Fire suppression Rak , Fire Simulation Jukka Vaari

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1 TEKNOLOGIAN TUTKIMUSKESKUS VTT OY Fire suppression Rak , Fire Simulation Jukka Vaari

2 What is combustion?

3 What is combustion? Combustion is the exothermic chemical reaction between oxygen and fuel Combustion is associated with Consumption of oxygen and fuel Formation of new chemical compunds (products) Release of heat Soot production Light emission Combustion occurs mostly in the gas phase

4 What is fire extinguishment?

5 Why is the fire extinguished?

6 Why is the fire extinguished?

7 7

8 8

9 9

10 10

11 Question Why can rockets fly in space?

12 Question Why can rockets fly in space?

13 Question How can you extinguish a fire on a space station?

14 Question How can you extinguish a fire on a space station?

15 Question Why can you blow out a candle?

16 Why do you have to blow hard?

17 What is the essential difference?

18 Fuel gasification requires heat HEAT Heating of fuel-air mixture to ignition temperatures Gasification

19 I smell gas but why no explosion?

20 Answer 1: no ignition energy

21 Answer 2: wrong mixture CH 4 + 2O 2 CO 2 + 2H 2 O

22 Mixture and chemical equation Methane combustion is usually written as CH 4 + 2O 2 CO 2 + 2H 2 O Methane stoichiometric combustion in air (21% O 2, 79% N 2 ) CH 4 + 2O N 2 CO 2 + 2H 2 O N 2 Methane combustion in air at lower flammability limit (5% CH 4 ) 0.05CH 4 + (1-0.05)(0.21O N 2 ) products CH 4 + 4O N 2 CO 2 + 2H 2 O +2O N 2 Cold mixture Hot mixture Heating

23 FDS: gas phase extinguishment &REAC parameters CRITICAL_FLAME_TEMPERATURE (default 1427 ºC) AUTO_IGNITION_TEMPERATURE (default 0 ºC)

24 FDS: liquid and solid phase extinguishment What is the pre-requisite for simulating the suppression effect of water on a surface

25 Option 1: an empirical model Fuel mass flux depends on the amount of water on the burning surface (kg/m 2 ) User must supply the parameter E_COEFFICIENT

26 Option 2: pyrolysis model Fuel gasification rate depends on surface temperature Solid phase: Arrhenius kinetics Liquid phase: Clausius-Clapeyron equation & Stefan diffusion Heat transfer between a water droplet on a surface and the surface affects surface temperature and therefore pyrolysis rate

27 Automatic (fire) sprinkler Nozzle with a thermally sensitive sealing device which opens to discharge water for fire fighting

28 Temperature rating and thermal sensitivity Color of the glass bulb indicates activation temperature Thickness of the glass bulb is related to thermal sensitivity

29 Atomization and spray pattern The deflector plate atomizes the water and defines the shape of the spray pattern

30 Hydraulic dimensioning 5000 Density (mm/min) EH1 EH2 Area of sprinkler operation (ft 2 ) LH OH1 93 EUR EUR LH OH3 EUR OH2 EUR OH4 EUR OH1 OH2 HHP1 EUR HHP2 EUR Density (gpm/ft 2 ) HHP3 EUR Increasing risk requires a larger water density over a larger area Area of sprinkler operation (m 2 )

31 Water spray definition in FDS (example) &DEVC XYZ=0.0, 0.0, 2.5 QUANTITY='TIME' SETPOINT=0.0 PROP_ID= MY NOZZLE' / &PROP ID= MY NOZZLE' OFFSET=0.05 PARTICLES_PER_SECOND=5000 PART_ID='WATER DROPLETS' OPERATING_PRESSURE= K_FACTOR= 0.35 PARTICLE_VELOCITY=110.0 SPRAY_ANGLE=0.0, 10.0 / &PART ID='WATER DROPLETS' SPEC_ID='WATER VAPOR DIAMETER=80. GAMMA_D=2.4 / &SPEC ID='WATER VAPOR' /

32 Excercise: suppression of a residential fire Plywood walls Foam slabs Wood crib over a heptane pool Cotton wicks soaked in heptane

33

34 Tasks Examine the input file Room_fire.fds How are the different parts of the fire load described? How is ventilation arranged in the room? Run the case and save the results. Add a residential sprinkler to the input file and run the case (sprinkler definition on the next slide) In the same graph, plot the HRR curves with and without the residential sprinkler. In the same graph, plot sprinkler temperature and gas temperature next to the sprinkler. Why is there a difference? Compare the vertical gas temperature distribution in the simulations. How does the sprinkler affect the possibility of humans evacuating the room? Examine the sprinkler water distribution on the floor and on the walls. What is the operating principle of a residential sprinkler?

35 Residential sprinkler definition Location Activation temperature 68 ºC Thermal sensitivity 36 (m s) 1/2 Conductivity factor 0.25 (m s) 1/2 K factor 71 l/min/bar 1/2 Operating pressure Droplet initial velocity Mid-room, 3 cm below ceiling surface 0.55 bar 10 m/s Droplets per second Spray angle 0-90º Droplet density distribution Angle of maximum density 90º Gaussian Droplet median volume diameter 1000 µm In addition: record the accumulated water mass per unit surface area

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