Enhanced usage of Alternative Fuels in Cement Industry

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1 ALTERNATE FUEL --- MSW RDF BY V. P. TONDAPURKAR ROCHEM GREEN ENERGY PVT LTD MUMBAI 51 1

2 UNDERSTANDING OF CEMENT INDUSTRY - Cement Production India Year Capacity Mn T Plant above 1 MnTonne/Yr contributes 88% of Total Prod. Cement Production Growth % /Annum. Investment Rs-500 Crore/Million tonne. Per Capita Consumption Kgs Capacity Utilisation > 90% 2

3 UNDERSTANDING OF CEMENT INDUSTRY Cement Production is Energy Intensive & Carbon Intensive Process Thermal Energy Consumption is 650 to - 750Kcal/kg Electricity Consumption 70 to-90kwh/ton Thermal & Electric Energy accounts for 40% of Operation Cost Cement Production accounts for 5% of Global MM CO2 Emissions Let us understand the challenges of Cement industry. --- SOURCE

4 CHALLENGES OF THE CEMENT INDUSTRY Substitution of Traditional Fossil Fuel with Alternative fuel Reduce energy Cost using RDF as energy source Co-process RDF using Cement Kiln Dual Effect o Energy Gain o Solves problem of Space & Environ Impact Elemental Composition Of RDF. MSW RDF Composition is region based we will Look at Requirements of the Cement Industry ---- SOURCE 4

5 Requirements of Cement Industry for Co-Processing RDF RDF must supply GCV/Material Value to cement KILN Important parameters of alternate fuel RDF- Be in proximity of the Values mentioned. Let s look at EU countries Who started using alternate fuels. 5

6 --- TRIALS USING RDF IN CEMENT KILNS Substitution rates for alternative fuels EU 30% to 83%, USA 25%, Japan 10% INDIA 01% TRIALS CONDUCTED Canada Cement Lafarge Ltd. 1. A full year of trials RDF used 10 to 50 % of the energy input a wet process cement Refuse is shredded to 150 mm particle size Air classified. RDF re-shredded 76 mm size - Pneumatic feeding No data released (a phenomenon also reported by the Blue Circle Group) 6

7 --- TRIALS USING RDF The Gulf Coast/ BFI. I. Trials conducted At the substitution levels 20, 30, 40 %(of fuel feed), II. Results were reported to be satisfactory. III. X- ray diffractions & petrographic examination Results IV. No significant differences between cement Strength. RDF cement was superior in compressive strength The BLUE CIRCLE WESTBURY PLANT Trial runs of up to five days. Fluff RDF particle size less than 2 in. (51 mm) It could be pneumatically fired into a kiln, with RDF supplying up to 30 percent of the energy to the kiln, There were no observed changes either in chemical or physical properties of the clinker or in operating Performance of the kilns. The only major problem expressed by Blue Circle has been The need for more reliable shredders - 7

8 TRIALS USING RDF The only major problem expressed by Blue Circle has been the need for more reliable shredders -. This is Where Rochem has proven record of producing Reliable Shredding. Let s understand Waste picked up by front loaders/overhead grab cranes Primary Shredder waste conveyed to a drier for initial moisture removal Then size based separation takes place Air classification Oversized fraction from Tromel Screen is sent to Magnetic Separation Ferrous & non Ferrous is separated Undersized heavies removed in screen separators Compost Inerts comprising of grit, sand, stones, C&D goes for Road Coarse MSW goes to fine Shredder 8

9 PRECONDITIONING OF SOLID WASTE Dried Waste for Inert and Metal Removal Waste picked up by front loaders/overhead grab cranes Conveyed to Primary Shredder to improve flowability Pre-conditioned waste for energy generation Primary Shredded waste conveyed to a drier for initial moisture removal (Drier to utilize waste heat from energy producing device to ensure no fossil fuel is burnt for providing heat of evaporation) Recyclables Recovery Oversized fraction from Trommel Screen Briquetting m/c Secondary Shredder Ferrous Non Ferrous Briquett Rotary trommel for size based separation on Undersized heavies removed in screen separators Inerts comprising of grit, sand, stones, C&D 9

10 WHERE ROCHEM DIFFERS FROM OTHERS 1) RDF GENERATION PROCESS IS COMPLETELY AUTOMATED. 2) PROPER UTILIZATION OF SEGREGATION AND SORTING EQUIPMENT TO PRODUCE PRODUCT OF CONSISTENT QUALITY. 3) BETTER QUALITY CONTROLS. 4) LONG TERM RDF SUPPLY CONTRACT CAN BE OFFERED. 5) ENRICHED EXPERENCE OF MSW RDF MANAGEMENT 6) LOW COST TECHNOLOGY LOW COST PROCESS 10

11 WHERE ROCHEM DIFFERS FROM OTHERS - SELECTIONE MECHANISM OF TECHNOLOGY TO PRODUCE BEST QUALITY PRODUCT RDF FOR YOU THREE SEPARATION SYSTEMS FOR HETROGENOUS MSW DENSITY SEPARATION - SELECTION CRITERIA Factors considered Characteristics of material produced by the device: Materials specifications for light fraction: Air classifier design parameters: Operational characteristics: Energy requirements, maintenance requirement, simplicity of operation, noise, air emission Site considerations: floor space & height, access Magnetic and Electric field separation FACTORS CONSIDERED Magnetic separation -- Magnetic permeability >Separate ferrous from nonferrous metals Electrostatic separation - Differing surface charge characteristics Eddy current separation - Varying magnetic fields to induce eddy currents in nonferrous metals 11

12 RDF ANALYSIS Ash 10-13% Chlorides 0.21 Sulphur 0.27 Volatile matter 53% Gross Calorific Value Kcal Total moisture 15-20% Av. Concentration of PM (mg/nm3) 49.5 (PCB limits: 150) SO2 concentration (ppm) (PCB limits:100) NOX concentration 3.10 (PCB limits: 50) RDF Size 100mm Parameters BEFORE TREATMENT AFTER TREATMENT MSW RDF Calorific value (kcal/kg) Moisture content (%) (max) Bulk density (t/m3) Feed size (mm) 1000 (max) 0-50 Ash (%) Dust (%) < 0.3 `Plastic (%)

13 COAL VS RDF Price : Performance 13

14 WHERE ROCHEM DIFFERS FROM OTHERS - SELECTIONE MECHANISM OF OUR TECHNOLOGY performance characteristics OF Density, Eddy Current, Magnetic separation Magnetic and Electric field separation-selection of equipment- Factors Considered Characteristics of material to be separated Materials specifications for separated materials Device design parameters. Operational characteristics: energy & maintenance requirement, simplicity of operation, noise, air emission Site considerations: floor space and height, access Rochem is working across Four states to establish this Facility Rochem is Supplying RDF as a substitute for Coal for last three Years to i. Textile Mill Process house ii. Paper Mills iii. Power Palnts 14

15 Rochem will be a Effective partner of Cement Industry in making RDF as successful Alternate Fuel saving Energy cost For Cement Industry Let s together understand the Issues involved MAJOR ISSUES When considering the use of RDF in cement plants, issues to be Addressed. a) Handling properties of the fuel. b) Ability to control temperature in the kiln c) Effect of RDF combustion products on kiln coatings. d) Effect of RDF combustion products on Clinker chemistry. e) Changes in physical properties of clinker and cement. f) Effect of using RDF on air emissions. 15

16 RDF & process issues parameter 1) study that analyzed RDF composition, in particular nitrogen, sulphur, and chlorine content affirmed that the formation of nitrogen oxides is related to i. The temperature of the kiln, ii. The residence times, iii. the types of burners, and the amount of nitrogen in the fuel. 2) in general, air pollutants are reduced when MSW is used as a fuel in cement kilns instead of fossil fuels & reductions in nox and so2 emissions are also cited in many studies. Nitrogen content is linked to the formation of nox The study showed that the content of nitrogen in rdf is lower than in fossil fuels ( % versus 1.5-2%), It Means that nox emissions from RDF are lower than for fossil fuels, all other things being equal. 16

17 --- MAJOR ISSUES 1. FEEDING Cement kiln fuels are fed pneumatically, need to design the RDF feeding system For pneumatic firing.the pneumatic firing of RDF is not unique to the use of RDF in kilns 2. ABILITY TO CONTROL TEMPERATURE --- i. Variation in the amount & composition of fuels can affect temperature- +55deg C ii. Variations in Clinkering reaction makes temp control imp 3. EFFECT OF RDF ON CLINKER CHEMISTRY Interaction among fuels & raw materials may affect the chemical properties of the cement clinker due to chemical composition of the fuel, especially ASH. 4. CHANGES IN PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF CLINKER OR CEMENT Two physical properties of research interest. 1. The grind ability of the clinker. 2. Strength of the Cement 5. EFFECT ON AIR EMISSIONS -- No Effect on Air Pollution 17

18 Environmental and human health impact of using msw rdf the use of msw implies a reduction of the use of fossil fuels in cement kilns (heidelberg,2007; heidelberg, 2007; hashimoto etal, 2010). many studies verify a net reduction in co2 emissions in comparison to fossil fuel combustion (UK ENVIRONMENT AGENCY, 2008; HEIDELBERG, 2007B; HEIDELBERG, 2007D; HASHIMOTO ET AL., 2010; HEIDELBERG, 2007A; U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, 2008; GENON AND BRIZIO, 2008). one study (u.s. environmental protection agency, 2008) also found that the use of msw in cement kilns reduces methane emissions, the rationale being that using msw as an alternative fuel avoids landfilling waste, a source of methane emissions (METHANE IS APPROXIMATELY 25 TIMES MORE EFFECTIVE AT TRAPPING HEAT IN THE ATMOSPHERE THAN CARBON DIOXIDE). Enhanced usage of Alternative Fuels in Cement Industry 18

19 NO MAJOR ISSUES 1. There were no changes observed in chemical or physical properties of the clinker 2. There were no changes observed in operating performance of the kilns 3. No specific reason that RDF affects the physical properties of clinker or cement 4. No significant build-up of alkali(or chemical constituent) has been observed. 5. No Effect on Air Pollution. No incremental Effect on Air Pollution was observed. Favourable conditions for rdf process No modifications required in kiln. Achieves greater efficiencies - blends of Rdf and coal are co-fired i. These conditions are favourable for the burning of refuse waste. ii. Pollutant emission implications of using rdf as a supplementary source of heat in a cement kiln. - there is no increase in the emission levels of air pollutants iii. no special firing technology has to be installed only the rdf handling system, there is an upper limit for firing RDF (no more than 30 %) 19

20 - The Technical advantages of co processing of alternate fuel in cement plant co processing ranks higher in the waste processing hierarchy. high flame temperature (2000 c) ensures complete destruction of harmful pollutants Residence time of combustion gases above 1000 c in excess of 3-4 seconds ensures complete destruction of pollutants. Complete destruction of organic compounds. Total neutralization of acid gases, sulphur oxides & hydrogen, Chloride, by the active lime in the kiln load,in large excess to the stoichiometry. Embedding of the traces of heavy metals in the clinker structure with very stable links (metallic silicates formation). ADVANTAGES No production of by-products such as ash or liquid residue from gas cleaning. 20

21 THe advantages of co processing of alternate fuel in cement plant produces overall environmental benefits by reducing releases to air, water and land. maximizes the recovery of energy while ensuring their safe disposal saving of non renewable fossil fuels by substitution of coal with waste. savings are made through resource conservation and associated co2 Emissions. reduced burden on TSDF Immobilization of toxic and heavy material Reduced nox emissions when using certain types of waste 21

22 USAGE OF RDF CONCERNS It became apparent that even though there is an interest, there also is a concern Discrepancies between controls applied Dearth of technology & devices to monitor different emission parameters parameters online.currently, devices available to monitor sox, nox & dust. Ability to supply and feed rdf continuously, Firing characteristics and ability to burn rdf in suspension, Effect on rdf chemical composition & variations in composition on cement quality & chemistry, Long-term effects of RDF on kiln operation & cement production 22

23 rdf v/s fossil fuel Enhanced usage of Alternative Fuels in Cement Industry 1) The Genon and brizio study found a similar situation in terms of sulphur content( % for rdf versus 3-5% for fossil fuels), and the authors concluded that problems 2) Regarding precipitation and clogging could be excluded. the opposite, however, was found for chlorine ( % for rdf versus 0.1% in coke) 3) Though this implies that the use of rdf can create problems, such as the volatilization of chlorides. therefore, the composition of the fuel used in kilns, can influence the pollutant emissions 23

24 Data availability o Waste statistics not updated o documentation systems for tracing waste not known. o important to know the origin of waste & its composition ensure easy and safe coprocessing. Rochem does its best to provide same for its customer Segregation of waste o All types of Waste are currently mixed & sent to cement plants for co-processing. Waste segregation would help cement - Rochem provides for it s Customer Pricing for waste disposal o The price for the disposal of waste depends on its specific characteristics, o Infrastructure required to handle & manage it --- Rochem Has a very Flexible Pricing Policy Long term RDF supply contract can be offered o Facilities and efforts required to pre-process it to make it suitable for co-processing in the kiln, Rochem rids Cement Industry of pre processing issues

25 NEXT STEPS vital for the government to create a waste bank. That helps cement plants in determining the type, quantity of waste available, to implement the polluter pays principle and allow the market forces to decide the price of disposal Till Waste Bank is created - Rochem will do its best in providing said information to the Customer. Mission on Co- Processing Next Steps The government should establish a national level mission on co-processing that will focus on establishing a legal and institutional framework to facilitate increased usage of alternative fuels and raw materials. This will provide the legal framework required for increasing and promoting coprocessing. The mission will set minimum prequalification criteria to be met by cement plants that intend to implement co-processing. 25

26 CONCLUSIONS i. WE STRONGLY RECOMMEND USAGE OF ROCHEM MSW RDF AS AN ALTERNATIVE FUEL IN CEMENT INDUSTRY. ii. NO SPECIAL FIRING TECHNOLOGY HAS TO BE INSTALLED ONLY THE RDF HANDLING SYSTEM iii. THE PROCESS OF CLINKER BURNING IN A ROTARY KILN CREATES FAVOURABLE CONDITIONS FOR THE USE OF ALTERNATIVE FUELS --- MSW - RDF iv. CLINKER BURNING PROCESS COMPLIES WITH ALL REQUIREMENTS OF THE EU DIRECTIVE 92/C130/01 CONCERNING HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION. [5] v. THERE IS NO INCREASE IN DISCHARGES TO THE ATMOSPHERE, vi. REDUCE ENERGY COST USING RDF AS ENERGY SOURCE vii. PRODUCES BENEFICIAL EFFECTS ON AIR EMISSION & ASH RESIDUE WHEN USED AS A FUEL 26

27 I AM THANKFUL TO OUR DIRECTOR 1. MR. PRAYAS GOEL 2. MR. PRERAK GOEL FOR PERMITING ME TO PRESENT THIS PAPER THANKS TO ALL OF YOU, FOR PATIENT LISTENING 27

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