! "!# $%&'! 1 BC 1 = 6D'

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "! "!# $%&'! 1 BC 1 = 6D'"

Transcription

1 1392#$% 3! )*+! "!# $%&'! 3 6,512 1%+ <('! ;: * ()*+, - 1-' 9%-.1 1%+ <('! ;: 2 A>.2 1%+ <('! %( A>.3 (1392/2/17 : -1391/6/26 : ) 1 BC F? 2<E? #8 92 B.8 6 : 6;<= > : %12 5= 68 CL= MN7 O PEQ RS= B B 9 :D8 H97 )<8 G> 1*D[8 [ V7 V2<7 V :9XY U! 7 W 1*D8 V<7 <2<2 O<T8 [ IJ[K 8 7 )<+6 V2<7 V :9XY U! (III) 7 W )<[+ [ = FJ[; 1_D[8 `a9 4 )#C 1*D8 ^*8 12 V7 V<7 #C XY H97 #[CV[ [ e<[ :[9< U= 6 #= Macro (16 c) SPSS #CV W 76 b D.C2 [XY gh[= [= (P < 0/01) : <6 ^*8 <9 V7 V<7 XY b `8= Excel # b D 8.C H #C <9 XY G> V7 V<7 XY H #C.< G> 6DC76 :9 = V<[7 J[;1[2 : ^*8 12 b D i8 B.8 1< <9 D 6 XY 67.8 P8 3%12 :C V7 1 = 6D'. 3%12 B_8 )#C 1<E? :9G> ^* :B*= < *

2 1392%&' 3"# 66! [ [SS.(Prabha et al., [Lo B[ FJ; G> V<7 XY H #C [XY 68 H #C )v 12 H [? G[> V2<7 V<7 V2 100 <[9 6 V<7 XY 67 b D V<[7 [XY H #[C 67 :6<26 w< )*D B[ [XY (V2<[7 [ V ) G> 98/5 38/70/2P[[==6[[ <[[9 [[Lo P[==6[ 6 V2<7 V2.(Shen et al., V2<[7 [V[2[ : IJ[K: 4#2 SS= (Caerulescencs Thlaspi) [%<q6[7 12 G> [8 =gy[ 6D>! :!C x6 67 [[ = :[[_ R[[S=.(Ebbs et al., 1997) [+ W[z% [ n[ V[7 V<[7 D[ :[ [+ 8 Gardea-) [8 P[8 <7J[ )#[C 3[%1[2 [ : F[8H 3[% 5.(Torresdey, 2004 m*+ :1<E? G>#7 _DC? ^cd8 _DC? B Solhi et al., ) 81< =gy #7 +o B dsd :6[C<o B_8)#C b i{8 >6< B_[8)#C FJ; <9Hc <L>6 <> B D :K> i{8 6<.(Atashnama et al., 2006) < F8 #[C G[> 2<[E? IJ[K [}K RS= [8 3[%1[2 R V7 V<7 B_8 V[S :[91[2 6[ 9_ B.8 ~[E6[ ^*[8 1[2 B_8 )#C 2<E? [C :[96[ BD! 2<E?! FcD < < V H9% B [ IJ[K ^*[8 3[%1[2 <[= 8.1 G> (V<7 V7) B_8 )#C XY H97 B_[8 )#C D = XY B=.2 w1<e?.^*8 (V<7 V7) " 1E `[m <[ G[> [m? H #[C B_[8)#[C [Q 6[;<= 67 8 G> 2<E? D = JY: <2<2 :9: )N5 P8 )<;< B_[8 )#[C.(Dabiri, 1996) <[![ V [ F8 1<; n V7 V<7 M3< 3? V<[7.(Abedi Kopaei, : <[ [8 UE6 m=6 JY < +o B =GT> % UE6 65 Perez-Lopez et al., ) <[![ F<[ F[ 7 :[2Q :[91 B [=`[m 5 67?.(2008 R[ [Lo B C V<7 p J[Y dd7 8JY H[S [m? IJ[K [ 3? * o d< N8 :_ q 1*D[8 P86 V7.(Rahimi & Raisi, 1999) 6[ 6DC [D 3? o< r# % F< * = [ 6[7[8 <[;< Cr +6 Cr +3 U5[! 6 =[*D <[ 8 D D8 ;6; [DCsH[! V[7.(Panda & Choudhury, 2005) :[ :8 Uo 6[m;< [D 6[ 8 D :98 B 6.(Tirger et h=? <[;< B_[8 )#[C 2<[E? 6[ 6[;<= <X F<[ o U5 W 67 9G> )<[;< [ N[8 <! :94 t< B J2 g V< :7 [8 3%12 1<E? :9G> :7% [ 2[8 [8? 6[ %! 67 ONT[+.[8 :[7 [8 O<T[8 V< 6[7 1[! [92 8 o< 6 3%12 6[ W[Du 1*D[8 [ [ [ <[6[ [92 1<E? :9 :7% B_8 )#C :K [ 9[C )#[C 9< 68<= [ < `$No 1>v

3 277 01, *+ 2!3 4 " *8:3 ;<-. /'*+, Thomas, ) t[! [Lo ph (Rhoades, 1982) W[[5E 4 1*D[8 E? `8D% (Nelson & Sommers, 1986) t[! [Lo d[ V<[<? )D[8 4 6[ *C (Lindsay & Norvell, 1978) 4 6 G> U7 ud (Kuo, 1996) BE 4 )#[C U7 XY B= (Bremner, 1996) [C2 )<[+ `a9 4 6 G> B_8 1*D[8 (Ebrahimpour & Mushrifah, 2008a) Shimadzu AA 6300 Flame [ = [7 )<[+6[ R[S= V[ _ :7 :[[DD[[ R[[ o 1*D[[8 <[[ G[[> 1_? 6 6m= o# :9G> <[o :[D[ 4 WE X < USD )+<L> (Sayyari-Zahan et al., :[94 i[8? [! [5 #C [ G> C B= 9_? (Gee & Bauder, 1986) 4 1*D8 t! Lo 5 Q *14, 8-. "# A%B CD8E..1=>? 9EG G> C in7 o EC (ds m -1 ) >F 8 -<E 33/2 41/52 25/28 0/4 15 2/21 9EG ph U7 ud (mg kg -1 *C (mg kg -1 `8D% Cd (mg kg -1 ) Cr (mg kg -1 ) >F 7/5 0/ <[X B[ 6D[! 6_ o `9 <6 )<+6 :[[? [[TSF? [[ [[o [[Cs [! d< 7:{8 B[= :[ = 1 <!! TSF? 6DC2 76 V7 V<7 B_8 )#C XY.(Marchiol et al., 2004) ;H!, <%?'G=H ;I=J, K.1.2 [;70:[ [? 96< V[ = W[> [= 1 Q <9 W> F[8? [q [9 <9 <[9 6[< [9 [!`[a9 :[ B[ [D 7 <[9 V2 50 [ [! 65 (HNO 3 ) W[ 1 Q DE O<T[8 ( [E 1*D8 = O B 7 W[ 1*D[8 V<7 <2<2 V2<[7 [ V :9XY U! U[!(III) 7 W[ 1*D[8 [ V[7 V2<[7 [ V[2[ :9XY :[ 9XY.5= 68 CL= MN7 O PEQ [ V[7 V<7 #C :[ 8-3 V<[7 : XY)? ^> F[cD (V2<[7 V V7.(Riley et al., 1992) )#[C 2<[E? [ :[.5= (F V[7 V<[7 [9 G> B_8 TSF? X <:9W )<+6 6[ n{8 6C} G> 6 ><5 <6 UK [ :9W i = [!7 )[ d<[ 6[D*9 G> [9G[> [<! V 9J

4 1392%&' 3"# 66! 278 [[; 100 :[[ [[ B[[! V[[ K o[[8 7 [[= [2 )<[+ `a9 Q 2D8 6[ V3 [ 86 :! E< (HClO 4 ) W[ [88 4 9BE W 9 [c= D! B! V K : 88 [ F? [ (Ebrahimpour & Mushrifa, I[+ [8[8 20 `[K 6[ TS= #[ H[8 :[ :[91Lo $Q 6! = FJ; 1_D8 B_8 )#C 1 Bioconcentration ) ;I=J H, K.3.2 (Factor [<= :[ [L>! (BCF) D[ XY <D7C #[C? [XY 6 > #C W = 12 6[ 6[7 (Ghosh & Singh, 2005) 8 G> D (1) d<c :<! 68 O! (HClO 4 ) 6C[} [96[< W 9 1*D8 1/56 5 [; 100:[ [B[! V[ K : d3 [96< 67 = 1 Q 2D8.(Ebrahimpour & Mushrifah, I*[! [= 1 [Q :<9 96< `a9 n% F? [ n{[8.(bahnasawy et al., [88 20`K 6 TS= )#[C #[ H[8 : :91Lo 6! = FJ; 1_D8 B_8!, <%?'G=H L ;I=J, K G> G> V2 9.<! e<c MN7 6[Dc [DE[ 50 :[9BE [ [88 65 W D 6 1#C 9BE W 9 6 D XY <D7C = (V2<7 V2) 92 C Lo XY B_ (V2<7 V2) G> 6 6C} XY (1 d<c V<7 FJ; <9 G> 6 6C} V<7 W T8 :? 9 IK 01, 8<;<6>! 687LM>F.1KA# ( ) #[CV[ 1*D[8 [ b [D?86 n% )<[+:[? U[= Macro و (16 c[) SPSS Excel #[CV[ [ e<[ :9< O.3 '1'!! ;I=J '1E.1.3 $%&' ' ^*[8 <[9 V<7 b D i8.8 1? 1 U5! V :9 = V<7 XY 0 < 5 < 50 < 100 )<[+6[ G[> V2<[7 [.8W> V2<7 V2

5 279 01, *+ 2!3 4 " *8:3 ;<-. /'*+, (O ) 01, 8< ;<6>! N!%5.2=>? V7 XY # 10620/63** 56/30 2/862 C QR! V<7 XY # 10865/10** 42/98 7/684 :? ; CP5 XY 1D! (%) )ƒ= P 1 T8 : ** FJ; V7 gy G> <;< V7 XY XY H97 IJK : 3%12 # x6?.7 1*D8 V7 G> 6 6C} W T8 :? 9 IK 6+) 01, 8< ;<6>! 67 LM.2KA# (O "(!! ;I=J '1E.2.3 $%&' ' '1' [S 6 12 <2<2 U En5o 67? B[ )[*= [ )[*D :92<E? V<7 V7 Lo = B Q.2 )<+ :6 S ^*8 <9 [ P[8V<[7 V7 )#C 6 6 2<E? [Q #[ [ )#C $Q # T> [ :6[ 2<[E? B[ [B 5.<!? <[=[ G[> )v [8 [} # <!! U7 <6 :[96[ :?[ [ 7 i< ^*8 <2[<2 :9XY V<7 XY [ 6[7 :6[<26[ w[8 1<[ )*D ^*8 <9 H #[C <9 XY G>? H #C <2[<2 O<T[8 [g n #= b D.8 6DC (2 G[> 6[DC[76 7 = <2 <9 V<7 XY 67 8? _ gh[= [= (P<٠/٠١): <6 ^*8 b [D B[ i[8 B [.[8 V<[7 [ = <[;< V<[7 XY ^*8 67 C <= B[ [XY G> b D 6 6;<=.<! G> Lo <D7[C B [=`m G> d< Lo B XY (2 1<[ 1[2 B[ :<[8 V<[7 FJ; gy 7> V[7 b [D 8.8 V[7 [XY [ (2 U5[!) ^*[8 <[ :[9 = ^*[8 <[9 100< 150 )<[+6[ G> V2<7 V W> V2<7 V2 0 <50 < V7 XY (III) 7 = G> V[7 [XY H #C ^*8 <9 n[ [ #= b [D 6 6;<=.C H #C G> [ = <2[<2 O<T[8 gh[= 6[ <= (2 1[2 [8<= V[7 XY Q (III) 7 d[ o 6[D B[ 6 7 1! ^*8 H #[C (III) 7 [ = <2[<2 O<T[8 ^*[8 1[2 <9 V7 #C XY 150 I[L [g.(p<0/01) [8 P[8 V[7 [XY G[> V7 V2<7 V2 H [ 6[ S ^*[8 <[9 i8 :_ ^*8 <2 67 C <= b D B

6 1392%&' 3"# 66! 280 V[7 V<[7 #[ 6[7 [ U[+K b 8 <9 D 6 B [.<[ J[%[5 6 CL= )<+6 6<2 B :96 (O ) 01, 8<;<6>! LM. 3=>? 8< ; <6>! LM,84 9 LM,84 LM ET 47/ V<7 145/ V<7 159/ V7 132/ V7 3[ [<= 12 B 8 V2<7 V2 :[) [ <> <9 #C = V[7 :[ 151/99 = V<7 V2<[7 [ V[2 319/06 = V<[7 3 S = 6 Q (W>.< <9 V7!! L ;I=J P*'.3.3 $%&' ' '1' 6[5 `[Y[o 4 6 6;<= ^*[ RD 7> :96< 276 [D 7 V[7 : 54 D 7 V<7 : ( ) 01, 8< ;<6>!*8:3;< < ; <6>! LM -. K7 LM LM ET 25/13 0/ 6 0 V<7 44/82 4/ /33 32/ /99 53/ / V7 246/6 250/ /5 258/ /06 275/ <[! c 92 ^cd8 x= : 92.<[![ 1*D8 <X B 9 : BCF>1 # ^*[8 <2 b D 6 6;<= B 6[ G[> V<[7 V[7 dsd FJ; :[ ^*[8 1[2 B [.[8 <[> <[9 P[8 V<7 V7 6 1<E? :9G> 3%12.8 ;I=J H [ (BCF) D[ [XY <D7[C [ #C FJ; #[C W[ = 12 <= : L>! 67 <! [ƒ=.8 G> D #C? XY 6 > 1[2 [9 <[= 6 D = <D7C # Singh, Ghosh &) _D[[ [[Lo [[XY [<2 U[D% D[ [XY <D7[C i[8.(2005

7 281 01, *+ 2!3 4 " *8:3 ;<-. /'*+, ( ) 01, LM 847B % Q5.5=>? 4 LM 847B LM ET 8/96 5 V<7 2/ / /93 50 V7 2/ / G[> [ 6[ S V<[7 [7 [ = Brown ) H #C FN}C BE = B[ [D [ [9H9% B b D 67 (et al., ST RS= G[> V[7 [XY H #[C ^*8 <2 B[.(1 U5!) C H #C <9 XY [E3 )v < b D b D Vajpayee et al.,1999; Sharma et ) [[ V[7 FJ[; (al.,1995; Sharma et al., 2003 [92 FJ[; H97 : SS. ST B[ 5 7v 3 V7 Jƒ= :[Y U[ o dnd[> U[ 3 *C ud H+ATPase 8N% _ +o `8D% [o6[ G[> [96[ 6[ P8? 8<= :[ V[7 *[C.<[! [ V[7 <[ 8 #[_ B[9? 2<[2 [ T8 FJ; :9U V7 8 B5 Q BDC dsd [ 1[2 `D8 U> 6 8 : gy <6 6[ 6[ V[7 [} Q +o B U[$<7 V[7 D[ <[ [8Y P[;< 6 :9d<8 :[}Y :[Lo V[7 7 EK.<! 8 B5 92 B 8 92 : V[7 dsd : +> b [D i[8.(shanker et al., 2005) D[ 6[ V7 V<7 XY U[E6[ 6 V7 XY M3 DK.< <9 6 d<$<7? = 6D`7: J%G= B[5 G[>? :3[ :9XY B.8 " R2.4 <6 ^*8 <2 <9 V<7 XY [.(2 < V<7 = gh= = :? [[XY G[[> V<[[7 [[XY H #[[C.(1 U5[!) [ <9 100 [ = V<[7 [XYH #C }K H9% gh= 6 <= 7 V2<7 7 [XY H #[C 7<[ n5{[ 7 G[> [ Cd +2 H #Cd<V<7U7 XY <! 6[ [8<= 7 FJ;67 [7 [XY H #[C [ B[z 9. d[6[ gy n5{ 7 U5!6 Cd +2 d< 6 FJ;:95 6d< G> V<7 7[8.(Khosravi et al., [ H #[C.[8 G U[7 <[6[ V<7 < 8 d[5=<7 C R 6 6 n% V<7 6[5 [ dsd Q<C :9C 6 [ [8N%<%? [ 6 V<7 [.<[! ` #2 ` #2 6 8N%`8 n5{[ 7 [9BD N7<[DC E? V<[7 <[ d<[ U5[= Q 96 [.(Benavides et al., [ d[sd <9 [ = [92 [ = [D% )[*= 6[ 6[;<= [= D[ <[P! ;*8 = V<7 [D 7 )[<K [= 8<D 87 8<8.(Torabian & Mahjori, G[> <9[7 V<[7 [XY :[_ H9%

8 1392%&' 3"# 66! 282 8! 7`7D 8<{ : :<8 1<E? 92 : 67 ƒ=.8 m% SS :[9n<[ I[L : 4 B Dm!<= n<[ 4 B[ w[8 := IL :u W <z 9 [2 `[m :94 ^cd[8 1<[E? n< :u B 6D[! :[LDQ 2 [[7 I[[L <[[7 [[ 6[[C<o <[[z 9 <[[=[[.(Khosrobaky et al., 2009) = ".5 )<+6 b D RS= B :96DC 6 6;<= :<! 6+N> ^*8 <9 V7 V<7 XY.1 :[9 = [XY gh[= [= :[ <6 [ [ =.8 G> 6DC76? XY G> V7 V<7 XY H #C. H #C <9 #C :9G> 3%12 m; <= ^* *D8 V<7 V7 6 1<E?. RS= B 3 = U = D 6 XY 67 # b D.3.8 1< <9 IL ^*8!7 67 S.4 U5 3%12 6 8? 7<> 6;<= 12 B C V7 `7 <3.<! 1 Shanker et al., ) <[ 12 < Q[ [96 V<7 < d< <6.(2005 d[sd <[9 [SS= [.(Benavides et al., [ V[7 =#C # Bennett et al., ) [8 D[ 1[2 [ F[8. ST RS= B D 67 (1999 P8 12 (6 I ) *8# )!= [+o <[![ G[> +o ENK H #C [8D8 [Q H #[C d< C :[94 [92.<[![ P[8 [Lo 6 12 [SC < FJ; : [X [E? 94 B FJ[; G[> [+o [ENK H #C : )D ? 7? _ 4.8m?.<! ULD SC :9G> G> d< B9? <[ FJ[; )[7= H #C.(Aghabaraty et al., H #C V<7 #C XY =H 92 V2<7 V2 100 D <9 [ V[2[ 1000 D[ V[7 :[ W[>.(Baker & Brooks, 1989) [8 W> V2<7 [X ^* ? 7K 4 b D [92 ˆ#[; <[9 V<[7 [ = B[ V[7 [ = [X [ [8 =H <[! C 92 o +<L>. [ V[7 IJ[K [8 U[D% 6[7 D[ XY <D7C P } BDC2X B 1No! dsd : <= 6<2 B W =r#. <> <9 Hc 6ET < )#C H9[7 1[2 8<= G> 2<E?! G[T> n<[

9 283 01, *+ 2!3 4 " *8:3 ;<-. /'*+, References 1. Atashnama, k., Golchin, A., Esmaili, M (2006) accumulation of some heavy metals in three crops including alfalfa forage, green pea and sainfoin, sum articles of Soil Conference, Environment and Sustainable Development, Tehran University, Karaj, Iran. (in Persian) 2. Abedi Kopaei, J., Dadmehr, R., Jolazadeh, F (1999) Phytoremediation, a method for reducing of industrial waste, Eleventh Annual Congress of Iranian Metallurgical Engineers Society, Isfahan, Iran. (in Persian) 3. Aghabaraty, A., Hosseini, S.M., Esmaili, A., Bahramifar, N., Maralyan, H (2008) Influence of urban wastewater on accumulation of heavy metals (chromium and nickel) in olive tree (Olea europaea L.) and soil, Researchs of Forests and Spruce, 16: (in Persian) 4. Bahnasawy, M., Khidr, A.A., Dheina, N (2009) Seasonal Variations of Heavy Metals Concentrations in Mullet, Mugil Cephalus and Liza Ramada (Mugilidae) from Lake Manzala, Egypt, Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 5(7): Baker, A.J.M., Brooks, R.R (1989) Terrestrial higher plants which hyperaccumulate metallic elements and review of their distribution, Ecology and Phytochemistry, Biorecovery 1: Benavides, M.P., Susana, M., Gallego Maria, L (2005) Cadmium toxicity in plants, Toxic Metals in Plants, 17: Bennett, J.P., Chiriboga, E., Coleman, J., Waller, D.M (1999) Heavy metals in wild rice from northern Wisconsin, The Science of the Total Environment, 246: Bremner, J.M (1996) Nitrogen-total. P In Sparks, D.L. et al., Method of soil analysis, Published by: Soil Science Society of America, Inc. American Society of Agronomy, Inc. Madison, Wisconsin, USA. 9. Brown, S.L., Chaney, R.L., Scott Angele, J., Ryan, J.A (1998) The phytoavailability of cadmium to lettuce in long term biosolids amended soils, Journal of Environmental Quality, 27: Dabiri, M (1996) Environmental pollution (air, water, soil, sound), Universityof Tehran Press (in Persian) 11. Ebbs, S.D., Lasat, M.M., Brady, D.J., Cornish, J., Gordon, R., Kochian, L.V (1997) Phytoextraction of cadmium and zinc from a contaminated soil, Journal of Environmental Quality, 26: Ebrahimpour, M., Mushrifah, I (2008a) Heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Cu and Pb) in five aquatic plant species in TasikChini, Malaysia, Environmental Geology, 54: Ebrahimpour, M., Mushrifah, I (2008b) Heavy metal concentrations in water and sediments in TasikChini, a freshwater lake, Malaysia, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 141: Gardea-Torresdey, J.L., Peralta-Videa, J.R., Montes, M., De La Rosa, G., Corral-Diaz, B (2004) Bioaccumulation of cadmium, chromium and copper by Convolvulus arvensis L.: impact on plant growth and uptake of nutritional elements, Bioresource Technology, 92: Gee, G.W., Bauder, J.W (1986) Particle size analysis, In klute (ed.) Methods of soil analysis Part 2nd ed.agron. Monger. 9. ASA and SSSA. Madison,WI.P Ghosh, M., Singh, S.P (2005) A review on phytoremediation of heavy metals and utilization of its by products, Applied ecology and environmental research, 3: Khosravi, F., Savaghebi Firoozabadi, Gh., Farahbakhsh, M (2009) The Effect of Potassium Chloride on Cadmium Uptake by Canola and Sunflower in a Polluted Soil, Journal of Water and Soil, 23: (in Persian) 18. Khosrobaky, N., Myrzaaghaei, M., Tavakoli, H (2009) Phytoremediation, amethod for purification of wastewater pollution in order to protect the environment and saving water, Scientific Conference of Water Challenge in Qom, the past, present and future, Qom, Iran. (in Persian) 19. Kuo, S (1996) Phosphorus. P In Sparks, D.L. et al., Method of soil analysis. Published by: Soil Science Society of America, Inc. American Society of Agronomy, Inc. Madison, Wisconsin, USA. 20. Lindsay, W.L., Norvell, W.A (1978) Development of DTPA soil test for zinc, iron, manganese and copper, Soil Science Society of America Journal, 42: Marchiol, L., Assolari, S., Sacco, P., Zerbi, G (2004) Phytoextraction of heavy metals by canola and radish grown on multicontaminated soil, Journal of Environmental Pollution, 132: Nelson, B.W., Sommers, L.E (1986) Total carbon,organic carbon and organic matter, In: A.L.Page et al. (Ed). Methods of soil analysis, Part 2.2nd ed. Agron. Monogr. 9. ASA. Madison, WI Panda, S.K., Choudhury, S (2005) Chromium stress in plants, Journal of Toxic Metals in plants, 17:

10 1392%&' 3"# 66! Perez-Lopez, M., Hermoso de Mendoza, M., Lopez Beceiro, A., Soler Rodr guez, F (2008) Heavy metal (Cd, Pb, Zn) and metalloid (As) content in raptor species from Galicia (NW Spain) Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 70: Prabha, K., Padmavathiamma, Y.Li., Loretta, Y.Li (2007) Phytoremediation Technology: Hyper-accumulation Metals in Plants, Water Air Soil Pollut 184: Rahimi, A., Raisi. M (1999) Definition of lead and cadmium in meat of caught fish in Choghakhor wetlands of Chahar Maha Province, Journal of Iran Veterinarian, (in Persian) 27. Riley, RG., Zachara, J.M., Wobber, F.J (1992) Chemical Contaminants on DOE Lands and Selection of Contaminated Mixtures for Subsurface Science research 28. Rhoades, J.D (1982) Soluble salts, In: A.L. Page (Editor), Methods of soil analysis, Part 2. 2nd ed. Agron. monoger. 9. ASA and SSSA. Madison, WI Sayyari-Zahan, M.H., Sadana, U.S., Steingrobe, B., Claassen, N (2009) Manganese efficiency and maganese-uptake kinetics of raya (Brassica juncea), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and oat (Avena sativa) grown in nutrient solution and soil, Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 172: Shanker, A.K., Cervanters, C., Loza- Tavera, H., Avudainayagam, S (2005) Chromium toxicity in plants, Environment International, 31: Sharma, D.C., Chatterjee, C., Sharma. C.P (1995) Chromium accumulation and its effects on wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. HD 2204) metabolism, Plant Science, 111: Sharma, D.C., Sharma, C.P., Tripathi, R.D (2003) Phytotoxic lesions of chromium in maize Chemosphere, 51: Shen, Z.G., zhao, F.J., McGrath, S.P (1997) Uptake and transport of zinc in the hyperaccumulator thlaspi caerulescens and the nonhyperaccumulator thlaspi ochroleucum, plant cell and Environment, 20: Solhi, M., Haji abbasi, M.A., Shariatmadari, H (2005) feasibility study of lead and zinc purification in contaminated soil by sunflower and rapeseed.in Isfahan, Eighth Congress of Soil Science, Soil Conservation and Watershed Research Center,Tehran, Iran. (in Persian) 35. Thomas, G.W (1996) Soil ph and soil acidity P In Sparks, D.L. et al., Method of soil analysis, Published by: Soil Science Society of America, Inc. American Society of Agronomy, Inc. Madison, Wisconsin, USA. 36. Tirger, A., Golbabaei, F., Shah taheri, S.J.A., Nori, K.A., Hamedi, J., Ganjali, M.R (2008) A comparative study of affecting factors on concentration of hexavalent chromium as an occupational carcinogens, Scientific, Journal of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences and Health Services, 2: (in Persian) 37. Torabian, A., Mahjori, M (2002) Effect of sewage irrigation on uptake of heavy metals by leafy vegetables in southern Tehran, Journal of Water and Soil Sciences, 16: (in Persian) 38. Vajpayee, P., Sharma, S.C., Tripathi, R.D., Rai, U.N., Yunus, M (1999) Bioaccumulation of chromium and toxicity to photosynthetic pigments, nitrate reductase activity and protein content of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn, Chemosphere, 39: