2 Energy Resources Non-Renewable Resources that are not replaced or regenerated naturally within a reasonable period of time. For example, fossil fuels and minerals. Renewable A resource that can be used continuously without being used up. Often referred to as sustainable energy resource
3 Fossil Fuels The remains of once-living plants and animals that can be burned to release energy. Examples: coal, oil, natural gas, oil shale, tar sands
4 Coal Black or brown organic solid primarily carbon, but containing some hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur. Coal releases energy when burned as is widely used natural fuel Advantages: There are significant reserves and resources available Related Problems: Preventing and cleaning up pollution is a major challenge. Clean coal??
5 Sometimes referred as crude oil. Unrefined petroleum (as it is taken from the ground). Flammable liquid that varies depending on its source. Advantages: The world economy currently runs on oil and gas. Related Problems: Oil resources in the U.S. are limited, must be imported. Waste and pollution problems are large. Oil (Petroleum)
6 Natural Gas A gas mixture that is trapped in many places in the upper strata of Earth. Natural gas is mostly methane and ethane. Sometimes it is found alone other times it is found with petroleum. Advantages: Many industries already utilize natural gas. Significant reserves are available in the U.S. Related Problem: Extracting methods are not totally safe and generate significant waste.
7 Nuclear Energy Energy liberated by a nuclear reaction (fission or fusion) or by radioactive decay. Releasing energy by splitting or combining nuclei of specific elements. Advantages: We have the technology to operate fission reactors and generate significant electricity. Disadvantages: We don t know what to do with the waste. This is the Savannah River Site, the nuclear reservation on the Savannah River, Southeast of Augusta.
8 Solar Energy from the sun that is received by Earth. Advantages: The technology can be simple. The sun is a reliable source of energy and there is little pollution. Related Problems: Technology is expensive. Difficult to store energy for cloudy days.
9 Wind Energy Energy from wind rotates blades of a turbine which operate a generator. Advantages: Reduces demand for oil, gas, coal, and nuclear fuels. Related Problems: Wind is unreliable, visual pollution, technology is expensive.
10 Hydroelectric Converts gravitational energy of water stored behind a dam to produce electricity. Advantages: Relatively clean. Economical. Related Problem: Only works at some locations. Less power available in dry years. Dams silt up.
11 Bioconversion Plants convert energy from sunlight into chemical energy (photosynthesis). Advantages: There is a lot of plant material that can be burned or decomposed to provide energy. Related Problems: Burning and decomposition produce pollutants. The energy density is low.
12 Energy from Trash Burning trash to recover the energy stored in paper and yard wastes. Advantages: Reduces the quantity of trash that becomes landfill. Related Problems: Trash contains metals, glass, and other materials that clog boilers.
13 Ocean Waves and Currents Uses the mechanical energy of waves and currents to produce electricity. Advantages: Less pollution. Electricity is needed. Related Problems: Not much energy is available. Primarily of local interest.
14 Geothermal Energy originating in Earth s crust used to produce steam to generate electric power. Advantages: Electricity is desired product. Reduces demand for oil, gas, and nuclear power. Related Problems: Pollution at the sites. Primarily of local interest.
15 Tidal Uses the kinetic energy of moving tides to generate electricity. Advantages: Less pollution. Electricity is a desired product. Related Problems: Only works at very few locations.
16 Conservation of Energy
17 Cutting waste by cutting down on consumption. Advantages: Less waste, less pollution, cleaner environment. Related Problems: Could lower one s lifestyle less comfort.
18 Using items longer. The buying of used clothing and products. Advantages: Reduces demand for energy and resources. Related Problems: Could lower one s lifestyle not as up to date. Hurts a consumption driven economy.
19 The process of converting waste materials into new products. Advantages: Energy and resources are usually saved in the process. Related Problems: Not all wastes are recyclable. It takes energy to recycle.
20 Improve Efficiency Design devices to do a task but use less energy. Advantages: More efficient devices do the same task using less energy. Related Problems: The more efficient device may cost more.
21 Government Policy
22 Direction and Goals Governing bodies set goals for groups of people and often enforce them. Advantages: The achievement of the goal helps solve a problem. Related Problems: Usually the goal is not desired by all those it affects.
23 Fund Research & Development Tax funds are used to solve a problem. Advantages: Desired products may be developed faster than under free market conditions. Related Problems: Tax funds may not be used as efficiently as in research supported solely by private funds.
24 Tax to Influence Behavior Raise taxes to cause people to change behavior. Advantage: The new behavior helps solve a problem. Related Problem: Behavior change is forced economically, not done by choice.
25 Regulate Use Pass laws to cause people to change behavior. Advantage: The new behavior helps solve a problem. Related Problem: Individual freedom is reduced.