# Global Warming. Prof. Goldstein Econ/Demog c175 Week 5, Lecture A Spring 2017 UC Berkeley

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1 Global Warming Prof. Goldstein Econ/Demog c175 Week 5, Lecture A Spring 2017 UC Berkeley

2 Agenda Tragedy of the commons : an iclicker fishing game The challenge of population increase and carbon emissions Strategies for controlling carbon emissions

3 Part 1 Fishing and the Tragedy of the Commons

4 w Fish vital rates, by harvest intensity Malthusian harvest simulation (review) Events per fish Sustainable N* % 6% 7% 8% % w Fish in the sea 6% 7% 8%

5 Sustainable fish population sizes What is optimal harvest rate? harvest h in percent 0 % Sustainable pop N* (h) Total harvest H*

6 Our MMOG (Massively Multiplayer Online Game)

7 Your choice (eventually with iclickers, but not yet) A. Abstemious fishing (h i = 0%) B. Moderate fishing (h i = 5%) C. Rapacious fishing (h i = 10%) We then compute h ave = average( h i ) à to get sustainable equilibrium population N* of fish

8 The nature of the commons Sustainable fish population size depends on everyone s choices Your harvest depends mostly on your own choice What do I mean by mostly?

9 Let s play (copy this table on a piece of paper) Round h i h ave N*(h ave ) H i (= N*(h ave ) h i )

10 Round 1: Everyone choose A. Abstemious fishing (h i = 0%) B. Moderate fishing (h i = 5%) C. Rapacious fishing (h i = 10%) Let s use iclicker results to calculate h ave and then look up sustainable fish pop N*( h ave ) Now calculate your own catch, H i (who won?)

11 sustainable fish population sizes h ave in percent 0 % N* (h ave ) available per fisher

12 Round 2: Let s repeat and see if we get same result

13 Round 3: Live tally

14 Round 4 (act as if you were going to be graded on your catch)

15 Round 5: Social Planner Choose whatever you want Then I will regulate fishing so that average is about 4% Who is better off?

16 Summing it up Tragedy of the commons: individual incentives not compatible with sustainability We can impose a solution (via institutions and regulation) Why is market solution of privatization not practical here?

17 Hardin s language Mutual Coercion, Mutually Agreed Upon

18 Part 2 Population growth and global warming

19 The role of population Population as a cause of global warming Ehrlich s formulation: I-PAT Impact = Pop * Affluence * Technology What is effect of changing Pop on impact? (Take the derivative) Indirect effects? Malthus, Boserup

20 Population as a cause Changing population may also change other factors For Malthus increase P, decreases A For Boserup increase P, improves T ( Kuznitz sees increasing A eventually improving T )

21 Kuznitz curve (in theory) Pollution Per capita income At lower income people would rather produce and consume more, so pollution rises with income. At higher incomes they are willing to pay to have cleaner environment

22 In practice CO2-GDP ratio (tons per constant PPP \$) China Russia US World Western/Central Europe Figure III-1. Historical ratios of CO2 emissions to GDP for major regions and globe Source: Nordhaus

23 Transitions Energy transition organic economy to carbon economy to lowcarbon economy Demographic transition Still many decades of growth, primarily in developing world Political transition Nations have regulated individuals but who will regulate nations?

24 Accounting rather than causality Carbon emissions = carbon/ person * number of people We know what s happening over time to population. Dyson looks at how emissions need to change

25 Dyson s business-as-usual scenario Region Populatio n N(2000) N(2050) c(2000) Tons of carbon per capita c(2050) C(2000) Billion tons of carbon C(2050) Developing 5 billion 8 billion Developed 1.1 billion 1.1 billion Total With your partner, What percent does population increase What percent does carbon emissions increase Are these numbers the same? If not, why?

26 Dyson s optimistic scenario Region Populatio n N(2000) N(2050) c(2000) Tons of carbon per capita c(2050) C(2000) Billion tons of carbon Developing 5 billion 8 billion Developed 1.1 billion 1.1 billion *.6 = C(2050) Total Assume rich countries can reduce per capita C02 by 40% Result is roughly constant global emissions. Note: Obama agreement with China has US reducing total emissions by % by 2025, so 40% reduction by 2050 not implausible.

27 Dyson s realistic scenario Region Populatio n N(2000) N(2050) c(2000) Tons of carbon per capita c(2050) C(2000) Billion tons of carbon Developing 5 billion 8 billion 2 2* 2 = Developed 1.1 billion 1.1 billion *.6 = C(2050) Total ~ 40 Assume rich countries can reduce per capita C02 by 40% Developing countries double C02 per capita Result is that global emissions nearly double (close to 40 rather than close to 20).

28 Dyson s conclusions Pop growth puts upward pressure on global emissions Increase in emissions in developing world easily overwhelms savings in rich world Hard to imagine a global reduction

29 Part 3 Strategies for controlling carbon

30 Strategies for controlling carbon 1. Let each country decide on its own 2. Global agreements 3. Climate clubs?

31 Letting each country decide on its own Decision is on carbon tax But tax is costly in terms consumption Incentive is to have low or no tax à Tragedy of the Commons Best outcome for a country: don t tax yourself, but gain from low emissions by others ( free riding )

32 Global Agreements 1. Kyoto 1997 (everyone agreed to keep Carbon emissions at 5% below 1990 level) à But USA pulled out 2. Copenhagen 2009 (also non-binding, no penalties) 3. Paris 2015 (also non-binding, no penalties) Problem is that there is little or no sanction First free rider does little harm to world, gets huge benefit (but this snowballs)

33 Climate Clubs? An example is USA-China agreement under Obama (in 2014) They both agree to reduce emissions, with tacit improvement in mutual relationship (e.g. trade) Now imagine that we have clubs dues are limiting carbon benefit is tariff-free trade within the club

34 Are clubs stable If someone defects, what happens? Countries join because of self-interest, not altruism cost of belonging < cost of not carbon tax cost < tariff cost Challenge is getting a critical mass to start the clubs (e.g., China + USA +Germany)

35 Nordhaus s model A climate model: emissions à warming An economic model for warming à economic costs carbon tax à emissions behavior carbon tax à loss of consumption A game-theory model for strategic tit-for-tat of club-membership

36 Nordhaus s results

37 What would happen to the climate? Nordhaus estimates that \$25-50 is right carbon price to put us on optimal emissions path A tradeoff: if we consume less stuff, we can buy better climate (and vice versa) Optimum maximizes Utility(consumption stuff, climate)

38 Optimum policy U 1 U 2 U 3 Contours of same utility (Isoquants) with diminishing returns Consumption of Stuff (x1) Budget constraint: Full income = p 1 *x 1 + p 2 *x 2 Slope = - p 2 /p 1 Good climate (x2) Details of this model of optimal choice later in course For now, enough to see that a tradeoff leads to some optimum

39 Projected emissions of CO2 under alternative policies. William D. Nordhaus PNAS 2010;107: by National Academy of Sciences

40 Global temperature increase ( C from 1900) under alternative policies. William D. Nordhaus PNAS 2010;107: by National Academy of Sciences

41 A more optimistic perspective Enormous carbon reductions are not necessary to prevent catastrophic warming Need to weight benefits to costs of carbon reduction Optimal reductions can be gained by a moderate tax on carbon

42 What are we to conclude? Big efforts are needed Even with big efforts, expect climate change Challenges are 1. Getting global agreement on carbon tax or equivalent 2. Developing technology for abatement (particularly in developing world) 3. Adapting to some inevitable warming

43 Role for many sciences Main economics narrative fairly clear Many technological challenges Big role for politics (game-theory, political science)

44 Role of population Faster fertility decline in developed world may ease challenge But, as we saw with Lam, development of institutions is the key

45 How does global warming differ from overfishing? Similarity : a commons that unregulated individuals will destroy A public good (see Nordhaus) Differences Global, not local? Delayed feedback Lots of reliance on models (climate & economy) Unimaginable downside

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