WATER REUSE Role and constraints of regulations: the need for international policy

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1 WATER REUSE Role and constraints of regulations: the need for international policy Blanca Jimenez-Cisneros Director of the Division of Water Sciences and Secretary of the International Hydrological Programme

2 Since the 1950 s the amount of used water has increase in more than three times 1/3 of the global population is under hydraulic stress World Economic Forum Ranked Water Crises as Top Global Risk (2015)

3 Future Scenarios For 2025, 38% of the global population will be under hydraulic stress For 2050, 66% with moderate to high stress, 50% of which facing serious challenges

4 Water Scarcity: Causes Physical Scarcity Exacerbated demand growth in very small areas (cities, industrial developments, Agricultural areas) Availability < demand (VERY COMMON) Inadequate management (More water than needed is used ) On the top of it Climate Change

5 How the need for reuse is measured? By carrying water? Two indexes Per capita water availability and Intensity of use or Water stress Index None of it is perfect The numeric limits were set based on observations from emerging countries.no Scientific basis

6 Water availability per capita < 1,700 m 3 /inhab.yr Water Scarcity Reuse programmes recommended <1,000 m 3 /inhab.yr Chronic Water Scarcity Implement water reuse short and long term activities <500 m 3 /inhab.yr Absolute water stress Desalination Over-exploitation of aquifers and possible non planned reuse Reuse actions are urgent. < 100 m 3 /inhab. Año ( 274 L/inhab.d) Minimum level of survival Economic development is not possible

7

8 Intensity of use ( stress index ) Amount used/renewable availability > 20% All or some wastewater is already being reused intentionally or not And/or aquifers are 2-30 times overexploited And/or desalination is taking place IWRM is indispensable

9 Water scarcity (quantity and QUALITY), and Economic scarcity? (UNEP, 2002)

10 Region Water Availability Index In 2006 Water Intensity Use Index In 2000 m 3 /capita yr % Middle East and North Africa 1, Asia (excluding Middle East) 3, Mexico, Central America & the 6, Caribbean United States and Canada 19, Europe 10, Sub-Saharan Africa 7, Oceania 53, South America 45, DEVELOPED COUNTRIES 11, DEVELOPING COUNTRIES 7, HIGH INCOME COUNTRIES 10, MIDDLE INCOME 10, COUNTRIES LOW INCOME COUNTRIES 5, WORLD 8,

11 Region Water Availability Index In 2006 Water Intensity Use Index In 2000 m 3 /capita yr % Middle East and North Africa 1, Asia (excluding Middle East) 3, Mexico, Central America & the 6, Caribbean United States and Canada 19, Europe 10, Sub-Saharan Africa 7, Oceania 53, South America 45, DEVELOPED COUNTRIES 11, DEVELOPING COUNTRIES 7, HIGH INCOME COUNTRIES 10, MIDDLE INCOME 10, COUNTRIES LOW INCOME COUNTRIES 5, WORLD 8,

12 How the need for reuse is measured? By carrying water? Two indexes Per capita water availability and Intensity of use or Water stress Index None of it is perfect The numeric limits were set based on observations from emerging countries.no Scientific basis

13 Definiciones Agua de primer uso: Agua que no ha sido usada (no se identifica una descarga de agua residual?) Reciclado: Reúso en el mismo uso que generó el agua Reúso Cambio de uso, por ejemplo de municipal a la agricultura Intencional, planeado o artificial: El reúso es parte de un proyecto No intencional, no planeada o natural: El reúso del agua ocurre al menos en un inicio de forma no intencional Directo Para consumo humano: Tratar AR hasta cumplir con un estándar e inyectar directamente el agua tratada a la red Para la agricultura.- Usar agua residual, tratada o no, para riego agrícola dilución previa Indirecto Para consumo humano: Tratar agua residual a nivel potable y luego inyectarla a un acuífero que sirve como suministro para su tratamiento y almacenamiento Emplear agua de una fuente de suministro que recibe agua residual tratada o sin tratar Para la agricultura Riego con una mezcla de agua residual tratada o no con agua de primer uso

14 Advantages Increases water availability Reduces the competition of water in an orderly manner Preserves water sources Recycles compounds and energy Contributes to preserve ecosystems and economic services Renders more profitable sanitation and water supply services

15 EL REUSO EXISTE DE FACTO

16 Why Regulations are needed? To Promote reuse (where it is not practiced, mostly) Control Reuse (where it evidently occurs) AND Ensuring the protection of human health and ecosystems But also Fair and equity conditions and sustainable development for all Integrity of societies and countries

17 Why regulations are important? Even though water use is water reuse... For the reuse of water people has concerns Mainly it is a PERCEPTION problem Perceptions are build based on ideas formed through education, communication, and social knowledge On reuse they are different if a community is already reusing water or not WE can influence ALL But it takes time

18 Why regulations are important? Mean while Standards has to be set to Protect population, etc To ensure users (DIFFERENT THAN FOR DISCHATGING TREATED WW INTO THE ENVIRONMENT) But, there are NO universal standards for any type of reuse Although there is no universal standard for drinking water common parameters are used and the population trust them For agriculture we have a procedure not a set of standards... BTW, there are no universal standard for USES

19 Standards for reuse For what? Human consumption Municipal low quality uses Industrial use Recreational use Agricultural use Etc.

20 Human consumption For drinking water WHO Guidelines provides a comprehensive list of parameters and values Each countries select those that are relevant at a local level This is a universally accepted procedure Somehow there US-EPA, EU and Developing countries approaches/values are aligned For reuse Does that work? NO Does that should work? FIRST USE WATER REUSED WATER

21 Goreangabab Plant, Windhoek Namibia, 40 years

22 Low Quality Municipal (Re) Use Such as fountains, landscape irrigation, ice melting, car washing, toilet flushing There are no universal guidelines Although they could be (relatively) easily set up Why this has not been done yet? Who should take the lead (Governments, international organizations, users or simply countries /states needing water reuse)

23 Industrial Reuse Three types of reuses, but for all HIGH reliability (benefits can be compromised) Limited amount of parameters, such as for cooling Specific list of parameters, such as water used on a process but not those using potable water Very high quality involving potable water, basically for the food industry Should governments have a role to play (incentives, followup?) Water Reuse Specialist group Water Reuse Specialist group

24 For cooling, transportation, etc purposes There are already several examples around the world from which Best practices could be established Guidelines could be set Should this be a private or a public task? For the water used on the process of in the food industry Data is less accessible Should there be guidelines? Should the International Organizations have a statement? Are ethical issues involved? As mentioned there is already Water Recovery and Reuse: Guideline for Safe Application of Water Conservation Methods in Beverage Production and Food Processing. ILSI

25 Agricultural Reuse Between 1989 and 2006 the area has increased by 6 times Two approaches To promote To control In terms of volume 6 times more than the irrigation with treated wastewater In terms of area it is 10 times more (Jimenez and Asano, 2008).

26 WW has fertilization properties Therefore can reduce the demand for chemical fertilizers make fertilizers accessible to poor farmers In the light of the global phosphorus crisis (??) wastewater can be nonnegligible sources of phosphorus In any case it can be a source of materials and energy Crop Yield in Ton ha -1 Untreated Wastewater First use water % Maize Barley Tomato Oats Chilli Alfalfa Wheat

27 WW has an economic value Income increase in USD per hectare Annual income from 420 to 2,800 USD per hectare per year Land can be rented 2-3 times higher Non treated WW is paid 2.5 times more that available water if saline

28 Food production (water is the main ingredient for agriculture) A balanced diet in savannahs demands 1,300 m 3 of water per person per year A non balanced diet represents a higher water demand

29 BUT, Pollutants, pathogens (MAINLY) Ascaris eggs Organism Developed world Developing world Enteric viruses, PFU/ 100 ml Salmonella, MPN/ 100 ml Protozoan cysts, organisms/ L Giardia lamblia, cysts/ L Helminth ova, egg/ L

30 CONVENTIONAL SCHEMES Primary Secondary Tertiary? TSS BOD $$$ N, P $$S Reuse Does a standard limit the technology? COMPACT SCHEMES Treatment for reuse Wastewater $ Reuse

31 Policy Recognise and assess advantages Recognise that the best solution is the one that can be implemented and improves the present situation Trade-off between advantages and disadvantages

32 WHEALTHO (2006) guidelines In fact it is a procedure that is setting a tendency(?) To address local health problems To overcome the problems of overly strict water-quality standards that cannot be implemented They allow different combinations of intervention measures (i.e., additional or even instead treatment to optimise cost/benefit ratios It allows to quantitatively compare different intervention measures In addition, it allows to analyse and address risks that are introduced throughout the whole food chain and not only those related to the reuse of water

33 Step 1 Select a tolerable additional annual burden of the disease of interest and the equivalent tolerable annual risks of disease for a pathogen of concern, using: Tolerable DALY loss pppy Tolerable disease risk pppy DALY loss per case of disease Some values for the tolerable DALY (Disability Adjusted Life Years) are given by WHO 2006 (3); others should be consulted in specialized literature or determined as needed. Step 2 Apply QMRA to define the overall pathogen reduction needed to achieve the health goal for different exposure pathways. Step 3. Determine the required degree of pathogen reduction to achieve the health goal. Step 4 Select the control measure(s) or intervention method(s) Step 5 Establish the treatment verification monitoring level

34 WHO methodology In practice, the WHO 2006 guidelines mean that is feasible to reduce the risk produced by 6 log of bacteria in wastewater either by treating wastewater at a high level or by combining several interventions methods

35 Multi-barriers concept = INTERVENTION METHODS Wastewater is the conventional solution but not often implementable in developing countries, therefore The multi-barriers concept allows other options OOOOps, It Was not recognised before such but certainly it was applied... Reduction at the source Wastewater Treatment Crop restrictions Irrigation methods Agricultural practices Local technology Washing packaging and storage on site Cleansing and disinfection of produce Transportation Marketing Food preparation Chemotherapy and Vaccination Educational and awareness campaigns

36 Limitations Data on the type and content of chemicals and pathogens Information on different pathways for risks Difficult to apply to mixture of compounds/risks For Pathogens, health effects are estimated from data coming from developed countries which is not always useful in countries with endemic diseases Epidemiological data can be used but local researchers is needed Dose response helminth ova curve was obtained this way for 1 region, it is universally valid? Analytical techniques and training to measure helminth eggs contents is a Major issue to apply WHO guidelines

37 Is treatment the only solution? Municipal Water, by reducing the amount of sick people progressively health goal can be attained using affordable WW and sludge treatment technology BDO: mgo2/l Wastewater treatment BDO: mgo2/l X of sick people initially HH/L HH/gTS Affordable Wastewater and sludge treatment processes Wastewater and sludge with lower HH content Reduction on the amount of sick people

38 Standard vs incentives Advantages: Standards are compulsory. Incentives allow to progressively move to a better situation, helping the population to realize the advantages that may be obtained. Disadvantages: Standards may not be followed by all due to economic, social and cultural differences Global vs National vs regional standards Advantages: National/global standards are easier to survey. Regional standards allow local problems to be addressed. Disadvantages: National/Global standards may not be achieved by all or in regions with different needs. Regional standards pose legal problems if produce is traded among regions. Setting operating treatment conditions. Advantages: Less need for monitoring and surveillance and Facilitates the implementation of projects. Disadvantages: Limits technological development and renders regulators responsible for the efficiency obtained. May lead to unaffordable treatment options. Use of pollutant indicators. Advantages: Easier to monitor. Disadvantages: May give a false impression of safety. Use of risk evaluation models to set standards values Advantages Helps governments to make rational decisions. Disadvantages: Difficult to explain to the population. Lack of sufficient data

39 Conclusions Not all types of reuses imply the same needs for standards/guidelines For some it would be easy For other may be not Public perception from all stakeholders is important and can be modified through information and communications Water reuse Standards should be complemented with efficient water use guidelines Still missing: greywater reuse, reuse for environmental protection/restoration, etc

40 International Hydrological Programme PHASE VIII, Highlighting adaptation responses: IHP- VIII prospective Blanca Jimenez-Cisneros Director of the Division of Water Sciences and Secretary of the International Hydrological Programme (IHP), UNESCO Science IHP Policy

41 Water Security: 21st Century key challenges 85% of the human population live in arid areas. By 2030, half of the population will be living in areas of high water stress. 6-8 million human beings are killed each year from water related disasters and diseases. 750 million people lack access to safe water and 2.5 billion to adequate sanitation.

42 Water Security: 21st Century key challenges Almost 85% of the world s total wastewater is discharged without adequate or any treatment. In just thirty years, populations of freshwater species declined by 50% 145 nations have transboundary river basins and there are 445 transboundary aquifers shared by 2-4 countries

43 IPCC s Fifth Assessment Report on Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability (AR5) 2014: Water Security is at risk the capacity of a population to safeguard access to adequate quantities of water of acceptable quality for sustaining human and ecosystem health on a watershed basis, and to ensure efficient protection of life and property against water related hazards floods, landslides, land subsidence and droughts. IHP-UNESCO

44 IHP-VIII ( ) 6 Themes and 3 Axes Axis 2: Developing institutional and human capacities for water sustainability innovation Axis Improve knowledge and innovation to address water security challenges. Axis 3: Enhancing policy advice to reach water security at local, national, regional and global levels.

45 The UNESCO Water Network 28 Category II centers, I Category I UNESCO IHE in Delft and WWAP (WWDR) 30 Water chairs This network and IHP can be used to assist in setting standards

46 Obrigada!!!

47 Bibliography Jimenez, B. and Asano, T. (2008) Water reuse around the World in Water Reuse: An International Survey of current practice, issues and needs (2008) IWAP, Inc. London., 628 pp Jiménez B. (1995) Wastewater Reuse to Increase Soil Productivity. Water Science and Technology, 32(12): Jiménez B. (2006) Irrigation in Developing Countries Using Wastewater International Review for Environmental Strategies (IRES), 6(2): Cotruvo J., Bridgers D., Cairns W., Jiménez Cisneros B., Cunliffe D., Davidson D., de Roda Husman A., Eaton A., Fawell J., Golmer K., LoPiccolo D., Nam Ong C. (2013) Water Recovery and Reuse: Guideline for Safe Application of Water Conservation Methods in Beverage Production and Food Processing, A Publication of the Center for Risk Science Innovation and Application of the ILSI Research Foundation ILSI Research Foundation 2013 California US, 73 pp

48 Bibliography Jiménez B. (2005) Treatment Technology and Standards for Agricultural Wastewater Reuse: A Case Study in Mexico. Irrigation and Drainage, 54: Jiménez B. and Garduño H. (2001) Social, Political and Scientific Dilemmas for Massive Wastewater Reuse in the World: in Navigating Rough Waters: Ethical Issues in the Water Industry. Davis and McGin editors. AWWA Ed., pp: Jiménez, B., Mara D., Carr R. and Brissaud, F. (2010) Wastewater treatment for pathogen removal and nutrient recovery: Suitable systems for use in developing countries, Chapter 8 in: Wastewater Irrigation and Health: Assessing and Mitigating Risks In Low-Income Countries, Dreschel and Scott Editors, Earthscan Press. London, pp Jiménez B., Drechsel P., Kone D., Bahri A., Raschid-Sally L., Qadir M. (2010) General wastewater, sludge and excreta use situation, chapter 1 in: Wastewater Irrigation and Health: Assessing and Mitigating Risks In Low- Income Countries, Dreschel and Scott Editors, Earthscan Press. London, pp 3-28

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