The Impact of Wind Generation on System Services in Ireland

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1 The Impact of Wind Generation on System Services in Ireland Renewable Energies, an Opportunity and Challenge for Electricity Systems October 8th 2009 Dr Ivan Dudurych, EirGrid Load, MW Load, MW 06/10/2006 Load, MW 29/09/2006 Wind, MW 06/10/2006 Wind, MW 29/09/ Wind, MW :00 03:00 06:00 09:00 12:00 15:00 18:00 21:00 0

2 Outline Overview of combined Irish Systems Wind integration in Ireland Impact of Wind Integration on Services

3 Irish Power Systems Confidential NEX TP LANETFS06 Jul06 Rep ublic of Ir eland Forecast Statement Northern Ireland based on Seven Year Statement Printed:- 08 October 2008 Generation: 6,450 MW installed excluding wind 1140 MW wind (increasing) 7,590 MW total installed Load: varies from 1,735 MW to 5,042 MW Generation: 1,800 MW installed excluding wind 300 MW wind (approx) 2,100 MW total installed Load: Peak 1,719 MW

4 Special Characteristics of combined Irish Systems Large generating unit size System separation impact Frequency response Operating reserve must be fast acting Under frequency can initiate defence measures 420 MW with a peak of 6,761MW and a minimum of 2,500 MW (single unit can be up to 15% of demand) Must limit interconnector flows between two systems >0.5 Hz fall for loss of a large generator 5 second response essential Pumped storage response, gasturbine peaking, contracted customer disconnection, load shedding

5 Interconnection Northern Ireland Britain 500MW LCC HVDC limited flexibility Ireland Britain 500MW HVDC to be owned by EirGrid due VSC Being considered Further interconnections DC

6 Wind Power Generation in Ireland Directive 200/77/EC of the European Parliament : Ireland s target in %, revised 15% In %! MW Historical Planned Scheduled EirGrid's policy is to Encourage Wind proactively working to ensure all government targets in relation to renewables are realised

7 Outline Overview of combined Irish Systems Wind integration in Ireland Impact of Wind Integration on Services

8 Wind Power Generation in Ireland Connected 1,140 MW TS/DS = 45%/55% Contracted 1,370 MW Total 15,000 MW Gates ,070 MW 3 times system peak! Lodged 8,400 MW

9 Variability of Wind Output High wind MW 03:00:00 03:05:00 03:10:00 03:15:00 03:20:00 03:25:00 03:30:00 03:35:00 03:40:00 03:45:00 03:50:00 03:55:00 04:00:00 04:05:00 04:10:00 04:15:00 04:20:00 04:25:00 04:30:00 04:35:00 04:40:00 04:45:00 04:50:00 04:55:00 05:00:00 05:05:00 05:10:00 05:15:00 05:20:00 05:25:00 05:30:00 05:35:00 05:40:00 05:45:00 Frequency, H Wind power, MW F, Hz 06-Oct-06 Wind, MW 06-Oct

10 5sec frequency variations from 3am to 6am No wind 24 February average 14 MW 0.04 Moderate wind 29 Sep average 129 MW 0.04 Frequency fluctuations, Hz Frequ e ncy fluctuations, Hz Wind power fluctuations, MW Wind power fluctuations, MW High wind 6 Oct average 420 MW 0.04 High wind 28 March average 866 MW 0.04 Frequency fluctuations, Hz Frequency fluctuations, Hz Wind power fluctuations, MW Wind power fluctuations, MW

11 System inertia Actual and estimated system inertia, MWs/MVA y = x R 2 = Historical Current max instant wind generation % Average inertia, H Minimum inertia, H Maximum inertia, H Historical max instant wind during unit trip % Historical - Model-based(EirGrid) Linear (Historical) 2 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% Instant wind penetration, %

12 Statistical maximum frequency deviation nomogram Frequency deviation, Hz MW 450 MW 400 MW 350 MW 300 MW 250 MW 200 MW 0.2 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% Instant wind penetration, %

13 Wind Farms Response to Frequency Dip :30 17:35 17:40 17:45 17:50 17:55 18:00 18:05 18:10 18:15 18:20 18:25 18:30 Wind output, p.u. Enercon TSO Connected Vestas, TSO connected Bonus, TSO Connected GE, DSO Connected Frequency, Hz Hz 48.3

14 Wind capacity credit? (cont.) Wind power output, MW 00:00 01:15 02:30 03:45 05:00 06:15 07:30 08:45 10:00 11:15 12:30 13:45 15:00 16:15 17:30 18:45 20:00 21:15 22:30 23:45 18-May Apr-07

15 Energy Fuel Mix 2007 HFO, 3105 GAS, Coal, 6208 T.hill pump, -552 Wind, 1655 Imports, 1574 LFO, 63 Milled Peat, 1462 T.hill gen, 354 S.S.G, 241 HYDRO, 630

16 Fuel Mix for Peak of 4828 MW Dec 13th 2005 Oil 15% Gas 33% Coal 19% Import 7% Wind 2% Hydro 6% Peat 7% Gas Oil 11%

17 Fuel mix at Peak of 5035 MW 19 December 2006 Oil 14% Gas 45% Coal 18% Import 5% Wind 0% Hydro 7% Peat 7% Gas Oil 4%

18 Fuel mix at a Peak of 5085 MW 18 December 2007 Gas 56% Oil 15% Coal 12% Import 1% Wind 1% Hydro 7% Peat 7% Gas Oil 1%

19 Network As Wind power increases, there is need for more flexible plant to be installed to compensate for the extra variability on system Network needs to be reinforced and upgraded to accommodate increased generation Wind usually connected in remote parts which leads to increased need for voltage support

20 Outline Overview of combined Irish Systems Wind integration in Ireland Impact of Wind Integration on Services

21 Services In EirGrid Management of Constraints - One issue is increased wind penetration and how it s managed wind curtailment Active power reserve (including Interruptible Load) Reactive power (voltage regulation) services Black start Wind forecast WSAT

22 Wind Curtailment Wind treatment in the market is a price taker i.e. wind will be always run. This position has been raised. Needs to be reviewed as wind increases Compensated for being constrained down This position currently under review

23 Wind Dispatch User Interface in NCC

24 Operating reserve from wind % of available active power 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% A BB Frequency, Hz

25 Reactive power support from wind Rective power,p.u Cosφ= 0.83 (lag) Cosφ=0.95 (lag) Cosφ=0.95 (lead) -0.2 Cosφ= (lead) Q, p.u cosφ=0.98 (leg) cosφ=0.96 (lead) -0.4 Active power, pu -0.6 P, p.u. Grid Code Wind turbine with VCS

26 Reactive Power Reserve from Wind Current arrangement - EirGrid will enter into contracts for providing reactive power if WPS meets Grid Code requirements. WPS gets the same rates as thermal units for Utilisation part WPS will only receive Capability part if reactive power technology is independent of wind Certain types of turbines Reactive power compensation devices at the wind farm eg SVC, shunt capacitor banks

27 Reactive Power Contracts Reactive power contracts 2 parts Utilisation actual production lagging/leading reactive power Capability being available to produce lagging/leading reactive power WPS must be connected to the transmission system (distribution-system connected WPS under review)

28 Wind Farm Controls in NCC

29 Wind Forecasting Wind Farm Characteristics Numerical Weather Predictions Wind Farm SCADA Wind Farm forecasting Tool Wind Farm Generation Forecast Upscaling Alogrithm Forecast for total installed wind generation

30 Wind Forecast In the ev Amanda 06-Tue 12:00 06-Tue 13:00 06-Tue 14:00 06-Tue 15:00 06-Tue 16:00 06-Tue 17:00 06-Tue 18:00 06-Tue 19:00 06-Tue 20:00 06-Tue 21:00 06-Tue 22:00 06-Tue 23:00 07-Wed 00: Wed 01:00 07-Wed 02:00 07-Wed 03:00 07-Wed 04:00 07-Wed 05:00 07-Wed 06:00 07-Wed 07:00 07-Wed 08: Wed 09:00 07-Wed 10:00 07-Wed 11:00 07-Wed 12:00 07-Wed 13:00 07-Wed 14:00 07-Wed 15:00 07-Wed 16:00 07-Wed 17:00 07-Wed 18:00 07-Wed 19:00 07-Wed 20: 07-W Corrected CURRENT FORECAST 06/10/ ACTUAL WIND FORECAST 06/10/ FORECAST 05/10/ FORECAST 05/10/ Uncorrected Current 06-Tue 11:00 06-Tue 10:00 06-Tue 09:00 06-Tue 08:00 MW 06-Tue 06:00 06-Tue 07:00

31 WSAT Wind power generation Secure level Assessment Tool (WSAT) is an on-line application to monitor voltage stability and transient stability of a power grid under the increase of wind generation Based on Powertech s VSAT and TSAT tools Integrated with EIRGRID EMS through Powertech s DSA Manager tool Analysis is performed for real-time and forecast system conditions captured by SCADA and solved by SE based on power transfers between wind generation and conventional generation EIRGRID transient and voltage stability criteria N-1 contingencies, N-G contingencies Transfers for wind increase are analyzed

32

33 Je vous remercie de votre attention!

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