ALASKA DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION Division of Spill Prevention and Response Contaminated Sites Program

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1 ALASKA DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION Division of Spill Prevention and Response Contaminated Sites Program Procedures for Calculating Cleanup Levels July 5, 205 Adopted by Reference at 8 AAC 75

2 Procedures for Calculating Cleanup Levels TABLE OF CONTENTS.0 INTRODUCTION GROUNDWATER CLEANUP LEVEL EQUATIONS GROUNDWATER CLEANUP LEVEL EQUATION FOR NON-CARCINOGENIC COMPOUNDS Ingestion of Water Dermal for Inorganics Dermal for Organics Inhalation of Volatiles Total Non-carcinogenic Risk for All Groundwater Exposure Pathways GROUNDWATER CLEANUP LEVEL EQUATION FOR CARCINOGENIC COMPOUNDS Ingestion of Water Dermal for Inorganics Dermal for Organics Inhalation of Volatiles Total Carcinogenic Risk for All Groundwater Exposure Pathways MUTAGENIC EQUATION FOR GROUNDWATER Ingestion of Water Dermal Inhalation of Volatiles Total Mutagenic Risk for All Groundwater Exposure Pathways VINYL CHLORIDE Ingestion of Water Dermal Inhalation Total TRICHLOROETHYLENE Ingestion of Water Dermal Inhalation Total SOIL CLEANUP LEVEL EQUATIONS FOR RESIDENTIAL SOIL EQUATIONS FOR NON-CARCINOGENIC COMPOUNDS Incidental Ingestion of Soil Dermal Contact with Soil Inhalation of Particulates Emitted from Soil Total Non-carcinogenic Risk for All Soil Exposure Pathways EQUATIONS FOR CARCINOGENIC COMPOUNDS Incidental Ingestion of Soil Dermal Contact with Soil Inhalation of Particulates Emitted from Soil Total Carcinogenic Risk for All Soil Exposure Pathways... 5 ADEC Contaminated Sites Program Page i

3 3.3 EQUATIONS FOR MUTAGENIC COMPOUNDS Incidental Ingestion of Soil Dermal Contact with Soil Inhalation of Particulates Emitted from Soil Total Mutagenic Risk for All Soil Exposure Pathways EQUATIONS FOR VINYL CHLORIDE Incidental Ingestion of Soil Dermal Contact with Soil Inhalation of Particulates Emitted from Soil Total Vinyl Chloride Risk for All Soil Exposure Pathways TRICHLOROETHYLENE Ingestion Dermal Inhalation Total MIGRATION TO GROUNDWATER CLEANUP LEVELS SOIL-WATER PARTITIONING EQUATION FOR MIGRATION TO GROUNDWATER EXPLANATION OF SUPPORTING EQUATIONS AND PARAMETERS DERIVATION OF THE VOLATILIZATION FACTOR SELECTION OF COMPOUNDS FOR DERMAL ABSORPTION PARTICULATE EMISSION FACTOR (PEF) DERIVATION OF THE SOIL SATURATION LIMIT (C SAT) DERIVATION OF DILUTION FACTOR DT τ event B t* PETROLEUM FRACTION EQUATIONS GROUNDWATER CLEANUP LEVELS FOR PETROLEUM CONTAMINANTS RESIDENTIAL SOIL CLEANUP LEVELS FOR INGESTION OF PETROLEUM FRACTIONS RESIDENTIAL SOIL CLEANUP LEVELS FOR DIRECT INHALATION OF PETROLEUM FRACTIONS DERIVATION OF THE VOLATILIZATION FACTOR DERIVATION OF THE SOIL SATURATION LIMIT SOIL-WATER PARTITIONING EQUATION FOR MIGRATION TO GROUNDWATER FOR PETROLEUM FRACTIONS DERIVATION OF DILUTION FACTOR ESTIMATION OF MIXING ZONE DEPTH CHEMICAL SPECIFIC PARAMETERS TOTAL GRO, DRO, RRO VERSUS AROMATIC/ALIPHATIC FRACTIONS CALCULATING CLEANUP LEVELS UNDER METHOD THREE REFERENCES APPENDIX A - TABLE 6 ORGANIC AND INORGANIC CHEMICAL SPECIFIC PARAMETERS APPENDIX B TABLE 7 STANDARD DEFAULT FACTORS FOR NON- PETROLEUM ORGANIC AND INORGANIC CONTAMINANTS ADEC Contaminated Sites Program Page ii

4 Introduction State of Alaska Regulations at 8 AAC 75, Article 3, for Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Control, govern the cleanup of sites contaminated with oil or other hazardous substances. Sections of this regulation address the selection or development of cleanup levels for contaminated soil and groundwater that are considered protective of human health, safety, and welfare, and the environment. Cleanup levels at a site may be determined by one or more of four methods. Method one cleanup levels listed in 8 AAC 75.34(a) and (b) apply only to soil contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and are not considered risk-based. Method two cleanup levels for approximately 80 chemicals are listed in 8 AAC 75.34(c) and for petroleum hydrocarbons in 8 AAC 75.34(d). These levels are risk-based, incorporating toxicity and chemical specific information, assessing multiple routes of exposure in climate settings that reflect the variability found across the state, and the potential for a given chemical to migrate from soil to groundwater. Though still somewhat generic, the method two levels are considered protective of human exposure for most sites. Determining cleanup levels under method three allows for modification of the default soil cleanup levels to account for site-specific soil and aquifer data or to propose a commercial/industrial exposure scenario. Method four cleanup levels are developed under a risk assessment conducted in accordance with the department's Risk Assessment Procedures Manual (ADEC, 205). This document presents the equations used to calculate the default, method two soil cleanup criteria listed in Tables B and B2 in 8 AAC 75.34(c) and (d) and groundwater criteria listed in Table C in 8 AAC (b)(). The equations presented in Sections 2.0 through 5.0 for individual organic and inorganic chemicals are based on those developed for the Regional Screening Levels (RSLs) by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory under contract to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), but adapted for Alaska to account for soil and climate variability, and a default cancer risk of :00,000. The equations presented in Section 6.0 for the petroleum fractions are unchanged from the 2008 version of this document. These equations were developed using the 996 EPA Soil Screening Guidance (U.S. EPA 996a) and information generated by the Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Criteria Working Group (TPHCWG, 997). Equations are provided for the residential land use scenario only; commercial/industrial land use scenarios must be proposed under a method three (8 AAC (e)). Procedures for calculating site-specific soil cleanup levels for both Table B chemicals and Table B2 petroleum fractions under method three are detailed in Section 7.0. The standardized default exposure and soil parameters developed by EPA have been used except where noted (See Table 8 for the Standard Default Parameters, found in Appendix B). These exposure parameters are designed to be protective for reasonable maximum exposure (RME) conditions for long-term/chronic exposures, (U.S. EPA. 99a; U.S. EPA. 996a; U.S. EPA. 2002). Chronic oral reference doses (RfD) and chronic inhalation reference concentrations (RfC) are used to calculate non-carcinogenic concentrations. Chronic oral slope factors (CSF o) are used to evaluate ADEC Contaminated Sites Program Page

5 potential human carcinogenic risks. A lifetime cancer risk factor of X 0-5 is used, along with a target hazard quotient (THQ) of, reported to one significant figure, for noncarcinogens. For Table B and C compounds equations are presented for non-carcinogenic compounds, carcinogenic compounds, and mutagenic compounds for soil and for groundwater. In addition, for vinyl chloride and trichloroethylene (TCE) in soil and groundwater, a unique set of equations are provided that adjust for early-life cancer risk estimates to derive the cleanup levels. The groundwater cleanup calculations (Section 2.0) are broken down into equations for ingestion of groundwater, dermal contact with groundwater, and inhalation of volatiles from groundwater. The soil exposure pathway calculations (Section 3.0) are broken down into equations for dermal contact with soil, soil ingestion, and inhalation of volatiles and inhalation of soil particulates using a particulate emission factor (PEF) equation (See Section 5.0, supporting equations). For the ingestion route, equations use an age-adjusted approach to account for the variation in soil ingestion rates for children depending on age. A number of studies have shown that inadvertent ingestion of soil is common among children six years old and younger (Calabrese et al. 989, Davis et al. 990, Van Wijnen et al. 990). Therefore, the dose method uses an age-adjusted soil ingestion factor that takes into account the difference in daily soil ingestion rates, body weights, and exposure duration for children from to 6 years old and others from 7 to 30 years old. This health-protective approach is chosen to take into account the higher daily rates of soil ingestion in children as well as the longer duration of exposure that is anticipated for a long-term resident. For more on this method, see RAGS Part B (U.S. EPA. 99a). The Table B method two residential soil cleanup level for the human health pathway provides a single cleanup value that does not exceed a cumulative cancer risk value of X 0-5 or a THQ of reported to one significant figure for noncarcinogens for all three soil exposure pathways. Likewise, the Table C groundwater cleanup value is generated by a cumulative risk calculation. The migration to groundwater criteria for the Table B compounds are derived using a soil-water partitioning equation (Section 4.0). This equation back-calculates from the calculated risk-based groundwater cleanup level. A single set of migration to groundwater criteria apply statewide for Table B, and are based on conservative assumptions about fate and transport mechanisms in the subsurface, accounting for both () release of a contaminant in soil leachate and (2) transport of the contaminant through the underlying soil and aquifer to a receptor well (U.S. EPA. 202). Section 5.0 presents several key equations and factors that support calculations in the proceeding sections, including the approach taken for the dermal absorption route, and derivation of the particulate emission factor, volatilization factor, and other equations. Equations for the petroleum fraction cleanup values in Table B2 (soil) and Table C (groundwater) are presented in Section 6.0 and, as mentioned above, remain unchanged from the 2008 version of this document. Table B2 petroleum cleanup levels for migration to groundwater are climatespecific, with values established for areas of the state receiving greater than or less than 40 inches of annual precipitation. For all sites with petroleum contamination, the migration to groundwater pathway applies unless the responsible person documents that the pathway is inapplicable, such as in the Arctic zone. Table provides the chemical-specific parameters for the petroleum fractions and ADEC Contaminated Sites Program Page 2

6 Table 2 provides the percentage calculations for combining the aliphatic and aromatic fractions in each range. Section 7.0 provides procedures for calculating site-specific, method three cleanup levels for the contaminants in both Tables B and B2. This includes both the migration-to-groundwater pathway for residential land use scenarios, and also for the commercial/industrial exposure pathways. Tables 3 through 5 list the parameters that can be modified with site-specific data for both Table B and B2 compounds. Table 6 in Appendix A provides the chemical-specific parameters for the organic and inorganic chemicals in Table B and C. Table 7 provides the list of Standard Default Parameters used in the RSL equations and calculations via which the Table B cleanup levels are derived. ADEC Contaminated Sites Program Page 3

7 Groundwater Cleanup Level Equations Groundwater Cleanup Level Equation for Non-Carcinogenic Compounds Cleanup level equations for exposure to non-carcinogenic compounds in groundwater are presented below. The terms used in the equations are defined in Appendix B. The equations include exposure routes via ingestion, dermal contact, and inhalation of volatiles, which are then totaled to produce a final value. 2.. Ingestion of Water 365 days THQ AT reswc ED year reswc (6 years) BW reswc (5 kg) 000µg mg CL water nc ing (µg/l) EF reswc 350 days year ED reswc(6 years) RfD 0 mg IRW reswc 0.78 L day kg d 2..2 Dermal for Inorganics CL water nc der (µg/l) DA event Where: μμμμ DDDD eeeeeeeeee cccc 2 eevvvvvvvv K p cm µg cm 2 event hr EEEE rrrrrrrrrr 365 dd TTTTTT AAAA rrrrrrrrrr 000cm3 L 0.54 hoooooooo eeeeeeeeee EEEE rrrrrrrrrr (6 yy) 000μμμμ BBBB rrrrrrrrrr(5 kkkk) eeeeeeeeeeee EEEE rrrrrrrrrr RRRRRR 0 kkkk GGGGGGGGGG EEEE 350 dd rrrrrrrrrr(6 yy) EEEE rrrrrrrrrr SSSS rrrrrrwwcc (6,378 cccc 2 ) 2..3 Dermal for Organics If EEEE rrrrrrrrrr 0.54 hoooooooo eeeeeeeeee t (hr), then CL water nc der (µg/l) Or, DA event µg cm 2 event 2 FA K p cm hr 6 τ event hours 000cm3 event If EEEE rrrrrrrrrr ππ L 0.54 hoooooooo eeeeeeeeee ADEC Contaminated Sites Program Page

8 If EEEE rrrrrrrrrr 0.54 hoooooooo eeeeeeeeee > t (hr), then CL water nc der (µg/l) µg DA event cm 2 event 000cm3 L FA K p cm hr EEEE rrrrrrrrrr0.54 hoooooooo eeeeeeeeee 2 τ B event hours event 3B3B2 (B) Inhalation of Volatiles 365 days THQ AT reswc ED year reswc (6 years) 000μg mg CL water-nc-inh (μg/l) EF reswc 350 days year ED reswc(6 years) EEEEiiiih 24 hours rrrrrrrrrr day day 24 hours RfC mg 0.5L K m m Total Non-carcinogenic Risk for All Groundwater Exposure Pathways CCCC rrrrrr wwwwwwwwww nnnn tttttt ( μμμμ ) LL CCCC wwwwwwwwww nnnn iiiiii CCCC wwwwwwwwww nnnn CCCC wwwwwwwwww nnnn iiiih Groundwater Cleanup Level Equation for Carcinogenic Compounds Cleanup level equations for exposure to carcinogenic compounds in groundwater are presented below. The equations include exposure routes via ingestion, dermal contact, and inhalation of volatiles, which are then totaled to produce a final value Ingestion of Water CCCC wwwwwwwwww cccc iiiiii (μμμμ/ll) Where: 365 dd TTTT AAAA rrrrrrrr LLLL(70 yy) 000μμμμ CCCCCC 0 kkkk IIIIII rrrrrr aaaaaa LL kkkk IIIIII rrrrrr aaaaaa LL KKKK EEEE rrrrrrrrrr (6 yy) EEEE rrrrrrrrrr 350 dd IIIIII rrrrrrrrrr 0.78 LL BBBB rrrrrrrrrr (5 kkkk) [EEEE rrrrrrrr (26 yy) EEEE rrrrrrrrrr (6 yy)] EEEE rrrrrrrrrr 350 dd IIIIII rrrrrrrrrr 2.5 LL BBBB rrrrrrrrrr (80 kkkk) ADEC Contaminated Sites Program Page 2

9 2.2.2 Dermal for Inorganics μμμμ DDDD eeeeeeeeee cccc CCCC wwwwwwwwww cccc (μμμμ/ll) 2 000cccc3 eeeeeeeeee LL KK pp cccc hrr EEEE rrrrrrrr aaaaaa hoooooooo eeeeeeeeee Dermal for Organics IIII EEEE rrrrrrrr aaaaaa hoooooooo eeeeeeeeee tt (hrr), ttheeee CCCC wwwwwwwwww cccc (μμμμ/ll) μμμμ DDDD eeeeeeeeee cccc 2 000cccc3 eeeeeeeeee LL 2 FFFF KK pp cccc hrr 6 ττ hoooooooo eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee EEEE rrrrrrrr aaaaaa hoooooooo eeeeeeeeee ππ Or, IIII EEEE rrrrrrrr aaaaaa hoooooooo eeeeeeeeee > tt (hrr), ttheeee CCCC wwwwwwwwww cccc (μμμμ/ll) μμμμ DDDD eeeeeeeeee cccc 2 eeeeeeeeee FFFF KK pp cccc hoooooooo eeeeeeeeee hrr EEEE rrrrrrrr aaaaaa BB cccc3 000 LL 2 ττ eeeeeeeeee hoooooooo 3BB 3BB2 eeeeeeeeee ( BB) 2 Where: μμμμ DDDD eeeeeeeeee cccc 2 eeeeeeeeee 365 dd TTTT AAAA rrrrrrrr CCCCCC 0 kkkk GGGGGGGGGG LLLL(70 yy) 000μμμμ DDDDDD rrrrrr aaaaaa cccc2 eeeeeeeeee kkkk DDDDDD rrrrrr aaaaaa cccc2 eeeeeeeeee kkkk And: EEEE rrrrrrrrrr eeeeeeeeeeee EEEE rrrrrrrrrr(6 yy) EEEE rrrrrrrrrr 350 dd SSSS rrrrssssss(6,378 cccc 2 ) BBBB rrrrrrrrrr (5 kkkk) EEEE rrrrrrrrrr eeeeeeeeeeee EEEE rrrrrrrrrr(20 yy) EEEE rrrrrrrrrr 350 dd SSSS rrrrrrrrrr(20,900 cccc 2 ) BBBB rrrrrrrrrr (80kkkk) ADEC Contaminated Sites Program Page 3

10 EEEE rrrrrrrr aaaaaa hoooooooo eeeeeeeeee EEEE ddeeee rrrrrrrrrr 0.54 hoooooooo eeeeeeeeee EEEE rrrrrrrrrr(6 yy) EEEE rrrrrrrrrr EEEE rrrrrrrr (26 yy) 0.7 hoooooooo eeeeeeeeee [EEEE rrrrrrrr(26 yy) EEEE rrrrrrrrrr (6 yy)] Inhalation of Volatiles CCCC wwwwwwwwww cccc iiiih (μμμμ/ll) 365 dd TTTT AAAA rrrrrrrr LLLL(70 yy) 350 dd EEEE rrrrrrrr EEEE rrrrrrrr (26 yy) EEEEiiiih 24 hoooooooo rrrrrrrr 0.5LL IIIIII μμμμ KK 24 hoooooooo mm 3 mm Total Carcinogenic Risk for All Groundwater Exposure Pathways CCCC wwwwwwwwww cccc tttttt (μμμμ/ll) CCCC wwwwwwwwww cccc iiiiii CCCC wwwwwwwwww cccc CCCC wwwwwwwwww cccc iiiih Mutagenic Equation for Groundwater Cleanup level equations for exposure to mutagenic compounds in groundwater are presented below. The equations include exposure routes via ingestion, dermal contact, and inhalation of volatiles, which are then totaled to produce a final value Ingestion of Water 365 dd 000 μμμμ TTTT AAAA rrrrrrrr LLLL(70 yy) CCCC wwwwwwwwww iiiiii (μμμμ/ll) CCCCCC 0 kkkk IIIIIIII rrrrrr aaaaaa 09.9 LL kkkk ADEC Contaminated Sites Program Page 4

11 Where: IIIIIIII rrrrrr aaaaaa 09.9 LL KKKK EEEE 0 2 (2 yy) EEEE dd IIIIII LL 0 BBBB 0 2 (5 kkkk) EEEE 2 6 (4 yy) EEEE dd IIIIII LL 3 BBBB 2 6 (5 kkkk) EEEE 6 6 (0 yy) EEEE dd IIIIII LL 3 BBBB 6 6 (80 kkkk) EEEE 6 60 (0 yy) EEEE dd IIIIII LL BBBB 6 30 (80 kkkk) Dermal Dermal for Inorganics: μμμμ DDDD eeeeeeeeee cccc CCCC wwwwwweeee (μμμμ/ll) 2 000cccc3 eeeeeeeeee LL KK pp cccc hrr EEEE rrrrrrrr hoooooooo eeeeeeeeee Dermal for Organics: IIII EEEE rrrrrrrr hoooooooo eeeeeeeeee tt (hrr), ttheeee CCCC wwwwwwwwww (μμμμ/ll) μμμμ DDDD eeeeeeeeee cccc 2 000cccc3 eeeeeeeeee LL 2 FFFF KK pp cccc hrr 6 ττ hoooooooo eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee EEEE rrrrrrrr hoooooooo eeeeeeeeee ππ Or IIII EEEE rrrrrrrr hoooooooo eeeeeeeeee > tt (hrr), ttheeee CCCC wwwwwwwwww (µgg/ll) DDAA eeeeeeeeee μμμμ cccc 2 eeeeeeeeee 000cccc3 FFFF KK pp cccc hrr EEEE rrrrrrrr hoooooooo eeeeeeeeee 2 ττ BB eeeeeeeeee hoooooooo 3BB 3BB2 eeeeeeeeee ( BB) 2 LL Where: ADEC Contaminated Sites Program Page 5

12 μμμμ DDDD eeeeeeeeee cccc 2 eeeeeeeeee 365 dd TTTT AAAA rrrrrrrr LLLL(70 yy) 000μμμμ CCCCCC 0 kkkk DDDDDDDD GGGGGGGGGG rrrrrr aaaaaa eeeeeeeeeeee cccc2 kkkk Where: DDDDDDDD rrrrrr aaaaaa eeeeeeeeeeee cccc2 kkkk EEEE 0 2 eeeeeeeeeeee EEEE 0 2 (2 yy) EEEE ddaayyyy SSSS 0 2 (6,378 cccc2 ) 0 BBBB 0 2 (5 kkkk) EEEE 2 6 eeeeeeeeeeee EEEE 2 6 (4 yy) EEEE dd SSSS 2 6 (6,378 cccc2 ) 3 BBBB 2 6 (5 kkkk) EEEE 6 6 eeeeeeeeeeee EEEE 6 6 (0 yy) EEEE dd SSSS 6 6 (20,900 cccc2 ) 3 BBBB 6 6 (80 kkkk) EEEE 6 26 eeeeeeeeeeee EEEE 6 26 (0 yy) EEEE dd SSSS 6 26 (20,900 cccc2 ) BBBB 6 26 (80 kkkk) And: EEEE rrrrrrrr hoooooooo eeeeeeeeee EEEE hoooooooo eeeeeeeeee EEEE 0 2(2 yy) EETT hoooooo eeeeeeeeee EEEE 2 6(4 yy) 0.7 hoooooooo eeeeeeeeee EEEE 6 6(0 yy) EEEE hoooooooo eeeeeeeeee EEEE 6 30(0 yy) EEEE 0 2 (2 yy) EEEE 2 6 (4 yy) EEEE 6 6 (0 yy) EEEE 6 26 (0 yy) EEEE Inhalation of Volatiles CCCC wwwwwwwwww iiiih (μμμμ/ll) 365 dd TTTT AAAA rrrrrrrr LLLL(70 yy) KK 0.5LL mm 3 EEEE rrrrrrrr iiiih 24 hoooooooo 24 hoooooooo EEEE 0 2 (yy) EEEE dd IIIIII μμμμ 0 mm 3 EEEE2 6 (yy) EEEE dd IIIIII μμμμ 3 mm 3 EEEE 6 6 (yy) EEEE dd IIIIII μμμμ 3 mm 3 EEEE6 26 (yy) EEEE dd IIIIII μμμμ mm 3 ADEC Contaminated Sites Program Page 6

13 2.3.4 Total Mutagenic Risk for All Groundwater Exposure Pathways CCCC wwwwwwwwww tttttt (μμgg/ll) Vinyl Chloride 2.4. Ingestion of Water CCCC wwwwwwwwww iiiiii CCCC wwwwwwwwww CCCC wwwwwwwwww iiiih CCCC wwwwwwwwww vvvv iiiiii (μμμμ/ll) TTTT CCCCCC 0 kkkk IIIIII rrrrrr aaaaaa LL kkkk 000μμμμ CCCCCC 0 kkkk IIIIII rrrrrrrrrr 0.78 LL 000μμμμ 365 dd BBBB rrrrrrrrrr (5kg) AAAA rrrrrrrr LLLL(70 yy) Where: IIIIII rrrrrr aaaaaa LL kkkk EEEE rrrrrrrrrr (6 yy) EEEE rrrrrrrrrr 350 dd IIIIII rrrrrrrrrr 0.78 LL BBBB rrrrrrrrrr (5 KKKK) [EEEE rrrrrrrr (26 yy) EEEE rrrrrrrrrr (6 yy)] EEEE rrrrrrrrrr 350 dd IIIIII rrrrrrrrrr 2.5 LL BBBB rrrrrrrrrr (80 kkkk) Dermal Or, IIII EEEE rrrrrrrr aaaaaa hoooooooo eeeeeeeeee tt (hrr), ttheeee CCCC wwwwwwwwww vvvv (μμμμ/ll) μμμμ DDDD eeeeeeeeee cccc 2 000cccc3 eeeeeeeeee LL 2 FFFF KK pp cccc hrr 6 ττ hoooooooo eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee EEEE rrrrrrrr aaaaaa ππ hoooooooo eeeeeeeeee ADEC Contaminated Sites Program Page 7

14 IIII EEEE rrrrrrrr aaaaaa hoooooooo eeeeeenntt > tt (hrr), ttheeee CCCC wwwwwwwwww vc (μμμμ/ll) μμμμ cccc3 DDDD eeeeeeeeee cccc eeeeeeeeee LL FFFF KK pp cccc hrr EEEE rrrrrrrr aaaaaa hoooooooo eeeeeeeeee 2 ττ BB eeeeeeeeee hoooooooo 3BB 3BB2 eeeeeeeeee ( BB) 2 Where: μμμμ DDDD eeeeeeeeee cccc 2 eeeeeeeeee CCCCCC 0 kkkk GGGGGGGGGG AAAA rrrrrrrr DDDDDD rrrrrr aaaaaa cccc2 eeeeeeeeee kkkk 365 dd 000 μμμμ LT(70 years) TTTT CCCCCC 0 kkkk EEEE GGGGGGGGGG rrrrrrrrrr eeeeeeeeee SSSS rrrrrrrrrr (6378 cccc2 ) 000 μμμμ BBBB rrrrrrwwww (5kkkk) Where: DDDDDD rrrrrr aaaaaa cccc2 eeeeeeeeee kkkk EEEE rrrrrrrrrr eeeeeeeeeeee EEEE rrrrrrrrrr(6 yy) EEEE rrrrrrrrrr 350 dd SSSS rrrrrrrrrr(6,378 cccc 2 ) BBBB rrrrrrrrrr (5 kkkk) EEEE rrrrrrrrrr eeeeeeeeeeee EEEE rrrrrrrrrr(24 yy) EEEE rrrrrrrrrr 350 dd SSSS rrrrrrrrrr(20,900 cccc 2 ) BBBB rrrrrrrrrr (80kkkk) And: EEEE rrrrrrrr aaaaaa hoooooooo eeeeeeeeee EEEE rrrrrrrrrr 0.54 hoooooooo ddddrr eeeeeeeeee EEEE rrrrrrrrrr(6 yy) EEEE rrrrrrrrrr EEEE rrrrrrrr (26 yy) 0.7 hoooooooo eeeeeeeeee [EEEE rrrrrrrr(26 yy) EEEE rrrrrrrrrr (6 yy)] Inhalation CCCC wwwwwwwwww vvvv iiiih (μμμμ/ll) TTTT 350 dd IIIIII μμμμ mm 3 EEEErrrrrrrr EEEE rrrrrrrr (26 yy) EEEE iiiih 24 hoooooooo rrrrrrrr KK 0.5LL 24 hoooooooo mm 3 μμμμ 0.5LL 365 dd IIIIII KK mm 3 mm 3 AAAA rrrrrrrr LLLL(70 yy) ADEC Contaminated Sites Program Page 8

15 2.4.4 Total CCCC wwwwwwwwww vvvv tttttt (/kkkk) Trichloroethylene 2.5. Ingestion of Water CCCC wwwwwwwwww tttttt iiiiii (μμμμ/ll) CCCC wwwwwwwwww vvvv iiiiii CCCC wwwwwwwwww vvvv 365 dd (000μμμμ) TTTT AAAA rrrrrrrr LLLL(70 yy) CCCC wwwwwwwwww vvvv iiiih CCCCCC 0 kkkk CCCCCC 0 (0.804) IIIIII rrrrrrrr aaaaaa LL kkkk MMMMMM 0 (0.202) IIIIIIII rrrrrr aaaaaa09.9 LL kkkk Where: CCCCCC OO kkkk NNNNNN LLLLLLLLLL OOOOOOOO SSSSSSSSSS FFFFFFFFFFFF CCCCCC OO (0.804) CCCCCC OO kkkk AAAAAAAAAA BBBBBBBBBB OOOOOOOO SSSSSSSSSS FFFFFFFFFFFF CCCCCC OO kkkk KKKKKKKKKKKK OOrraaaa SSSSSSSSSS FFFFFFFFFFFF MMMMMM OO (0.202) CCCCCC OO kkkk AAAAAAAAAA BBBBBBBBBB OOOOOOOO SSSSSSSSSS FFFFFFFFFFFF IIIIII rrrrrr aaaaaa LL kkkk EEEE rrrrrrrrrr (6 yy) EEEE rrrrrrrrrr 350 dd IIIIII rrrrrrrrrr 0.78 LL BBBB rrrrrrrrrr (5 kkgg) [EEEE rrrrrrrr (26 yy) EEEE rrrrrrrrrr (6 yy)] EEEE rrrrrrrrrr 350 dd IIIIII rrrrrrrrrr 2.5 LL BBBB rrrrrrrrrr (80 kkkk) IIIIIIII rrrrrr aaaaaa 09.9 LL KKKK EEEE 0 2 (2 yy) EEEE dd IIIIII LL 0 BBBB 0 2 (5 kkkk) EEEE 2 6 (4 yy) EEEE dd IIIIII LL 3 BBBB 2 6 (5 kkkk) EEEE 6 6 (0 yy) EEEE dd IIIIII LL 3 BBBB 6 6 (80 kkkk) EEEE 6 26 (0 yy) EEEE dd IIIIII LL BBWW 6 26 (80 kkkk) ADEC Contaminated Sites Program Page 9

16 2.5.2 Dermal IIII EEEE rrrrrrrr aaaaaa hoooooooo eeeeeeeeee tt (hrr), ttheeee CCCC wwwwwwwwww tttttt (μμμμ/ll) μμμμ DDDD tttttt eeeeeeeeee cccc 2 000cccc3 eeeeeeeeee LL 2 FFFF KK pp cccc hrr 6 ττ hoooooooo eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee EEEE rrrrrrrr aaaaaa hoooooooo eeeeeeeeee ππ Or, IIII EEEE rrrrrrrr aaaaaa hoooooooo eeeeeeeeee > tt (hrr), ttheeee CCCC wwwwwwwwww tttttt (μμμμ/ll) μμμμ DDDD tttttt eeeeeeeeee FFFF KK pp cccc ddeeee hrr EEEE rrrrrrrr aaaaaa hoooooooo eeeeeeeeee BB cccc3 cccc eeeeeeeeee LL 2 ττ eeeeeeeeee hoooooooo 3BB 3BB2 eeeeeeeeee ( BB) 2 Where: μμμμ DDDD tttttt eeeeeeeeee cccc 2 eeeeeeeeee 365 dd TTTT AAAA rrrrrrrr LLLL(70 yy) 000μμμμ CCCCCC 0 kkkk GGGGGGGGGG CCCCCC 0 (0.804) DDDDDD rrrrrrrr aaaaaa Where: DDDDDD rrrrrr aaaaaa cccc2 eeeeeeeeee kkkk And: eeeeeeeeeeee cccc2 eeeeeeeeeeee cccc2 MMMMMM kkkk 0 (0.202) DDDDDDDD rrrrrr aaaaaa kkkk EEEE rrrrrrrrrr eeeeeeeeeeee EEEE rrrrrrrrrr(6 yy) EEEE rrrrrrrrrr 350 dd SSSS rrrrrrrrrr(6,378 cccc 2 ) BBBB rrrrrrrrrr (5 kkkk) EEEE rrrrrrrrrr eeeeeeeeeeee EEEE rrrrrrrrrr(20 yy) EEEE rrrrrrrrrr 350 dd SSSS rrrrrrrrrr(20,900 cccc 2 ) BBBB rrrrrrrrrr (80kkkk) ADEC Contaminated Sites Program Page 0

17 DDDDDDDD rrrrrr aaaaaa eeeeeeeeeeee cccc2 kkkk EEEE 0 2 eeeeeeeeeeee EEEE 0 2 (2 yy) EEEE dd SSSS 0 2 (6,378 cccc2 ) 0 BBBB 0 2 (5 kkkk) EEEE 2 6 eeeeeeeeeeee EEEE 2 6 (4 yy) EEEE dd SSSS 2 6 (6,378 cccc2 ) 3 BBBB 2 6 (5 kkkk) EEEE 6 6 eeeeeeeeeeee EEEE 6 6 (0 yy) EEEE dd SSSS 6 6 (20,900 cccc2 ) 3 BBBB 6 6 (80 kkkk) EEEE 6 30 eeeeeeeeeeee EEEE 6 26 (0 yy) EEEE dd SSSS 6 26 (20,900 cccc2 ) BBBB 6 26 (80 kkkk) And: EEEE rrrrrrrr hoooooooo eeeeeeeeee EEEE hoooooooo eeeeeeeeee EEEE 0 2(2 yy) EEEE hoooooooo eeeeeeeeee EEEE 2 6(4 yy) EEEE hoooooooo eeeeeeeeee EEEE 6 6(0 yy) EEEE hoooooooo eeeeeeeeee EEEE 6 26(0 yy) EEEE 0 2 (2 yyeeeeeeee) EEEE 2 6 (4 yy) EEEE 6 6 (0 yy) EEEE 6 26 (0 yy) Inhalation CCCC wwwwwwwwww tttttt iiiih μμμμ LL 365 dd TTTT AAAA rrrrrrrr LT(70 yy) EEEE iiiih 24 hoooooooo rrrrrrrr 24 hoooooooo K 0.5 LL mm3 IUR μμμμ EEEE rrrrrrrr 350 dd EEEE rrrrrrrr (26 yy) CCCCCC ii (0.756) EEEE 0 2 (2 yy) EEEE dd MMMMMM ii (0.244) 0 EEEE 2 6 (4 yy) EEEE dd MMMMMM ii (0.244) 3 EEEE 6 6 (0 yy) EEEE dd MMMMMM ii (0.244) 3 EEEE 6 26 (0 yy) EEEE dd MMMMMM ii (0.244) CCCCCC ii (0.756) MMMMMM ii (0.244) IIIIII μμμμ mm 3 NNNNNN LLLLLLLLLL UUUUUUUU RRRRRRRR EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE IIIIII μμμμ mm 3 AAAAAAAAAA BBBBBBBBBB UUUUUUUU RRRRRRRR EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE IIIIII 0 6 μμμμ mm 3 KKKKKKKKKKKK UUUUUUUU RRRRRRRR EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE IIIIII μμμμ mm 3 AAAAAAAAAA BBBBBBBBBB UUUUUUUU RRRRRRRR EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE mm 3 ADEC Contaminated Sites Program Page

18 2.5.4 Total CCCC wwwwwwwwww tttttt tttttt (μμμμ/ll) CCCC wwwwwwwwww tttttt iiiiii CCCC wwwwwwwwww tttttt CCCC wwwwwwwwww tttttt iiiih ADEC Contaminated Sites Program Page 2

19 Soil Cleanup Level Equations for Residential Soil Equations for Non-Carcinogenic Compounds Cleanup level equations for exposure to non-carcinogenic compounds in soil are presented below. The terms used in the equations are defined in Appendix B. The equations include exposure routes via ingestion, inhalation of particulates, and dermal contact, which are then totaled to produce a final value. 3.. Incidental Ingestion of Soil 365 dd TTTTTT AAAA rrrrrrrr EEEE rrrrrrrrrr (6 yy) BBBB rrrrrrrrrr (5 kkkk) CCCC ssssssss nnnn iiiiii (/kkkk) EEEE rrrrrrrrrr dd EEEE RBA rrrrrrrrrr(6 ) IIIIII rrrrrrrrrr 200 RRRRRR 0 kkkk 0 6 kkkk 3..2 Dermal Contact with Soil CCCC ssssssss nnnn (mmgg/kkkk) 365 dd TTTTTT AAAA rrrrrrrr EEEE rrrrrrrrrr (6 yy) BBBB rrrrrrrrrr (5 kkkk) EEEE rrrrrrrr dd EEEE rrrrrrrrrr(6 ) (RRRRRR 0 GGGGGGGGGG) kkkk SSSS rrrrrrrrrr 2373 cccc2 AAAA rrrrrrrrrr 0.2 cccc 2 AAAAAA dd 0 6 kkkk 3..3 Inhalation of Particulates Emitted from Soil CCCC ssssssss nnnn iiiih (/kkkk) 365 dd TTTTTT AAAA rrrrrrrr EEEE rrrrrrrrrr (6 yy) EEEE rrrrrrrrrr dd EEEE 24 hoooooooo rrrrrrrrrr(6 ) EEEE rrrrrrrrrr 24 hoouuuuuu RRRRRR mm3 VVVV ss mm3 KKKK PPPPPP ww mm3 KKKK 3..4 Total Non-carcinogenic Risk for All Soil Exposure Pathways CCCC ssssssss nnnn tttttt (/kkkk) CCCC ssssssss nnnn iiiiii CCCC ssssssss nnnn CCCC ssssssss nnnn iiiih ADEC Contaminated Sites Program Page 3

20 Equations for Carcinogenic Compounds Cleanup level equations for exposure to carcinogenic compounds in soil are presented below. The equations include exposure routes via ingestion, inhalation of particulates, and dermal contact, which are then totaled to produce a final value Incidental Ingestion of Soil CCCC ssssssss cccc iiiiii (/kkkk) Where: 365 dd TTTT AAAA rrrrrrrr LLLL(70 yy) CCCCCC 0 kkkk RBA IIIIII rrrrrr aaaaaa kkkk 0 6 kkkk IIIIII rrrrrr aaaaaa kkkk EEEE rrrrrrrrrr (6 yy) EEEE rrrrrrrrrr dd IIIIII 200 rrrrrrrrrr BBBB rrrrrrrrrr (5 kkkk) [EEEE rrrrrrrr (26 yy) EEEE rrrrrrrrrr (6 yy)] EEEE rrrrrrrrrr dd IIIIII 00 rrrrrrrrrr BBBB rrrrrrrrrr (80 kkkk) Dermal Contact with Soil 365 dd TTTT AAAA rrrrrrrr LLLL(70 yy) CCCC rrrrrr ssssss cccc (/kkkk) CCCCCC 0 kkkk DDDDDD GGGGGGGGGG rrrrrr aaaaaa kkkk AAAAAA dd 0 6 kkkk Where: DDDDDD rrrrrr aaaaaa EEEE rrrrrrrrcc (6 yy) EEEE dd rrrrrrrrrr SSSS rrrrrrrrrr2373 cccc2 AAAA rrrrrrrrrr0.2 cccc 2 kkkk BBBB rrrrrrrrrr (5 kkkk) [EEEE rrrrrrrr (26 yy) EEEE rrrrrrrrrr (6 yy)] EEEE rrrrrrrrrr dd SSSS rrrrrrrrrr6032 cccc2 AAAA rrrrrrrrrr0.07 cccc 2 BBBB rrrrrrrrrr (80 kkkk) ADEC Contaminated Sites Program Page 4

21 3.2.3 Inhalation of Particulates Emitted from Soil CCCC ssssssss cccc iiiih (/kkkk) 365 dd TTTT AAAA rrrrrrrr LLLL(70 yy) IIIIII μμμμ 000 μμμμ mm 3 EEEE rrrrrrrr dd VVVV ss mm3 kkkk 24 hoooooooo EEEE rrrrrrrr (26 ) EEEE rrrrrrrr 24 hoooooooo PPPPPP ww mm3 kkkk Total Carcinogenic Risk for All Soil Exposure Pathways CCCC ssssssss cccc tttttt (/kkkk) CCCC ssssssss cccc iiiiii CCCC ssssssss cccc CCCC ssssssss cccc iiiih Equations for Mutagenic Compounds Cleanup level equations for exposure to mutagenic compounds in soil are presented below. For these compounds, the exposure rates take into account age-specific susceptibility to mutagens through the use of an age dependent adjustment factor (ADAF). The equations include exposure routes via ingestion, inhalation of particulates, and dermal contact, which are then totaled to produce a final value Incidental Ingestion of Soil CCCC ssssssss iiiiii (/kkkk) 365 dd TTTT AAAA rrrrrrrr LLLL(70 yy) CCCCCC 0 kkkk RRRRRR IIIIIIII rrrrrr aaaaaa kkkk kkkk 0 6 Where: IIIIIIII rrrrrr aaaaaa EEEE 0 2 (2 yy) EEEE dd 0 2 kkkk EEEE 2 6 (4 yy) EEEE 2 6 dd IIIIII BBBB 2 6 (5 kkkk) EEEE 6 26 (0 yy) EEEE 6 26 dd IIIIII BBBB 6 26 (80 kkkk) IIIIII BBBB 0 2 (5 kkkk) 3 EEEE 6 6 (0 yy) EEEE 6 6 dd IIIIII BBBB 6 6 (80 kkkk) ADEC Contaminated Sites Program Page 5

22 3.3.2 Dermal Contact with Soil 365 dd TTTT AAAA rrrrrrrr LLLL(70 yy) CCCC ssssssss (/kkkk) CCCCCC 0 kkkk DDDDDDDD GGGGGGGGGG rrrrrr aaaaaa kkkk AAAAAA dd 0 6 kkkk Where: DDDDDDDD rrrrrr aaaaaa kkkk EEEE 0 2 (2 yy) EEEE 0 2 dd AAAA cccc 2 SSSS cccc2 0 BBBB 0 2 (5 kkkk) EEEE 2 6 (4 yy) EEEE 2 6 dd AAAA cccc 2 SSSS cccc2 3 EEEE 6 6 (0 yy) EEEE 6 6 dd EEEE 6 26 (0 yy) EEEE 6 26 dd Inhalation of Particulates Emitted from Soil BBBB 2 6 (5 kkkk) AAAA cccc 2 SSSS cccc2 3 BBBB 6 6 (80 kkkk) AAAA cccc 2 SSSS cccc2 BBBB 6 26 (80 kkkk) CCCC ssssssss iiiih (/kkkk) 365 dd TTTT AAAA rrrrrrrr LLLL(70 yy) IIIIII μμμμ 000 μμμμ mm 3 VVVV ss mm3 kkkk PPPPPP ww mm3 kkkk EEEE 0 2 (2 yy) EEEE 0 2 dd EEEE 24 hoooooooo hoooooooo EEEE 6 6 (0 yy) EEEE 6 6 dd yyyyaaaa EEEE 24 hoooooooo hoooooooo Total Mutagenic Risk for All Soil Exposure Pathways CCCC ssssssss tttttt (/kkkk) CCCC ssssssss iiiiii CCCC ssssssss EEEE 2 6 (4 yy) EEEE 2 6 dd EEEE 24 hoooooooo 2 6 EEEE 6 26 (0 yy) EEEE 6 26 dd EEEE 6 6 CCCC ssssssss iiiih 3 24 hoooooooo 24 hoooooooo 24 hoooooooo ADEC Contaminated Sites Program Page 6

23 Equations for Vinyl Chloride Cleanup level equations for exposure to vinyl chloride in soil are presented below. The equations include exposure routes via ingestion, inhalation of particulates, and dermal contact, which are then totaled to produce a final value Incidental Ingestion of Soil CCCC ssssssss vvvv iiiiii kkkk TTTT CCCCCC 0 kkkk RBA IIIIII rrrrrr aaaaaa kkkk 0 6 kkkk 365 dd AAAA rrrrrrrr LLLL(70 yy) CCCCCC 0 kkkk RBA IIIIII rrrrrrrrrr kkkk BBBB rrrrrrrrrr (5 kkkk) Where IFS res-adj IFS res-adj from Section Dermal Contact with Soil CCCC ssssssss vvvv kkkk CCCCCC 0 kkkk GGGGGGGGGG CCCCCC 0 kkkk GGGGGGGGGG TTTT DDDDDD rrrrrr aaaaaa kkkk AAAAAA dd 0 6 kkkk 365 dd AAAA rrrrrrrr LLLL(70 yy) SSSS rrrrrrrrrr 2373 cccc2 AAAA rrrrrrrrrr 0.2 BBBB rrrrrrrrrr (5 kkkk) cccc 2 AAAAAA 0 6 kkkk Where DFS res-adj DFS res-adj from ADEC Contaminated Sites Program Page 7

24 3.4.3 Inhalation of Particulates Emitted from Soil CCCC ssssssss vvvv iiiih kkkk TTTT IIIIII μμμμ mm 3 EEEErrrrrrrr dd EEEE rrrrrrrr (26 yy) EEEE 24 hoooooooo rrrrrrrr μμμμ hoooooooo 365 dd AAAA rrrrrrrr LLLL(70 yy) VVVV ss mm3 kkkk IIIIII μμμμ mm 3 VVVV ss mm3 kkkk 000 μμμμ Total Vinyl Chloride Risk for All Soil Exposure Pathways CCCC ssssssss vvvv tttttt (/kkkk) CCCC ssssssss vvvv iiiiii CCCC ssssssss vvvv Trichloroethylene 3.5. Ingestion CCCC ssssssss vvvv iiiih CCCC ssssssss tttttt iiiiii (/kkkk) Where: CCCCCC 0 kkkk CAF O CAF O from Section 2.5. MAF O MAF O from Section 2.5. IFS res-adj IFS res-adj from Section 3.2. IFSM res-adj IFSM res-adj from Section dd TTTT AAAA rrrrrrrr LLLL(70 yy) RBA 0 6 kkkk CCCCCC OO (0.804) IIIIII rrrrrr aaaaaa kkkk MMMMMM OO (0.202) IIIIIIII rrrrrr aaaaaa kkkk ADEC Contaminated Sites Program Page 8

25 3.5.2 Dermal CCCC ssssssss tce kkkk Where: CCCCCC 0 kkkk 0 6 kkkk GGGGGGGGGG DFS res-adj DFS res-adj from Section DFSM res-adj DFSM res-adj from Section dd TTTT AAAA rrrrrrrr LLLL(70 yy) CCCCCC OO (0.804) DDDDDD rrrrrr aaaaaa MMMMMM OO (0.202) DDDDDDDD rrrrrr aaaaaa kkkk AAAAAA dd kkkk AAAAAA dd Inhalation CCCC wwwwwwwwww tttttt iiiih μμμμ LL 365 dd TTTT AAAA rrrrrrrr LT(70 yyeeaaaaaa) IUR μμμμ mm 3 VVVV SS mm3 kkkk 000 μμμμ PPPPPP ww mm3 kkkk 24 hoooooooo EEEE rrrrrrrr dd EEEE 24 hoooooooo rrrrrrrr(26 yy) EEEE rrrrrrrr CCCCCC ii (0.756) EEEE 0 2 (2 yy) EEEE 0 2 dd EEEE 24 hoooooooo 0 2 MMMMMM ii (0.244) 0 EEEE 2 6 (4 yy) EEEE 2 6 dd EEEE 24 hoooooooo 2 6 MMMMMM ii (0.244) 3 EEEE 6 6 (0 yy) EEEE 6 6 dd EEEE 24 hoooooooo 6 6 MMMMMM ii (0.244) 3 EEEE 6 26 (0 yy) EEEE 6 26 dd EEEE 24 hoouuuuuu 6 26 MMMMMM ii (0.244) Total CCCC ssssssss tttttt tttttt (/kkkk) CCCC ssssssss tttttt iiiiii CCCC ssssssss tttttt CCCC ssssssss tttttt iiiih ADEC Contaminated Sites Program Page 9

26 Migration to Groundwater Cleanup Levels Soil-Water Partitioning Equation for Migration to Groundwater The standard default attenuation factor (AF) used to determine the cleanup standards is: AF 4. The AF may be modified on a chemical-specific basis. The standard dilution factor is DF 3.3 (see equation below). The standard default dilution attenuation factor (DAF) used to determine the cleanup standards is: DAF (DF x AF) 3.2. The standard default value for fractional organic carbon (foc) is 0.00 (0.%). Exhibit C- 4 of the Soil Screening Guidance (U.S. EPA. 996a) provides ph-specific soil-water partition coefficients (Kd) for metals. Site-specific soil ph measurements can be used to select appropriate Kd values for these metals. Where site-specific soil ph values are not available, values corresponding to a ph of 6.8 should be used. The soil-water partitioning equation is shown below: CCCC (/kkkk) CC ww LL DDDDDD KK dd LL LL θθ ww wwwwwwwwww θθ kkkk LL aa LL aaaaaa HH ssssssss LL ssssssss PP bb.5kkkk LL Where: θθ aa 0.3 LL aaaaaa LL ssssssss nn 0.43 LL wwwwwwwwww LL ssssssss θθ ww 0.3 LL wwwwwwwwww LL ssssssss ; nn 0.43 LL ρρ bb.5kkkk pppppppp LL LL ssssssss ρρ ss 2.65kkkk aaaaaa LL KK dd LL kkkk KK oooo LL kkkk ff oooo(0.00 gg/gg) ADEC Contaminated Sites Program Page 20

27 Explanation of Supporting Equations and Parameters Derivation of the Volatilization Factor The soil-to-air volatilization factor (VF) is used to define the relationship between the concentration of the contaminant in soil and the flux of the volatilized contaminant to air. VF is calculated from the equation below using chemical-specific properties and either site-measured or default values for soil moisture, dry bulk density, and fraction of organic carbon in soil. The Soil Screening Guidance: User s Guide (U.S. EPA. 996b) describes how to develop site measured values for these parameters. The VF is only calculated for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). VOCs, for the purpose of this document, generally are chemicals with a Henry's Law constant greater than or equal to x 0-5 atmm 3 /mole and a molecular weight of less than 200 g/mol. Exceptions are: Mercury (elemental); Pyrene; Dibromochloromethane; and,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane. Because of its reliance on Henry's law, the VF model applies only when the contaminant concentration in soil is at or below saturation (i.e., no free-phase contaminant is present). Soil saturation (Csat) corresponds to the contaminant concentration in soil at which the adsorptive limits of the soil particles and the solubility limits of the available soil moisture have been reached. Above this point, pure liquid-phase contaminant is expected in the soil. If the cleanup level calculated using the VF exceeds the calculated Csat value, the cleanup level is set equal to Csat in accordance with the Soil Screening Guidance (U.S. EPA 996a, 996b). The equation for the soil saturation limit is presented in section 5.4. Chemical specific default dermal absorption values are provided in Appendix A and obtained from Supplemental Guidance for Dermal Risk Assessment, Part E of Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund Human Health Evaluation Manual (Volume I), July 2004 (U.S. EPA. 2004). Chemicals without default dermal absorption values and considered VOC are not quantified. The rationale for this is that in the considered soil exposure scenarios, volatile organic compounds would tend to be volatilized from the soil on skin and should be accounted for via inhalation routes in the combined exposure pathway analysis. Further, a chemical must be a VOC in order to be included in the calculation of groundwater inhalation. VVVV mm 3 aaaaaa kkkk ssssssss QQ CC vvvvvv gg mm 2 ss 3.4 DD kkkk AA mm 3 cccc 2 /2 ss TT(ss) 2 ρρ bb gg cccc 3 DD AA cccc2 ss 0 4 mm2 cccc 2 Where: QQ CC vvvvvv gg mm 2 ss kkkk AA eeeeee (llllllss(aaaaaaaa) BB)2 mm 3 CC ADEC Contaminated Sites Program Page 2

28 And: θθaa LL 0 aaaaaa 3 DDiiii cccc2 LL ssssssss DD AA cccc2 ss ρρ bb.5 gg cccc 3 KK dd cccc3 ss HH θθ ww 0.5 LL wwwwwwwwww LL ssssssss nn 2 LL pppppppp LL ssooiiii 0 3 DDiiii cccc2 gg θθ ww 0.5 LL wwwwwwwwww θθ LL aa LL aaaaaa HH ssssssss LL ssssssss ss Selection of Compounds for Dermal Absorption The single soil cleanup level for each climate zone accounts for the inhalation, ingestion and dermal contact pathways. For those contaminants that are unlikely to undergo significant dermal absorption, the final cleanup level will only reflect the soil ingestion and inhalation pathways. Dermal absorption of contaminants in soil is calculated based on the Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund Volume I: Human Health Evaluation Manual (Part E, Supplemental Guidance for Dermal Risk Assessment (EPA, 2004). Where specific absorption factors were not available, chemicals with Henry s constant below E-5 atm-m 3 /mol at 25 o C, and molecular weight below 400 g/mol were evaluated as Semi-volatile Organic Compounds (SVOCs), with an absorption fraction of 0.0. The atm-m 3 /mole units are obtained by multiplying the unitless value by (which comes from multiplying the gas constant ( atm-m3/mole-k) by the temperature (298.6 K)). It is generally thought that volatile compounds evaporate from skin before significant absorption occurs and are addressed through the inhalation exposure pathway. Compounds with a molecular weight greater than 400 g/mol are considered too large to be absorbed through the skin. Particulate Emission Factor (PEF) Inhalation of contaminants adsorbed to respirable particles (PM0) was assessed using a default PEF equal to.36 x 09 m 3 /kg. This equation relates the contaminant concentration in soil with the concentration of respirable particles in the air due to fugitive dust emissions from contaminated soils. The generic PEF was derived using default values that correspond to a receptor point concentration of approximately 0.76 µg/m 3. The relationship is derived by Cowherd et al (985) for a rapid assessment procedure applicable to a typical hazardous waste site, where the surface contamination provides a relatively continuous and constant potential for emission over an extended period of time (e.g., years). This represents an annual average emission rate based on wind erosion that should be compared with chronic health criteria; it is not appropriate for evaluating the potential for more acute exposures. Definitions of the input variables are in the Standard Defaults Table 7 in Appendix B. With the exception of specific heavy metals, the PEF does not appear to significantly affect most soil cleanup levels. The equation forms the basis for deriving a generic PEF for the inhalation pathway. For more details regarding specific parameters used in the PEF model, refer to Soil ADEC Contaminated Sites Program Page 22

29 Screening Guidance: Technical Background Document (U.S. EPA. 996a). The use of alternate values on a specific site should be justified and presented in an Administrative Record if considered in Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remedy selection. Note: the generic PEF evaluates wind-borne emissions and does not consider dust emissions from traffic or other forms of mechanical disturbance that could lead to greater emissions than assumed here. PPPPPP ww mm gg 3 aaaaaa QQ mm 2 ss kkkk ssssssss C w kkkk mm 3 3,600 ss hoooooo ( V) U m mm ss U t mm FF(XX) ss 3 Where: QQ AA eeeeee (llllll ss (aaaaaaaa) BB)2 CC ww CC ADEC Contaminated Sites Program Page 23

30 Derivation of the Soil Saturation Limit (Csat) The soil saturation concentration, Csat, corresponds to the contaminant concentration in soil at which the absorptive limits of the soil particles, the solubility limits of the soil pore water, and saturation of soil pore air have been reached. Above this concentration, the soil contaminant may be present in free phase (i.e., nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) for contaminants that are liquid at ambient soil temperatures and pure solid phases for compounds that are solid at ambient soil temperatures). Csat is not calculated for chemicals that are solid at ambient soil temperatures. The following decision criteria was established from the Soil Screening Guidance User s Guide, Table C- 3: if melting point is less than 20 C, chemical is a liquid; if melting point is above 20 C, chemical is solid (U.S. EPA. 996b). The equation below is used to calculate C sat; for each volatile contaminant. As an update to RAGS HHEM, Part B (U.S. EPA. 99a), this equation takes into account the amount of contaminant that is in the vapor phase in soil in addition to the amount dissolved in the soil's pore water and sorbed to soil particles. Chemical-specific C sat concentrations must be compared with each VF-based cleanup level (CL) because a basic principle of the volatilization model is not applicable when free-phase contaminants are present. How these cases are handled depends on whether the contaminant is liquid or solid at ambient temperatures. Liquid contaminants that have a VF-based CL that exceeds the C sat concentration are set equal to C sat; whereas for solids (e.g., PAHs), soil cleanup decisions are based on the appropriate CLs for other pathways of concern at the site (e.g., ingestion). CC ssssss SS LL ρρ bb kkkk LL KK dd LL kkkk ρρ bb kkkk LL θθ ww LL wwwwwwwwww LL ssssssss HH θθ aa LL aaaaaa LL ssssssss Where: KK dd KK oooo LL kkkk ff oooo 0.00 gg gg θθ aa LL aaaaaa nn LL pppppppp θθ LL ssssssss LL ww LL wwwwwwwwww aaaaaa nn ρρ kkkk bb LL ssssssss LL ssssssss ρρ ss kkkk LL ADEC Contaminated Sites Program Page 24

31 Derivation of Dilution Factor The DEC sets a default dilution factor of 3.3 generated by the following equation: KK 876 mm ii mm dd(5.5mm) mm DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD FFFFFFFFFFFF (DDDD) II 0.3 mm LL(32mm) Where d, the mixing zone, is calculated as follows: LL(32mm) II 0.3 mm dd(mm) (0.02 LL(32mm) 2 ) 0.5 dd aa (0mm) eeeeee KK 876 mm ii mm mm dd aa(0mm) Dt 5.6. τ event τevent is the lag time per event ττ eeeeeeeeee hoooooooo eeeeeeeeee 6 0 ( MMMM) B B is the dimensionless ratio of the permeability coefficient of a compound through the stratum corneum relative to its permeability coefficient across the viable epidermis. BB(uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu) KK PP cccc gg MMMM hoooooo mm t* t* is the time to reach steady state. IIII BB 0.6, ttheeee tt (hoooooooo) 2.4 ττ eeeeeeeeee hoooooooo eeeeeeeeee IIII BB > 0.6, ttheeee tt (hoooooooo) 6 ττ eeeeeeeeee hoooooooo eeeeeeeeee bb bb 2 cc 2 Where ADEC Contaminated Sites Program Page 25

32 bb 2 ( BB)2 ππ cc And cc 3BB3BB2 3(BB) Petroleum Fraction Equations Cleanup levels for the petroleum fractions presented for soil in Table B2 of 8 AAC , and for groundwater in Table C of 8 AAC , are calculated using the following set of equations. These equations were developed using the 996 EPA Soil Screening Guidance, and remain unchanged from the last update of these cleanup level calculation procedures in June of Therefore, they do not incorporate the exposure parameters, toxicity values and assumptions of the RSL equations for non-petroleum compounds that are presented in the preceding sections of these procedures. DEC expects to update the equations for calculating the petroleum cleanup criteria as part of a future regulatory update. For chemical specific parameters for the petroleum fractions, refer to Table in Section 6.9. Groundwater Cleanup Levels for Petroleum Contaminants Previously referred to as Equation 5. Cleanup Level (mg/l) THQ x RfD o x BW x AT x 365 d/yr IR x EF x ED x A Parameter/Definition (units) Default THQ/target hazard quotient (unitless) BW/body weight (kg) 70 AT/averaging time (yr) 30 RfD o /oral reference dose (mg/kg-d) Chemical-specific (See Table ) EF/exposure frequency (d/yr) 350 ED/exposure duration (yr) 30 IR/ ingestion rate (L/d) 2 A/absorption factor For non-carcinogens, averaging time is equal to exposure duration. ADEC Contaminated Sites Program Page 26

33 Residential Soil Cleanup Levels for Ingestion of Petroleum Fractions Previously referred to as Equation 6. Cleanup Level (mg/kg) Parameter/Definition (units) THQ x BW x AT x 365 d/yr /RfD o x0-6 kg/mg x EF x ED x IR Default THQ/target hazard quotient (unitless) BW/body weight (kg) 5 AT/averaging time (yr) 6 a RfD o /oral reference dose (mg/kg-d) Chemical-specific (See Table ) EF/exposure frequency (d/yr) Arctic Zone 200 d/yr Under 40 Inch Zone 270 d/yr Over 40 Inch Zone 330 d/yr ED/exposure duration (yr) 6 IR/soil ingestion rate (mg/d) 200 a For non-carcinogens, averaging time is equal to exposure duration. Cleanup levels are calculated for 6- year childhood exposure. Residential Soil Cleanup Levels for Direct Inhalation of Petroleum Fractions Previously referred to as Equation 7. Cleanup Level (mg/kg) THQ x AT x 365 d/yr EF x ED x [ (/RfC) x (/VF)] Parameter/Definition (units) Default THQ/target hazard quotient (unitless) AT/averaging time (yr) 30 EF/exposure frequency (d/yr) Arctic Zone 200 d/yr Under 40 Inch Zone 270 d/yr Over 40 Inch Zone 330 d/yr ED/exposure duration (yr) 30 RfC/inhalation reference concentration (mg/m 3 ) Chemical-specific (See Table ) VF/soil-to-air volatilization factor (m 3 /kg) Chemical-specific (See Equation 8) ADEC Contaminated Sites Program Page 27

34 Derivation of the Volatilization Factor Previously referred to as Equation 8. Q/C x (3.4 x D VF (m 3 A x T) /2 x 0 4 m 2 /cm 2 /kg) (2 x ρ b x D A ) where 0/3 D A [(θ a D ih' 0/3 θ w D w)/n 2 ] ρ bk d θ w θ ah' Parameter/Definition (units) Default VF/volatilization factor (m 3 /kg) --- Q/C/inverse of the mean conc. at the center of a 0.5 acre Arctic Zone 00.3 square source (g/m 2 -s per kg/m 3 ) Under 40 Inch Zone Over 40 Inch Zone T/exposure interval (s) 9.5 x 0 8 s ρ b/dry soil bulk density (g/cm 3 ).5 ρ s/soil particle density (g/cm 3 ) 2.65 n/total soil porosity (L pore/l soil) or - (ρ b/ρ s) θ w/water-filled soil porosity (L water/l soil) 0.5 or wρ b θ a/air-filled soil porosity (L air/l soil) or n - wρ b D i/diffusivity in air (cm 2 /s) Chemical-specific (See Table ) H'/ dimensionless Henry's law constant Chemical-specific (See Table ) w/average soil moisture content kg water/kg soil-dry 0. (0%) D w/diffusivity in water (cm 2 /s) Chemical-specific (See Table ) K d/soil-water partition coefficient (cm 3 /g) K oc x f oc (organics) K oc/organic carbon partition coefficient (cm 3 /g) Chemical-specific (See Table ) f oc/organic carbon content of soil (g/g) 0.00 (0.%) ADEC Contaminated Sites Program Page 28

35 Derivation of the Soil Saturation Limit Previously referred to as Equation 9. Note: The Soil Saturation Limit will be used as an upper limit for petroleum for the Inhalation Pathway Calculations S C sat (mg/kg) (K d ρ b θ w H'θ a) ρ b Parameter/Definition (units) Default C sat/soil saturation concentration (mg/kg) --- S/solubility in water (mg/l-water) Chemical-specific (See Table ) ρ b/dry soil bulk density (kg/l).5 ρ s/soil particle density (kg/l) 2.65 n/total soil porosity (L pore/l soil) or - (ρ b / ρ s) θ w/water-filled soil porosity (L water/l soil) 0.5 or wρ b θ a/air-filled soil porosity (L air/l soil) or n - wρ b K d/soil-water partition coefficient (L/kg) K oc x f oc K oc/soil organic carbon/water partition coefficient (L/kg) Chemical-specific (See Table ) f oc/fraction organic carbon of soil (g/g) 0.00 (0.%) w/average soil moisture content kg water/kg soil-dry 0. (0%) H'/Henry's law constant (unitless) Chemical-specific (See Table ) Soil-Water Partitioning Equation for Migration to Groundwater for Petroleum Fractions Previously referred to as Equation 20. Soil cleanup level (mg/kg) C w {(K oc f oc) ( (θ w θ ah')/ ρ b )} Parameter/Definition (units) Default C w/target soil leachate concentration (mg/l) Groundwater Cleanup Level x (0 DF), 0 is attenuation factor K oc/soil organic carbon/water partition coefficient (L/kg) Chemical-specific (See Table ) f oc/fraction organic carbon in soil (g/g) 0.00 (0.%) ρ b/dry soil bulk density (kg/l).5 ρ s/soil particle density (kg/l) 2.65 n/total soil porosity (L pore/l soil) or ( - ρ b/ρ s) θ w/water-filled soil porosity (L water/l soil) 0.3 (30%) or wρ b θ a/air-filled soil porosity (L air/l soil) 0.3 or n -wρ b w/average soil moisture content kg water/kg soil-dry 0.2 (20%) H'/Henry's law constant (unitless) Chemical Specific (See Table ) ADEC Contaminated Sites Program Page 29

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