Hydropower Projects on Se San River Impact on Social Economical Development and Environmental Protection

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1 December, 2011 J. Resour. Ecol (4) DOI: /j.issn x Journal of Resources and Ecology Vol.2 o.4 Report Hydropower Projects on Se San River Impact on Social Economical Development and Environmental Protection LE Dinh Thanh 1 * and VU Thi Thu Lan 2 1 Water Resources University (WRU), Hanoi, Vietnam; 2 Institute of Geography, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Hanoi, Vietnam Abstract: Se San river is one of main branches of Me Kong river, it has rather rich water resource, and the topographical condition of the catchment and river are very good for hydropower development. The aquatic life in Se San River is rich, both with respect to species diversity and biomass. There are about 120 fish species are recorded, but the number of species is most likely higher, in the range from species, fish is a very important food source for the local people. Up to now, in the Vietnam part of the Se San catchment there are 6 hydropower projects along Se San river from upstream to Vietnam Cambodia boundary, and Se San 4A re-regulation reservoir. In the part catchment in Cambodia, in development plan there will be 3 hydropower projects, they are Se San 5/lower Se San 1, lower Se San 3, and lower Se San 2. The hydropower projects on Se San river have impacts on socio-economical development of the region (Vietnam and Cambodia) such as create new energy sources and product condition for remote and difficult areas of the catchmnet, improve the transportation system and living conditions for the rural areas. These hydropower projects also have impacts on natural environment such as flow regime changes at downstream, sediment in downstream river reaches, and some impacts on the ecosystems along river. Key words: Se San River; hydropower; environmental issue; mitigation measure; development 1 Se San River catchment Total area of Se San River catchment is km 2, in which 6960 km 2 (about 40%) in Cambodia, and km 2 (60%) in Vietnam. The length of Se San River is 462 km. The source of Se San River starting from goc Linh Mountain in Kon Tum Province (Vietnam). The Se San catchment mainly includes the provinces of Kon Tum, Gia Lai (Vietnam), and provinces of Ratanakiri, Stung Treng (Cambodia) with total population of in which two provinces of Cambodia has only about people (Le 2009). This catchment is mountainous and poor area, the requirement in energy development is very high, for example in Ratanakiri province up to now there is one small hydropower plant with capacity of 1 MW. The aquatic life in Se San River is rich, both with respect to species diversity and biomass. There are 120 fish species are recorded, but the number of species is most likely higher, in the range from species, fish is a very important food source. Se San River has three large branches in Vietnam (Table 1) and branch of Prekliang in Cambodia (Fig. 1). The water resources of Se San River basin are very good for different uses, especially for hydropower development. Annual rainfall of the basin varies from 1700 to 3000 mm in the parts of Vietnam, and from 1700 to 2400 mm in the parts of Cambodia. Distribution of rainfall in the year at typical locations is in Table 2, the rainy season from May to October. The unit annual average discharge of the catchment varies from 40 L s -1 km -2 at upstream part of the catchment to 30 L s -1 km -2 at downstream part. The topographical condition of the Se San catchment and river are very good for hydropower development. The surface water of Se San River are estimated at different sites as in Table 3, the total annual water volume at Bankamphun is Mm 3. The flood season of Se San River from July to ovember. Received: Accepted: *Corresponding author: LE Dinh Thanh.

2 376 Journal of Resources and Ecology Vol.2 o.4, 2011 there are 5 hydropower projects in preliminary plan (three on main river, and two on branch of Prekliang) (Le 2009). These projects are listed in Table 5. 3 Methodology of study Fig. 1 Se San River basin. 2 Hydropower projects on Se San River 2.1 Hydropower projects development in Vietnam After the plan of hydropower development on Se San River in the part of Vietnam there are 6 hydropower projects with total capacity is 1738 MW. The main parameters of these hydropower projects are listed in Table 4. Beside of above mentioned projects, reservoir Se San 4A has built at downstream Se San 4 for re-regulation of river flow after impacted by hydropower projects at upstream. This reservoir has total storage of 131 Mm Hydropower projects planned in Cambodia In downstream part of Se San river belong to Cambodia In this study, the methods of field works and investigation are used for collection of the information in natural and society situations, the mathematical models is also applied in study of Se San River flow regime and assessment the impacts of hydropower projects. For study the environmental issues raised by the hydropower development on Se San River the integration of data is applied into impact assessment. The information collected through the field studies was combined and compared with the results from previous studies, study reports and different sources. The method to evaluate the liability of different kind of information departed from focusing on one problem concerned, and comparing all the available data from different sources. The evaluation of the specific topics was then integrated into a baseline study through description of the present situation of environmental conditions. 4 Environmental issues raised byhydropower projects development In general, the hydropower reservoir construction and operation will make many effects on environment and society condition of the project area (both positive and negative effects). In this study only some significant problems created by the hydropower system development Table 1 Characteristics of main branches of Se San River in Vietnam. River Length (km) Area Average Elevation of basin (m) Average Slop of basin ( ) River density (km km -2 ) 1 Krong PoKo DakBla Sa Thay Table 2 Average monthly rainfall of Se San basin (mm). Station I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII Year Kon Tum Pleiku Ban Lung Stung Treng Table 3 Surface water resources at hydrological sites of Se San River. Hydrological site Area Average discharge Q 0 (m 3 s -1 ) Water volume W 0 (10 6 m 3 ) Average Moduyn M 0 (L s -1 km -2 ) 1 Tum Kon Trung ghia Veunsai Bankamphun

3 LE Dinh Thanh, et al.: Hydropower Projects on Se San River Impact on Social Economical Development and Environmental Protection 377 Fig. 2a Changes of river flow after Ialy. on Se San river have considered. 4.1 The natural environment issues Changes in river flow at downstream Regulation of hydropower projects to generate the energy for satisfying the requirement of uses make many changes in river flow at downstream. The recent studied results for Ialy and Se San 4 with monthly period estimation for the average annual flow shown that, in the months of flood season, discharges after hydropower site reduced up to 20% in September (Ialy site impacted by Pleikrong hydropower upstream), and after Ialy site the flow in September reduced 32.8% comparing with natural flow. After Se San 4 site the monthly discharge reduced 26.2% in September by hydropower projects. In the dry season, the discharges after hydropower projects increased significantly, for example in March at Ialy effected by Pleikrong reservoir from upstream then discharge increase about 67.5% comparing with natural flow, or after Se San 4 it is even about more than 100% (see Table 6 and Fig. 2a, 2b) (Le 2009). These changes are good for flood control in rainy season and for water uses in dry season of downstream area Water quality In water quality issue, during the time of construction and the first year of operation the water quality at downstream had been effected by change in sedimentation mainly. Recent studies from different institutions shown that Fig. 2b Changes of river flow after Se San 4. the water quality of Se San River is good enough for ecosystems and human uses along river, for example some conclusions of SWECO Grøner (2006), and CAHEE (Center for Applied Hydrology and Environment Engineering 2008) about present situation of Se San River water: The water has weakly alkaline reaction with typical ph of ; most of the year the turbidity is moderate (5 15 FU), but in the rainy season turbidity can very be high (200 FU corresponding to mg SS L -1 ). This high particle content causes problems for the river ecology and for human use. The content of the plant nutrient phosphorus and nitrogen is low, and is not high enough to produce eutrophication problems. o content of algal toxins has been observed, but this is not studied in the most intensive algal producing period (April to June); the concentrations of heavy metals, including arsenic, are low and reflect unpolluted water in this respect. Concentrations are below standards for drinking water including US EPA, which has the strictest regulations. It has been analyzed for 55 pesticides with detection limit of 0.01 ppb, but no compound is detected. The conclusion is that pesticides are not a problem in Se San River. Table 4 Hydropower projects in Se San River (Vietnam). Project Basin Area ( km 2 ) ormal water level of reservoir (m) Capacity (MW) Annual Energy (10 6 kwh) 1 Upper Kon Tum Pleikrong Yaly Se San Se San 3A Se San Source: Industrial Ministry, Vietnam (SWECO 2006).

4 Aquatic life Aquatic life issue, many species are found to perform large annual migrations within this large area as part of their life cycle, many species migrate up Se San river in the wet season to spawn in tributaries, in inundated wetland areas, and others are performing feeding migrations into the same areas. Ian Baird (1995) made a list of fish species in the Se San River based on the catch of fishermen, and came up with 120 distinct species. According to Professor Ho Thanh Hai, and Professor guyen Kiem Son (Institute of Ecology and Bioresources, Hanoi), there are more than 30 species of fish migrate all the way into Vietnam from the Mekong River (SWECO 2006). The construction and operation of these hydropower projects impacted on the way for migration of some fish of Se San River, but also from the recent studies, the fishing measures of local people are the main reasons in reducing the fish at downstream Se San River. Fish is the main protein source for the residents in all areas along the rivers (80% according to Baird et al. 2002). The fishing methods used in the Se San River such as gillnet, cast net, baited long-line, cylinder trap,... in which the 3 first methods were dominating. The most typical mesh sizes for the gillnets was from mm. When the hydropower dams in Cambodia constructed, the fish migration will be a more significant problem. 4.2 The society environment issues Daily fluctuation of water level at downstream river has impacted on some activities of the people such as Journal of Resources and Ecology Vol.2 o.4, 2011 water transportation, fishing, and others because all the people living along Se San River used small boat for travel. But this is mitigated by construction of reregulation reservoir SE San 4A. Hydropower development is opportunity for improving the living conditions of the local people, for example at present in Ratanakiri Province there are only one hydropower plant with capacity of 01 MW and some diesel generators. The best benefit of hydropower development on Se San River is helping to improve the good conditions for economic and society developments of the rural and remote areas of Se San River basin (Kon Tum and Gia Lai of Vietnam, and Ratanakiri and Stung Treng provinces of Cambodia), all these provinces are low development. Hydropower projects supply the energy sources for industry, domestic uses, and from that helping development of infrastructures such as road, urban areas, agriculture, Hydropower projects are also the very good opportunity for strengthening the cooperation between Vietnam and Cambodia in economic and society developments, especially in the sector of energy, transportation. 5 Mitigation measures In order to mitigate the negative impacts on natural environment and society conditions some effective measures have been applied for Se San river such as: For mitigating the changes in flow at downstream, construction of Se San 4A as re-regulation reservoir to Table 5 Planed hydropower projects in Cambodia. Hydropower project Basin Area Inundation area by reservoir Install Capacity (MW) 1 Lower Se San Lower Se San Lower Se San Prekliang Prekliang Table 6 Average monthly discharges in natural condition and in operation of reservoir system (m 3 s -1 ). Project Site VII VIII IX X XI XII I II III IV V VI Ialy Qnatrue Q withpleikrong Q Q from Ialy Sª San 4 Qnature Q with upper reservoirs Q Q from Se San

5 LE Dinh Thanh, et al.: Hydropower Projects on Se San River Impact on Social Economical Development and Environmental Protection 379 mitigate impacts due to water level fluctuations which causes erosion on the river banks and causes difficult on human activities concerning water of Se San river at downstream part. This reservoir Se San 4A helps the flow regime at downstream becoming nearly as natural conditions (Le 2009). Implement environmental monitoring program for early detection of water quality changes. From 2004 Ialy hydropower Company has cooperated with MRCS to monitor the water quality along Se San river. Both sides of Vietnam and Cambodia have collaborated to establish the program with five measures in operation and controlling Ialy reservoir (the biggest reservoir on Se San River) to mitigate the adverse impacts on downstream area. For the future, it is recommended to set up a system for early warning of floods, spillway releases from the upstream reservoirs. The warning system should be based on direct warning from the operation staff at the Ialy Hydropower station and others to the people living along the Se San River. 6 Conclusions The hydropower development has both positive and negative impacts, in general from the practice benefits of hydropower projects the positive impacts are always bigger than the negative impacts, and it is very clearly from when development the hydropower projects we could not avoid some significant negative impacts such as losses of land due to inundation of reservoir, changes in discharge and water level at downstream, or barrier for migration of fish and for water transportation by dams. In fact, these negative impacts raised by hydropower projects on Se San River can be accepted and mitigated by different suitable measures. Some typical mitigation measures have been applied for the case of hydropower development on Se San river with good results. The positive impacts are basically and very good opportunities for social development and environmental protection of the local areas, special of the remote communities. References Bruce Mekeney and Prom Tola atural Resources and Rural Livelihoods in Cambodia: A Baseline Assessment. Cambodia Development Resource Institute DHI and Electric of Vietnam Hydrodynamic Modelling of Se San river. DHI Water & Environment In G. Baird and Meach Mean Se San River Fisheries Monitoring in Ratanakiri Province ortheast Cambodia: Before and After the Construction of Ialy falls dam in the Central Highland of Vietnam. 3S Protection etwork Joa Kim Ojendel, Vikrom Mathur, and Mak Sithirith Environmental Governance in the Mekong. Hydropower site selection Processes in the Se San and Srepok basins. Stockholm Environment Institute Le Dinh Thanh Studies the impacts on downstream area of Se San created by the hydropower projects in Vietnam and Cambodia. 6-25, Mekong Watch Report of the Community Based Environmental Studies in ortheastern Cambodia and in orthern Thailand. Report on Mekong River Basin Environmental and Social Issues Survey Project for MeREM athan Badenoch Transboundary Environmental Governance, Principles and Practice in Mainland Southeast Asia. World Resources Institute. 2 5, SWECO Grøner in association with IVA, EVIRO-DEV, and ES Consult Environmental Impact Assessment on the Cambodian part of the Se San Rive due to hydropower development in Vietnam. Final Report Thuon Try, Marcus Chanbers Situation Analysis, Stung Treng Province Cambodia, IUC, MRC, UDP 水电项目对越南硒圣河地区社会经济发展及环境保护的影响 乐庭青 1 2, 武四兰 1 水资源大学 (WRU), 越南河内 ; 2 越南科学院地理研究所, 越南河内 摘要 : 硒圣河是湄公河的主要分支之一, 其集水区地形条件和水资源量均对水电开发十分有利 此外, 无论从物种多样性还是生物量来看, 硒圣河水生生物资源非常丰富 鱼类是当地人们的重要食物来源, 粗略估计鱼类物种数量可能在 种之间, 目前具有详细记录的鱼类大约为 120 种 截至目前, 从越南境内硒圣河上游至越 - 柬边界总共开发了 6 个水电项目, 兴建了一座 4A 级硒圣调蓄水库 流经柬埔寨的硒圣河部分, 依据发展规划将兴建 3 座水电站, 即硒圣 5 号电站 ( 硒圣 1 号电站以下 ) 硒圣 3 号电站 硒圣 2 号电站 硒圣河水电项目对区域 ( 越南和柬埔寨 ) 社会经济的影响体现在 : 为地处偏远和困难的集水区创造了新的能源资源, 改善了交通系统和农村地区的生活条件 与此同时, 这些水电项目也对该区域自然环境产生了重大影响 例如, 改变了下游流动机理变化, 导致下游河道淤积, 对沿河生态系统也产生了一定影响 关键词 : 硒圣河 ; 水电 ; 环境问题 ; 减灾措施 ; 开发

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