LNG bunkering Why, How and When. Nigel Draffin Technical Manager LQM Petroleum Services Inc.

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1 LNG bunkering Why, How and When Nigel Draffin Technical Manager LQM Petroleum Services Inc.

2 SOx, NOx,CO 2 and PM Environmental protection legislation is targeting atmospheric pollution. Sulphur oxides (linked to sulphur content in the fuel). Nitrous oxides (linked to engine design) Carbon dioxide (linked to quantity of fuel burned Particulate matter (linked to sulphur content)

3 Methane the advantages Regulations No sulphur NOx, burning methane gives lower NOx. CO 2 levels are lower because of fuel chemistry PM very low because there is no sulphur. Operations No fuel heating, purifiers, hot filters No compatibility issues No sludge, catalyst fines or dodgy cutterstock Excellent ignition and combustion Maintenance Much less fuel system maintenance Reduced maintenance of pistons, cylinders, valves and turbochargers Cleaner waste heat units Commercial Potentially cheaper than all of the alternatives Especially in USA and North Europe

4 Methane - the disadvantages Because our ship moves we have to store the gas under high pressure (200 bar) CNG or at very low temperature (-162 deg C) LNG Compressed gas storage is viable for motor cars but as the engines get bigger, the fuel tank gets heavier and storing as a liquid becomes the only real option. The space required for LNG storage on board is at least 130% to 150% of the space for fuel oil Methane is a low flash point fuel and requires additional safety precautions Capital cost is about 125% of a conventional vessel.

5 Pricing (Apr 2015) Comparing $ mmbtu (fuel $300 pmt delivered) 1 mt of 380 cst fuel = 38.1 mmbtu so $7.87 mmbtu LNG = $6.71 mmbtu basis Zeebruge LNG = $2.47 mmbtu basis Lake Charles LNG = $7.85 mmbtu basis Tokyo These levels are based FOB bulk at these terminals, the costs or redistribution and retail delivery must be added on.

6 Storing Methane 1 cubic metre of LNG will expand 600 times as it turns to gas. We can store at atmospheric pressure at -162 deg C as a liquid. We can store the liquid at a pressure up to 10 bar at temperatures up to -130 deg C We can store at the vapour at 200 bar at ambient temperature.

7 Pipeline LNG will be transferred directly from a storage tank via pipeline and hose (or flowboom) to the receiving ship. For lower flow rates pressure differential between supply facility tank and receiving ship tank will be used, for higher flow rates, the pump will be used.

8 Simple flowboom

9 RTW supply The RTW will load the LNG at a storage terminal and deliver to the receiving ship at the quayside. The delivery will almost always be by pressure differential although some RTW will have a pump fitted. Connection will always be via a hose

10 RTW supplying ferry

11 Barge supply The barge will be, in effect, an LNG tanker and will have to comply with the IGC code. The barge will load at an LNG terminal and the connection to the ship will be either by hose or by flowboom. For flow rates exceeding 200 mt/hr it is probable that there will need to be a vapour return line from the ship to the barge to manage the generation of boil off gas in the vessel tanks.

12 Viking Grace and Seagas

13 IMO The committee dealing with certification of seafarers is considering the training requirements. The topics are split into Basic and Advanced Basic for all personnel (officers and ratings, deck and engine) Advanced for officers (deck and engine) and any ratings involved in bunker transfer. Related to the work on the IGF code

14 Training topics LNG and methane gas physical and chemical properties LNG and methane gas risks, hazards and precautions for storage and transfer. LNG and methane gas risks, hazards and precautions for use as fuel. Safety equipment, safe zones, personnel safety, firefighting and spill precautions Bunkering procedures Emergency procedures

15 Relevance The proposed training is based on the requirements for LNG carriers and may be too complex and detailed for ratings and some junior officers. LNG bunker barges will have to comply with the rules for LNG carriers Training for ordinary ships is likely to be addressed over the next two years. This training will be controlled by STCW and by the IGF code, both of which are mandated under the SOLAS convention.

16 82 plus vessels in service Cruise liner Passenger ferries Oil Tankers Offshore support vessels Barges 63 plus vessels on order Container ships RoRo Tankers Patrol vessels Current fleet

17 So how many ships? (Feb 2015) In service 88 vessels + over 365 LNG tankers On order 66 vessels + over 45 LNG tankers 45 LNG fuelled in service roro ferry psv tanker gen cargo tug ropax barge patrol

18 What do we know for sure Small scale LNG is spreading all over Europe, that means the LNG will be available. Short sea and inland shipping will be the first players, Rotterdam has two RTW locations in use now and has a planned barge terminal due in Once the IGF is settled shipping companies can do the maths on newbuildings. Retrofit is unlikely for deep sea.

19 In service now - Kvitbjørn

20 Kvitbjørn delivery passage This vessel was built in Jiangsu, China. It has gas engines (it cannot burn any other fuel) She arrived in Norway on 29 th March En route she took called at Shanghai, Singapore, Cochin, Barcelona and Fredrikstad She took on LNG fuel at Jiangsu, Cochin and Barcelona.

21 And Turkey? With two LNG import terminals (Eregli and Aliaga) the product is available. Possibility of future LNG export at Enez. Gas supplies from Azerbaijan and Russia. Asayaport container terminal will have LNG storage nearby and its road vehicles will store and use LNG fuel. Watch this space

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