Processing LNG Offshore: Maximizing Reliability, Performance & Safety. By Inga Bettina Waldmann at KANFA Aragon FLNG World Congress 28 th June 2016

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1 Processing LNG Offshore: Maximizing Reliability, Performance & Safety By Inga Bettina Waldmann at KANFA Aragon FLNG World Congress 28 th June 2016

2 FLNG World Congress 2016 Agenda I. About KANFA Aragon II. LNG production Onshore vs offshore III. Maximizing Reliability, Performance & Safety IV. Conclusions

3 KANFA Aragon LNG & Gas processing Specialist Oil & Gas Solutions for the 21 st Century FLNG LNG REGASIFICATION OIL & GAS

4 KANFA Aragon Liquefaction Technology Aragon s Optimised Dual N2 Expander Cycle A patented proven liquefaction technology that is marinised and developed for up to 1.5 mtpa trains, highly applicable for medium scale FLNG N2 INTERCOOLER N2 AFTER- COOLER N2 CYCLE COMPRESSOR FEED ALUMINIUM BRAZED PLATE FIN LIQUEFACTION HEAT EXCHANGER («COLD BOX») N2 AFTER- COOLER OPTIONAL INTEGRATED HHC REMOVAL WARM N2 TURBOEXPANDER COLD N2 TURBOEXPANDER BOOSTE R COMP. BOOSTER COMP. LNG KANFA Aragon AS Confidential information

5 KANFA Aragon A Decade of FLNG topside engineering Project: FLEX LNG LNGP1 FEED and EP contract Project: FLEX LNG PNG Project FEED Project: KOSMOS FLNG Comprehensive Pre FEED Project: Confidential Pre FEED and Concept for Oil major Details: Scope: Process topside Up to 1.7 mtpa LNG Liquefaction technology: KANFA Aragon Dual N2 cycle Details: Scope: Process topside Up to 2.1 mtpa LNG Liquefaction technology: KANFA Aragon Dual N2 cycle Details: Scope: Process topside Up to 3.0 mtpa LNG and LPG Liquefaction technology: KSMR Details: Scope: Process topside mtpa LNG Liquefaction technology is KANFA Aragon Dual N2 cycle and DMR

6 KANFA Aragon A Decade of FLNG topside engineering Project: LS FLNG Conceptual study Project: Moz FLNG Pre FEED Project: Fortuna FLNG FEED Project: Confidential FEED Details: Scope: Process topside Up to 1.2 mtpa LNG Liquefaction technology: KANFA Aragon Dual N2 cycle Details: Scope: Process topside Up to 2.1 mtpa LNG Liquefaction technology: KANFA Aragon Dual N2 cycle Details: Scope: Inlet Facilities incl MEG injection 400 MMSCFD feed gas Liquefaction technology: PRICO Details: Scope: Process topside 3.0 mtpa LNG Liquefaction technology: Confidential (SMR)

7 Fundamental differences onshore vs offshore Onshore Relatively unlimited space allowing; Complex process plants Large safety gaps Crew accommodation not a limitation Changes to weight and size of plant during execution phase can be tolerated Stable feed gas Production of bi products (LPG, condensate, sulphur) can be optimised and handling is easier

8 Fundamental differences onshore vs offshore Offshore/ atshore Space is limited by hull size so topside compactness is key Need to follow offshore standard design rules The availability of the production is dependent on weather Less stable feed gas Must operate under motion Limited ways to escape for the operation crew Logistics may be challenging LNG spill Focus on interfaces

9 FLNG Liquefaction technologies Currently three liquefaction technologies generally considered for FLNG Legacy onshore LNG experience focuses on technology and cycle efficiency (but not necessarily plant efficiency..) Offshore Oil & Gas experience places focus on availability and simplicity Mixed Refrigerant Cycles Strongest cycle efficiency (~ 0.27 to 0.35 kwh/kg) Relatively lower availability (~ 95%) Nitrogen Cycles Good cycle efficiency (~ 0.35 to 0.45 kwh/kg) Relatively higher availability (~ 97%) DMR SMR N2

10 High Availability improves economy In the FPSO industry it is in general recognised as the most important to maximise availability of process plant. Nitrogen refrigerant gives clearly the highest availability for rotating equipment Generic DMR KANFA Aragon s Optimised Dual N2 liquefaction cycle Availability of ~ 95%* Availability of ~ 97%* ACCEPTABLE FAVOURABLE Reference: Total E&P Simple Operation + Infrequent Simple Maintenance = Maximised Availability

11 Availability NPV Sensitivity When assuming constant investment costs, production capacity (2mpta), efficiency & field size: 2% availability = produc on me by ~1 year = NPV by ~2.8%. A project CAPEX increase of only ~5% can be justified to regain the missing 2% availability. *Data from Natural gas liquefaction using Nitrogen Expander Cycle An efficient and attractive alternative to the onshore base load plant S.Faugstad & I.L.Nilsen 11

12 Operability & Start Up Complexity affects Manpower Operations Complexity Amount of Equipment Good layout design material handling Availability/Reliability affects manpower Logistics availability of spares & refrigerant Vessel motions sensitivity Start up time & Re start time Main Heat Exchanger Characteristics Need to blow down/depressurise? Ability to turndown Ability to respond to upsets Higher Trip rate? Achieve best efficiency? 12

13 How choosing N2 as refrigerant eases operation Features Flexibility to changes in feed composition Cool down of refrigerant Cool down period Refrigerant containment during short term shut down and gas detection Re inventory of refrigerant after blow down Start up time from ambient temperature Turndown N2 Cycle High and self adjustable Simple (vapour) Short to medium Can be blocked in and/or liquefied and quick restart Simple N2 generation ~12 hours High energy efficient turndown

14 Safety is key offshore Feature Refrigerant properties Potential for pool fire during leak and jet fires Flare system dimensioning load Level of spill protection Risk level during leakages Storage and regeneration Blast loads Aragon s Dual N2 Cycle Non Flammable Very limited Limited to the feed gas Limited to system containing LNG Low N2 dissipates easily No storage standard N2 generation Limited No risk of DDT and no requirement for large safety gaps and additional structural reinforcement due to explosion loading = Choosing Safety can also reduce your CAPEX.

15 Process topside Layout Turret Power generation Liquefaction train Pre Treatment Inlet Facilities Chemical injection & Condensate Metering Utility systems MEG Flare Flow direction

16 Safety advantages of N2 in plant layout High risk zone Medium risk zone Low risk Overall volume of hydrocarbons is lower than for a conventional oil and gas FPSO

17 GraviFloat combines onshore with offshore Gravity based structure technology for shallow water Near shore scalable LNG terminal solutions Gravifloat combines the flexibility and mobility of a ship with the functions of a land based storage and operating facility Can have internal LNG storage no sloshing issues Alternatively have external storage through Moss LNG carriers moored to the jetty structure Segregation between units improves safety

18 Conclusions There are substantial differences onshore vs offshore Clear advantages using Dual N2 expander technology to maximise reliability and performance and safety; Safe No hydrocarbons in the cycle Easy and quick to start and stop Easy operation, and very flexible to variable feed gas flow and composition High turndown capacity Very simple and inexpensive refrigerant make up Mixed Refrigerant Nitrogen Expansion Uses proven technology Yes Yes Overall space required High Moderate Hazardous Refrigerant Yes No Refrigerant Import and/or Storage Yes Explosion/BLEVE Hazards Moderate Low Flare Capacity High Moderate Simplicity of operation Moderate High Process Efficiency High Moderate Expected Availability Moderate High Total Capital Cost High Moderate No

19 Thank You! Inga Bettina Waldmann E mail:

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