Water shortage (quantitative and/or qualitative) + More and more stringent regulations + Social, Political and Market pressure

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1 C Istituto di Ricerca Sulle Acque (Water Research Institute) Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (National Research Council) Planning Agricultural Reuse: A case study from Italy on treated wastewater t and crops quality Antonio Lopez 27th April 2012 Limassol - Cyprus M I L A N R O M E B A R I

2 Wastewater Reuse -A key option for mitigating g water resources scarcity- Main Drivers Water shortage (quantitative and/or qualitative) + More and more stringent regulations + Social, Political and Market pressure

3 Water reuse in EU Countries Diversification of types of reuse Irrigation Landscape irrigation (golf courses) Grey water recycling Indirect potable reuse Balearic Islands Canary Islands Industrial reuse Cyprus

4 Orography of Apulia Region

5 Hydrography of Apulia Region

6 APULIA Inflows and Outflows average yearly values of the main Italian regional water basins ( ) Main regional water basins INFLOWS OUTFLOWS OUTFLOWS mm 10 9 m 3 mm 10 9 m 3 COEFFICIENTS Po Population: 4,500, M Veneto Area: 19,000 km 2 Coasts length: 800 km Liguria Romagna + Marche Toscana Lazio Abruzzo + Molise Campania Puglia (APULIA) (150/660) = 0.23 Basilicata Calabria Sicilia Sardegna ITALY

7 Rainfalls trends in Apulia during the period (Ten years average values measured at selected rainfall stations) 950 Adelf ia Cannet o MUR Alt amura MUR Andria MUR Bari f ac. ingegneria MUR Bari osservat orio MUR 850 Bari (Sez.Agr.Sper.) MUR Bari sez. idrograf ica MUR Barlett a MUR Bisceglie MUR 750 Bit ont o MUR Casamassima MUR Cassano delle Murge MUR Castel del Monte MUR Cast ellana Grot t e MUR 650 Ceglie Messapico MUR Chiancarello MUR Conversano MUR Corat o MUR 550 Crispiano MUR Fasano MUR Gioia del Colle MUR Giovinazzo MUR GrumoAppulaMUR 450 Locorot ondo MUR Mass. Cicchet t o MUR Mercadant e MUR Mass. Nuova (Del Duca) MUR Massaf ra MUR Noci MUR Ostuni MUR

8 Yearly sectorial water needs in Apulia INDUSTRY (142 Mmc) 54% 10% 36% POTABLE (546 Mmc) AGRICULTURE (812 Mmc) TOTAL=1500 Mmc 55% coming from regional groundwater [~ 150,000 wells] 45% coming from out of Region sources (11% from springs and 34% from superficial water bodies) Sectorial water-sources contribution (%) POTABLE INDUSTRY AGRICULTURE Sup.W. 54% Regional G.W. 23% Springs 23% Regional G.W. 59% Springs 26% Sup.W. 15% Regional G.W. 75% Springs 1% Sup.W. 24%

9 In Apulia potable needs are satisfied by the Apulian Aqueduct (AQP): the largest in Europe the third in the World 250 (municipalities served) 4,000,000 (inhabitants) Main figures SERVICES PROVIDED water: treatment, t t supply and distribution ib ti - wastewater: collection and treatment 20,000 Km 2 (territory served) 20,000 Km (distribution pipelines) 550,000,000 m 3 /y (distributed water) 23% Regional GW 77% Bordering Regions

10 Land use in Apulia (Regional Total Area: 19,000 km 2 ) 12,500 2,900 3,600* *Needs: 812 Mm 3 /y Public: 199 Mm 3 /y Private: 613 Mm 3 /y

11 Groundwater withdrawals for irrigation purposes in Apulia (mm/y)

12 Apulian areas affected by groundwater overexploitation karstic aquifers superficial aquifers SALT INTRUSION PHENOMENA

13 Occurrence of feaecal coliforms Fecal coliforms in Apulian in sampled groundwater samples Up to 100 MPN/100ml Up to 100 MPN/100ml Up to 15 MPN/100ml Up to 15 MPN/100ml Up to 15 MPN/100ml Up to 15 MPN/100ml Up to 1000 MPN/100ml Up to 100 MPN/100ml Source: CNR-IRSA/ Ente Irrigazione/ Prefettura di Bari Sampling period: (periodo di campionamto )

14 The Apulian Water Protection Master Plan Piano di Tutela delle Acque (PTA) (definitively issued on 20 th /October/2009) Aim: assessing the quality state of regional water resources and planning the implementation of the necessary measures for preventing their quali-quantitative worsening

15 One of the main goals of the Apulian PTA: STOP DISCHARGING TREATED MWW INTO GROUNDWATER! Corpo Sup. idrico wat. bodies sup. Suolo Soil 5% 5% Suolo Soil 21% Corpo Sup. wat. idrico bodies sup. 5% Sottosuolo Subsoil 31% 31% Situation: Mare Sea 12% 12% before PTA Sottosuolo Subsoil 0% Corpo Ephemeral idrico 0% Mare sup.ns streams Sea 16% 47% 47% Corpo idrico 16% Ephemeral streams sup.ns 58% 58% expected after PTA implementation

16 Geographical distribution of Apulian MWWTPs (182)

17 Criteria used for planning MWW Reuse in Apulia Selection of areas and WWTPs AREAS Possibility to storage the treated water in natural reservoirs Severe sea water intrusion and groundwater pollution phenomena Scarcity of superficial water bodies Presence of users MWWTPs Plants t technologically ll ready toproduce effluents having the required quality Plants whose technological upgrading can be rapidly achieved Plants that can be easily connected to the infrastructures necessary to distribute the treated effluents NB - In case all the above criteria were satisfied but the local water demand was lower than the wastewater production, the WW reuse was excluded.

18 Apulian PTA goals: IMPLEMENTING MWW REUSE Volumes of reusable municipal wastewater in Apulia according to the PTA 1 st phase 2 nd phase VOLUMES REUSABLE FROM THE POLISHING TREATMENT PLANTS ALREADY - EXITING or - UNDER CONSTRUCTION or - FINANCED POTENZIALITA' DISPONIBILE PROVINCIA POTENZIALITA' BARI mc/anno BRINDISI mc/anno FOGGIA mc/anno LECCE mc/anno TARANTO mc/anno TOTALE mc/anno VOLUMES THAT WILL BE REUSED WHEN ALL THE APULIAN WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS WILL BE EQUIPPED WITH A POLISHING STEP POTENZIALITA' TOTALE PROVINCIA POTENZIALITA' BARI mc/anno BRINDISI mc/anno FOGGIA mc/anno LECCE mc/anno TARANTO mc/anno TOTALE mc/anno Mm 3 /y NOTE THAT THIS IS JUST THE VOLUME PRESENTLY REQUIRED BY THE WHOLE APULIAN INDUSTRIAL SECTOR 147 Mm 3 /y

19 Regulations: Last step! REGOLAMENTO REGIONALE Norme e misure per il riutilizzo delle acque reflue depurate Art. 99, comma 2, TITOLO III, CAPO II, D.Lgs. n. 152/2006 e Legge della Regione Puglia n. 27 del 21 Ottobre 2008, art. 1, lettera b First draft issued on January 2011 Definitive issued on March 2012

20 Typical treatment schemes used to achieve different water quality objectives for agricultural irrigation Raw sewage Raw sewage Pretreatment Raw sewage Enolnoel osl Fe 3+, Al 3+ Primary settling aaenhdelcas RdAChdelcAS Activated sludge No exposure WHO Standards (< 1 helm.eg/l) Human exposure Industrial crops, forest Example: Mexico City (45 m 3 /s) Ott+rARrcncNelcASrSoouz y%gt4r, Or1odroN6M*r, OtttrLa6Ottr dp Disinfection Cl, UV, O 3 Industrial crops, forest Israel (60 mg BOD/L ; 50 mgss/l) Clarifier Cl, UV, O 3 Infiltration / percolation Industrial crops, forest Pasture, cooked vegetables, fruits Australia (<3000 and <750 FC/100 ml) California (<23 TC/100 ml) EPA, US (<200 FC /100 ml) South Africa (<1000 FC/100 ml) Catalonia (<1000 FC/100 ml) cer Raw sewage Pretreatment Anaerobic ponds Primary Encenx zolldcsn Facultative stabilisation ponds iclcpelou zdhuno Maturation ponds adencrcon LcdlnelcAS Cl, UV, O 3 Activated Clarifier Filtration Disinfection Cl UV O Pasture, cooked vegetables, fruits Vegetables eaten raw Canaries Island (<2.2 TC/100 ml) Israel (<2.2 FC/100 ml) California (<2.2 FC/100 ml) Florida (<1 FC/100 ml) Arizona (<1 FC/100 ml) virus < 1 PFU/40L)

21 Main quality parameters fixed by the in force Italian law (D.Lgs n. 185/03) for agricultural reuse of municipal wastewater. (*) = Exceptions possible in Apulia. PARAMETER VALUE PARAMETER VALUE ph Total Phosphorus(mg/L) 10 Coarse solids (mg/l) absent Total Nitrogen (mg/l) 35 TSS (mg/l) 10 Grease and Oil (mg/l) 10 COD (mg/l) 100- (50)* Aldehydes (mg/l) 0.5 BOD 5 (mg/l) 20 - (10)* Surfactants 0.5 Boron (mg/l) 1.0- (2.0)* Chlorinated Pesticides Chlorides (mg/l) 250-(500)* Escherichia coli (CFU/100ml) Sulphates (mg/l) 500 Salmonella (CFU/100ml) absent Electrical Conductivity (μs/cm) 3,000 Sodium Adsorption Ratio Notes: In addition to B even Al, As, Ba, Be,Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Si, Th, V, Zn, THM, CN, SO 3, Benzene, Benzo(a)pyrene and other organics are considered.

22 Conventional polishing treatment train used to achieve the quality standards fixed for agricultural reuse of municipal wastewater Secondary effluent reuse storage Rapid mix flocculation sedimentation disinfection filtration Membrane ultrafiltration

23 Membrane Filtration pilot plant at CERIGNOLA (FG) [Zee Weed 250] Total membrane surface area 23.5 m 2 ext. 1.9 mm int. 1.0 mm pores: 0.03 μm Material: Polyethylene Surface: Hydrophilic

24 Municipal wastewater membrane filtration at CERIGNOLA plant: some performances TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLIDS influent effluent mg/l P-PO 4 days N-NH 4 H4+/L mgn-n influent effluent O43-/L mgp-p influent effluent days days

25 Quality of membrane filtered wastewater compared with conventional well water and regional quality limits (*) Parameter Unit Treated Wastewater Conventional Source Regional limits (*) TSS mg/l < d.l. < d.l. 10 COD mgo 2 /L N-NH4 + mg/l NO - 3 mg/l P-PO 4 mg/l Na + mg/l Ca ++ mg/l Mg ++ mg/l Cl - mg/l K + mg/l B mg/l Fe mg/l Mn mg/l ECw ds/m S.A.R Total coliforms Cfu/100mL Faecal coliforms Cfu/100mL Escherichia Coli Cfu/100mL Salmonellae Cfu/100mL ) Limits established by Apulia Region for unrestricted reuse of municipal wastewater in agriculture.

26 Trends of soil electrical conductivity (ECe) and SAR and comparison with monthly rainfall 2,5 TW 2, Rainfall (mm) 1,5 CS 1, ECe (ds/m) 0, apr may jun jul aug sep oct nov dec jan feb mar apr maj jun jul 00 0,0 04/03/03 10/03/03 04/29/04 07/12/04 8 TW Rainfall (mm) 4 CS S.A.R. apr may jun jul aug sep oct nov dec jan feb mar apr maj jun jul /03/03 10/03/03 04/29/04 07/12/04

27 Microbiological parameters measured in soil samples on harvesting time Tomato Tomato Tomato Treated Wastewater Conventional Source MPN/g of dry soil 100 Fennel Lettuce 10 Lettuce Lettuce 1 Total Coliform Fennel Fennel Tomato Fennel Lettuce Faecal Coliform Escherichia coli Salmonella

28 10000 Microbiological parameters measured in tomato fruits, fennel heads and lettuce leaves on harvesting time 1000 Lettuce Treated Wastewater Conventional Source MPN N/g of market table yield Tomato Fennel Tomato Lettuce Tomato Lettuce 1 Fennel Fennel Tomato Fennel Lettuce Total Coliform Faecal Coliform Escherichia coli Salmonella

29 Average concentrations of heavy metals in crops irrigated with conventional well water (CS) and membrane filtered wastewater (TW) Tomato fruits Fennel heads Lettuce leaves Metal Unit CS TW CS TW CS TW Common range Fe mg/kg Toxic range Al mg/kg Cu mg/kg Zn mg/kg Pb mg/kg Mn mg/kg

30 Wastewater Membrane Filtration: Costs Estimation costs (e euro/m 3 ) O&M 1.00 Capital 0.75 Total Flow rate (m 3 /d) 0.15 /m 3 3 ) &M costs s (euro/m 3 O Membrane replacement Labour Energy Spare parts Chemicals (membrane cleaning) Flow rate (m 3 /d) Equivalent Inhabitants

31 Field of fennels irrigated with membrane filtered municipal wastewater at CERIGNOLA (FG) Long term effects on crops and soil have been investigated at the University of Bari by the Department of Science of Vegetable Production

32 Thank you for your attention

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