Energy Technology & Conservation. Week_02. Instructor: Mr. Adnan Qamar. Mechanical Engineering Department

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2 Energy Technology & Conservation Week_02 Instructor: Mr. Adnan Qamar Mechanical Engineering Department 2

3 Lecture Contents Overview of Energy Use World Energy Resources Renewable Energy Non renewable Energy Problems with current energy use Renewable Energy Resources 3

4 Overview of Energy Use Well known issues in energy sector Ever increasing energy usage Limited reserves of raw fossil fuels Improving standards of living increased consumption Global Insecurities Global warming 4

5 World Energy Consumption Dominance of fossil fuels MToe World total energy consumption by fuel (Mtoe) 5 Source: BP

6 World Energy Consumption World energy consumption per capita 2014 (Mtoe) Source: BP 6

7 Average Energy Consumption by Country Per capita average commercial energy use for selected countries. Source: Sustainable energy : choosing among options / Jefferson W. Tester...[et al.]. 2nd ed. 7

8 World total primary energy supply (TPES) from 1971 to 2013 by fuel (Mtoe) 8 Source: IEA Key World Energy Statics 2015 World Energy Supply Dominance of fossil fuels

9 Global Insecurities Middle east holds 42.7% of the world gas reserves and Europe& Eurasia 31% Source: BP-2015 Middle east holds 47.7% of the world gas reserves and Europe& Eurasia 9.1% 9 Source: BP-2015

10 Environmental impact Stratospheric ozone depletion Greenhouse gas emissions Global warming Acid rain Unsafe drinking water Hazardous/solid waste disposal Loss of plant and animal species, and human health and well-being. 10

11 Global Warming 11 Source:

12 Some Proposed Solutions Replace fossils with renewables (solar, wind) CO 2 Sequestration Move to biofuels Conservation Increase fuel efficiency Use hybrid cars/electronic cars etc Shale oil Geothermal 12

13 Energy Usage Categories Transportation gas and oil (mobile fuel) Heating gas and oil (anything) Electricity coal, nuclear, gas, hydro (lighting, cooling, industry) 13

14 Sustainable Development Sustainable development can be broadly defined as living, producing and consuming in a manner that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. The world has finite resources and a finite capacity to absorb the ecological burdens that humans may put on it. 14

15 Renewable Energy Renewable energy is the term used to cover those energy flows that occur naturally and repeatedly in the environment and can be harnessed for human benefit. The ultimate sources of most of this energy are the sun, gravity and the earth s rotation. Examples Hydropower Biomass Wind Energy Solar Energy Geothermal Energy Tidal Energy Wave Energy Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) 15

16 Non Renewable Energy Nonrenewable energy is energy obtained from static stores of energy that remain bound unless released by human interaction. Nonrenewable energy supplies are also called finite supplies. Examples nuclear fuels fossil fuels (coal, oil, natural gas). 16

17 Energy Resources 17

18 Expected Lifetime of Fuels Oil and natural gas - 50 yrs Coal years Oil shale and tar sands years Nuclear fission Today s light water reactors years Future breeders - 10,000 years Nuclear fusion DT reaction - 10,000 years DD reaction Renewables - 18

19 Forms of Renewable Energy Source: Boyle, G

20 Forms of Renewable Energy Source: Twidell et al. 20

21 Solar Energy Direct Uses Solar energy can be used directly for different purposes such as: Space or water heating at relative low temperatures by absorption in solar collectors. Passive heating in buildings designed to take advantage of solar energy. Generation of electricity by concentrating the solar energy in parabolic mirrors that heat up the water to several thousand C 21

22 Solar Energy Indirect Uses Hydro Energy one of the prevailing energy producing technologies, provides about 20% the world s electricity and up to 40 % in developing world Wind Energy Wind energy offers the potential to generate substantial amounts of electricity without the pollution problems of most conventional forms of energy. 39% (147GW)of the world s installed wind capacity is located in Asia pacific. (BP) 22

23 Solar Energy Indirect Uses Wave Energy Ocean waves are generated by wind passing over stretches of water. The total power of waves breaking on the world's coastlines is estimated at 2 to 3 million megawatts. OTEC OTEC, or ocean thermal energy conversion, is an energy technology that converts solar radiation to electric power. Each day, the oceans absorb enough heat from the sun to equal the thermal energy contained in 250 billion barrels of oil. 23

24 Solar Energy Indirect Uses Biomass Biomass is one of the major world fuel sources, especially in the third world, where it provides 40% of the requirements. It is considered CO2 neutral. Source: KTH Lectures 24

25 Non Solar Renewable Energy Tidal Energy Tidal energy is the result of the interaction of the gravitational pull of the moon and, to a lesser extent, the sun, on the seas. Geothermal Energy Geothermal energy results from heat stored in rock by earth s natural heat flow. Geothermal Capacity of the world in 2014 reached 12.6 GW. 25

26 Other renewables consumption by region (Mtoe) Current Renewable Energy Trends Other renewables share of power generation by region (Percentage) Source : BP,

27 Scientific Principles of Renewable Energy Availability of resource Dynamic Characteristics Quality of supply (Mechanical supplies, heat supplies, photon processes) Centralized Systems Situation Dependence Complex Systems 27

28 Technical Implications of Renewable Energy Prospecting the environment End Use requirement Matching supply and demand Control Options i. Spill excess energy ii. Incorporate Storage iii. Load Control 28

29 Matching Supply and Demand 29

30 Matching Supply and Demand 30

31 Social Implications of Renewable Energy Dispersed Living Pollution & Environmental Control Awareness Community Involvement Future Outlook 31

32 Questions? 32

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