice caps. d. all of the above 15. The major cause of ozone depletion is a. nitric acid. c. chlorofluorocarbons. b. sulfuric acid. d. ultraviolet light. 68 Chapter 6 Test A

3 Name Class Date Completion Complete each statement on the line provided. 16. To prevent certain fish populations from collapsing, certain have been temporarily closed. 17. A location that has 170 species of birds has greater than a location that has 100 species of birds. 18. Excessive levels of DDT in top-level consumers are a result of. 19. Zoos have established programs in which young animals are raised in protected surroundings until the population is stable and are later returned to the wild. 20. Intense UV radiation due to ozone depletion can damage plant leaves and in the oceans. Short Answer In complete sentences, write the answers to the questions on the lines provided. 21. How do modern subsistence hunters differ from ancient huntergatherers? 22. What is the tragedy of the commons? 23. What are the the goals of sustainable development, and upon what principles are sustainable practices based? 24. What is a biodiversity hot spot? Where is such a hot spot in the United States? Chapter 6 Test A 69

4 Name Class Date 25. Describe three services that are provided by a healthy biosphere. Using Science Skills Use the graph below to answer the following questions on the lines provided. Worldwide Use of Chemical Fertilizers (per year) (million metric tons) Figure Using Charts and Graphs The Green Revolution has doubled food production over the last 50 years. Starting in 1965, in what year did the amount of chemical fertilizers used worldwide double, according to Figure 6-1? 27. Analyzing Data Describe the data in Figure 6-1. Does it indicate that the Green Revolution was meeting its goal? Explain. 28. Applying Concepts How might the trend in Figure 6-1 up to 1990 relate to the practice of monoculture? 70 Chapter 6 Test A

5 Name Class Date 29. Formulating Hypotheses Formulate a hypothesis that, if supported by testing, would explain the trend shown in Figure 6-1 after Making Judgments Examine the trend in chemical fertilizer use from 1965 to 1990 shown in Figure 6-1. Is this a sustainable use of resources? Explain. Essay Write the answer to each question in the space provided. 31. How is Earth like an island? 32. What causes acid rain? What is the effect of acid rain on natural habitats? Chapter 6 Test A 71

6 Name Class Date 33. Discuss biodiversity as a source of medicines. 34. What are introduced species? How are they a threat to biodiversity? 35. Discuss one of the challenges to conservation efforts in developing countries. 72 Chapter 6 Test A

7 Name Class Date Chapter 6 Humans in the Biosphere Section Review 6-1 Reviewing Key Concepts Short Answer On the lines provided, describe some of the environmental costs and benefits associated with each of the four human activities that have changed the biosphere. Human Activity Benefits and Costs Hunting and gathering 1. Agriculture 2. Industry 3. Urban development 4. Reviewing Key Skills 5. Comparing and Contrasting How does modern subsistence hunting differ from the poaching of animals for tusks, horns, or hides? 6. Applying Concepts How did the domestication of animals help to provide humans with a dependable food supply? 7. Comparing and Contrasting What are some differences between traditional and modern agriculture? 8. Comparing and Contrasting How would the number of plant species found in a monocultured area differ from the number found to grow in a wilderness area? 9. Applying Concepts What is meant by the phrase the green revolution? How has it affected food production? 10. Applying Concepts What effect might a shortage of fossil fuels or mineral resources have on industry? Teaching Resources /Chapter 6 67

8 Name Class Date Chapter 6 Humans in the Biosphere Section Review 6-2 Reviewing Key Concepts Short Answer On the lines provided, answer the following questions. 1. What is the difference between renewable and nonrenewable resources? 2. How do human activities lead to desertification? 3. What effect does deforestation have on forest resources? 4. What is the atmospheric result of the burning of fossil fuels? 5. What human actions have affected our water and ocean resources? Reviewing Key Skills Classifying On the lines provided, classify each as either a renewable resource or a nonrenewable resource Applying Concepts What is the tragedy of the commons? 10. Applying Concepts Give one example each of sustainable practices for land, air, and water resources. 68 Teaching Resources /Chapter 6

9 Name Class Date Chapter 6 Humans in the Biosphere Section Review 6-3 Reviewing Key Concepts Short Answer On the lines provided, list four human activities that are current threats to biodiversity Why is biodiversity one of Earth s greatest natural resources? 6. Why do conservation efforts currently focus on protecting entire ecosystems as well as single species? Reviewing Key Skills Interpreting Graphics Use the following diagram to answer questions 7 through 9. Fish-eating birds Large fish Magnification of DDT concentration 10,000,000 1,000,000 Small fish 100,000 Zooplankton Producers Water 7. Identify the process shown in this diagram. 8. What do the small dots represent? 9. What are the effects of the process shown? 10, Applying Concepts Explain the term biological hot spot. Teaching Resources /Chapter 6 69

10 Name Class Date Chapter 6 Humans in the Biosphere Section Review 6-4 Reviewing Key Concepts Short Answer On the lines provided, answer the following questions. 1. What important factor does the ozone layer serve in Earth s atmosphere? 2. Why are scientists concerned about the depletion, or thinning, of the ozone layer? 3. What is global warming? 4. Why are scientists concerned about the effect of global warming on the atmosphere? Reviewing Key Skills 5. Applying Concepts Why is it important to phase out the use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)? 6. Applying Concepts Describe three possible effects of global warming. Applying Concepts List three services that ecosystems provide Problem Solving Identify one change humans can make to help solve ecological problems. 70 Teaching Resources /Chapter 6

11 Name Class Date Chapter 6 Humans in the Biosphere Chapter Vocabulary Review Crossword Puzzle Use the clues below and on the following page to complete the puzzle Across 2. wearing away of surface soil by wind and water: erosion 7. layer of atmosphere that absorbs ultraviolet light 8. resource that can regenerate and is therefore replaceable 9. mixture of chemicals that occurs as a haze in the atmosphere 10. way of using resources at a rate that does not deplete them: use 11. disappearance of a species from all or part of its geographical range 12. type of diversity that includes all forms of genetic information carried by all organisms 13. precipitation that contains drops of nitric and sulfuric acid: acid 14. type of subsistence foraging 15. method of farming in which large fields are cleared and planted with a single crop year after year Teaching Resources /Chapter 6 71

12 Name Class Date Down 1. practice that uses new intensive farming practices to increase food production: revolution 2. mixture of either smoke and fog or chemicals and sunlight 3. fish farming 4. harmful material that can enter the biosphere through the air, land, or water 5. loss of forests 6. the practice of farming 11. variety of different habitats, communities, and ecological processes: diversity 12. type of warming that shows the trend in increasing temperature of Earth Multiple Choice On the lines provided, write the letter of the answer that best completes the sentence or answers the question. 16. A resource that cannot be replenished by natural processes is called a. nonrenewable. c. renewable. b. a stockpile. d. scarce. 17. The sum total of the variety of organisms in the biosphere is called a. diversity. c. genetic diversity. b. biodiversity. d. species diversity. 18. Development can split a habitat into smaller parts, in an effect known as a. biological magnification. c. ecosystem diversity. b. habitat conservation. d. habitat fragmentation. 19. Populations that are introduced into a new habitat and reproduce rapidly are known as a. diverse species. c. parasites. b. invasive species. d. predators. 20. The increasing concentration of a harmful substance in organisms at higher trophic levels in a food chain or food web is called a. biological magnification. c. biodiversity. b. desertification. d. genetic diversity. 21. What term is used to describe a species whose population is rapidly shrinking and might disappear completely? a. endangered c. extinct b. threatened d. invasive 22. In ecology, what term is used to describe the wise management of natural resources? a. renewable c. conservation b. equilibrium d. diverse 72 Teaching Resources /Chapter 6