Biomass to Renewables Which Technology and Which Product

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1 Biomass to Renewables Which Technology and Which Product 6 th World RE Tech Congress 2015 New Delhi 22 August 2015 Arvind Lali DBT ICT Centre for Energy Biosciences Institute of Chemical Technology (UDCT) Mumbai, India

2 Year 1000! Sustainable Co Existence A Closed C cycle Year 2015 Growth in last 100 years Non renewable C source C cycle Imbalance Un sustainable Existence

3 Sustainable Carbon Balance TWIN ACTION PLAN Direct Solar Waste Recycle

4 Sustainable Carbon Balance Primary Energy Secondary Energy LIQUID FUELS

5 Sustainable Carbon Balance Complete Recycle Primary Energy Secondary Energy LIQUID FUELS Solar energy Battery Transport fuel

6 INDIA CONTEXT Current Organized Energy Requirements 20% 40% 40% UNORGANIZED ENERGY CONSUMPTION 40% primary energy demand through un-organized renewable sources NON-ECOFRIENDLY

7 Sustainable Carbon Balance Secondary Energy LIQUID FUELS Green Products

8 Sustainable Carbon Balance Complete Recycle Waste Secondary Energy LIQUID FUELS Green Products Renewables

9 Technology Options Agriculture/Forest Waste Conversion Human/Animal Waste Conversion CO 2 (gaseous Waste) Fixation

10 India A resource rich country 2.5% Land : 3 rd Grain producer 17% Arable Land : 2 nd Vegetable producer : 2 nd Fruit producer : 2 nd Human Population : 1 st Cattle Population Waste is to be the Next Generation Wealth

11 Waste Generated : Opportunity Surplus Agri residue/weeds/wild Growth/Forestry waste More than 200 million ton/year (major: rice straw, cotton stalk, castor stalk, cane trash, bagasse, bamboo) Municipal Solid Waste More than 70 million ton generated per year Municipal Liquid Waste More than 40 million tons of generated per day Food Distribution Waste/Agro Industry Waste More than 100 million ton per year

12 Waste : Potential Agri residue/weeds/wild Growth/Forestry waste 40 MT fuel/year Municipal Solid Waste 20 MT fuel/year Municipal Liquid Waste + CO 2 50 MT fuel/year India Liquid Fuel demand = 70 MT/year National Biofuel Policy : 20% blending by 2017

13 400

14 Is there enough Biomass! Current liquid fuel required (petrol + diesel) = 60 million ton/year Rising at >10%/year 300 million ton biomass waste 75 million ton biofuel/year 30 million Ha marginal land 300 million ton biomass 75 million ton fuel/year Competition with Animal Feed industry Is this enough, say in year 2050? BIOMASS will stagnate with time. Besides, there is need to find replacement for diesel WHAT NEXT?

15 Opportunity: 7000 km COAST LINE Algae grown in ideally warm Indian seas Non Compete with Land for food DBT ICT Centre for Energy Biosciences 15

16 Future India s Sustainable Platform Waste Utilizable Carbon Smart Chemical/Biotech Conversion Technologies Food; Feed; Energy; Materials & Chemicals

17 Current Situation/Technologies Agri residue/weeds/wild Growth/Forestry waste Biogas and Power (less than 5% used) Municipal Solid Waste Biogas and Power (less than 2% used) Municipal Liquid Waste Not used at all: No technology used/tested at scale

18 DBT ICT Technologies Disruptive Interventions/Innovations

19 Mumbai

20 Institute of Chemical Technology (formerly UDCT) at Matunga (Central Suburb)

21 DBT ICT Centre for Energy Biosciences Matunga, Mumbai

22 DBT ICT Centre of Energy Biosciences (Sanctioned Dec 2007; Functional May 2009) India s first National Bioenergy Research Centre Set up at a cumulative cost of about 15 million USD Multidisciplinary State of the Art facility with emphasis on developing cutting edge science and translation to commercially viable technologies Networked with Institutions & Industry in India and abroad >50 PhD scholars; >10 Senior Research Scientists in different disciplines of modern biological sciences and chemical engineering/technology

23 DBT ICT Technology Platforms 400 Fuels, Food, Feed, and Functional Molecules (Chemicals & Materials

24 Biomass to Biofuel Options Biomass Power Combustion Gasification Fast Pyrolysis/ SCWG Digestion Biogas/BioCNG Alcohols Syn Gas Fermentation/ Chemical Catalysis FT Synthesis Hydrocarbons Cracking Bio Oil Cracking Gasoline, Diesel Fermentable Sugars Bio Hydrogen Gasoline, Diesel Bio Methane Bio Alcohols DME

25 Technology Comparison of Conversion Options Example : Rice Straw Price Rs/kg Conversion Efficiency Product price Cost realized Rs/per kg feedstock Coal to Power % 5 Rs/KWh Rs. 12.5/kg Straw to Power 2.50* 30% 5 Rs/KWh Rs. 4.50/kg Straw to BioCNG # 2.50* 35% 60 Rs/kg Rs. 8.10/kg Straw to Bio Oil 2.50* 45% (29%) 20 Rs/kg Rs. 8.40/kg Straw to Ethanol 2.50* 27% 30 Rs/kg Rs. 8.10/kg * Landed price at factory site # Methane separated and compressed from biogas Conclusion : Production of Fuel gives better value

26 Technology Comparison of Conversion Options Example : Rice Straw Price Rs/kg Conversion Efficiency Product price Cost realized Rs/per kg feedstock Coal to Power % 5 Rs/KWh Rs. 12.5/kg Straw to Power 2.50* 30% 5 Rs/KWh Rs. 4.50/kg Straw to BioCNG # 2.50* 35% 60 Rs/kg Rs. 8.10/kg Straw to Bio Oil 2.50* 45% (29%) 20 Rs/kg Rs. 8.40/kg Straw to Ethanol 2.50* 27% 30 Rs/kg Rs. 8.10/kg * Landed price at factory site # Methane separated and compressed from biogas Conclusion : Production of Liquid Fuel gives better value

27 Biomass SCWG Advantages Alcohols Syn Gas Multiproduct Biorefinery possible Bio Oil Fermentation/ Chemical Catalysis FT Synthesis Hydrocarbons Cracking Gasification Decentralized plants Fast Pyrolysis/ SCWG Better economic sustainability Cracking Gasoline, Diesel Hydrogen Fermentable Sugars Bio Hydrogen Gasoline, Diesel Bio Methane Bio Alcohols DME

28 India Biofuel Policy 5% Ethanol in Gasoline mandatory Total gasoline consumption ~ 10 million ton/year % blending % blending Ethanol procurement price in 2015 ~ Rs /L Molasses Not enough Grains Expensive Cellulosic ethanol Must for

29 Biomass BioRefinery Surplus Biomass Waste Alcohol (Fuel) Bio CNG Liquid Sugar (< Rs. 15/kg) Chemicals & Solvents Food & Feed

30 Current Cellulosic Sugars/Ethanol Status More than 100 pilot/demo plants (1 ton/day to 100 ton//day) High yield biomass varieties being developed/tested Enzyme cost down significantly (from 5 USD/L to 0.5 USD/L) Robust enzymes continuously evolving Fermenting strains continuously improved Ethanol dehydration technologies being improved SCALABLE TECHNOLOGY STILL ELUSIVE Commercial Plants to start operating

31 Lignocellulosic Ethanol Pilot Plant at India Glycols Limited, Kashipur Functional from February 2012 Undergoing Revamping and Expansion Capacity : 10 tons of dry biomass/day Pilot Plant Phase 1 Five separate but continuous units optimized for independent performances 31

32 Pilot Plant Phase 1 32

33 Size reduction, Pretreatment and Enzyme Hydrolysis Plant 4 floors, 20m height Original Office + Lab Block Fermentation Plant G floor + Mezzanine, 4.5m height Phase 2

34 DBT ICT Lignocellulosic Sugars/BioEthanol Technology Salient Features ENTIRE PLANT AS CONTINUOUS FLOW SYSTEM All steps rapid : Low foot print; Low CAPEX Two Step rapid Continuous Enzyme Process Reusable enzyme systems : Cost reduction >10 fold Sugars recovery >90% with any biomass variety Both C5 and C6 conversion to Ethanol Biomass to Ethanol within 24h Upfront recovery of Lignin DBT ICT Centre for Energy Biosciences 34

35 Lignocellulosic Biomass TYPICAL PROCESS OUTLINE Present Scene Cost of Production > Rs. 40/L STEP 1 Pre Treatment Step CAPEX > Rs. 20 Crore/MWe STEP 2 Saccharification STEP Cost 3 of Production Fermentation< 35 Rs/L STEP 4 Desired Scene CAPEX > Rs. 4 Crore/MWe Separation/Purification Most Complex Step High in CAPEX Requires complex enzymes High in OPEX Established for glucose New technology for pentose Innovations reqd for better performance Alcohol

36 The DBT ICT Lignocellulosic Sugars/Ethanol Technology BIOMASS Objective : BIOMASS FRACTIONATION Separation of biomass components Low solid loading (<15% w/w) Rapid reaction rates (!!) Size reduction Cellulose Saccharification Glucose Fractionation Lignin Hemicellulose Saccharification Xylose

37 Synthetic Biology Biotechnology at DBT ICT Centre Biomass Terrestrial Marine/Aquatic Sugars Lignin Designed Microorganisms E. Coli S. Cereviseae Corynebacteria Clostridia sp. Yarrowia sp. Pseudomonas sp. Lactobacilli Cyanobacteria Algae Alcohols Organic Acids Fatty Acids Amino Acids Terpenoids Hydrocarbons

38 MSW BioRefinery MSW BioCNG (liquid methane) Gasoline/Diesel Bio Crude Chemicals

39 MLW BioRefinery Bio CNG Chemicals Gasoline/ Diesel

40 Needed Rapid Technology Development in Mission Mode in Consortium mode First plants in PPP mode with >50% federal equity

41 Thank you