1 Energy Technology R &D Needs Of Emerging Economies Workshop Overview and Outlook of Agricultural Bio-energy Development in China Zhao Lixin Chinese Academy of Agricultural Engineering Beijing, 29 th Nov. 2012
2 Outline 1. Overview 2. Achievements 3. Outlook
3 1. Overview Energy Production and Consumption 2006~2010 Production Consumption Year Total 10 9 tce Coal Oil NG Hydro, Nuclear, Wind Total 10 9 tce Coal Oil NG Hydro, Nuclear, Wind % 11.3% 3.4% 7.5% % 19.3% 2.9% 6.7% % 10.8% 3.7% 7.8% % 18.8% 3.3% 6.8% % 10.5% 4.1% 8.6% % 18.3% 3.7% 7.7% % 9.9% 4.1% 8.7% % 17.9% 3.9% 7.8% % 9.8% 4.3% 9.4% % 19.0% 4.4% 8.6% Source: National Bureau of Statistics of China
4 Energy Production and Consumption 2010 Production Import Consumption Series Amount Annual growth rate Amount Annual growth rate Amount Annual growth rate Coal (10 9 t) Electricity (10 12 kwh) Oil (10 9 t) NG (10 9 m 3 ) % % % % % % % % % LNG t 44 75% The 1 st time % Source: National Energy Administration of China
5 China has abundant resources of agricultural biomass resources: (1) Crop Straw (2) Animal waste (3) Energy Crops (4) Agriculture Products Processing Waste
6 (1) Crop Straw On Jan 21 st, 2011, MoA issued National crop straw resources surveying and evaluation report. Report shows that Chinese total collectable resource of crop straw is about 687 million tons, including 265 million ton corn stalks, 205 million ton rice straw, 150 ton million wheat straw.
7 Crop Straw Resources Evaluation Method Wastage Industrial material and culture medium for mushroom Theoretic resource quantity Collectable resource quantity Feed Return to field Fuel Being fired and disused Resource quantity as energy Technical Code of Crop Straw Surveying and Evaluating (NY/T )
8 So far, utilization rate of crop straw in China is 69%. Among it, 211 million tons used as feed account for 30.69%; 129 million tons used as fuel account for 18.72%; 102 million tons used as fertilizer account for 14.78%; 15 million tons used as edible fungus binder account for 2.14%; 16 million tons used as industry material for paper making account for 2.37%. Collectable resource 6.87 (unutilized 31%+fuel18.72%) =342 million tons
9 (2) Animal waste The first national survey of pollution sources Bulletin shows 243 million tones of manure as well as 163 million tones of urine is to be produced annually from industrial livestock and poultry farming, including intensive farms, farming communities and specialized farming households, excluding household farming.
10 According to different farming scale and type, rural household's scatter breeding and intensive farms(including farming communities) are two types of Chinese livestock and poultry farming model. Intensive farm means that farming scale is more than 50 annual live pig commodity amount, more than 2000 annual broiler commodity amount, more than 500 annual layer amount of livestock on hand, more than 5 annual dairy cow amount of livestock on hand, more than 10 annual beef cattle commodity amount. 10
11 Total amount of manure and urine = breeding stock emission factor 365 days Daily emission factor of livestock and poultry Animal species Manure kg unit -1 Urine kg unit -1 total amount of manure and urine kg unit -1 Live pig Dairy cow 25~ ~60 Beef cattle broiler ~0.1 layer
12 (3)Energy Crops Herbaceous energy crops such as Sweet Sorghum, Cassava, Sweet Potato, Rape and so on, are suitable for planting in China. Sweet Sorghum
13 According to National cultivated land reserves survey evaluation of land resource survey by Ministry of Land and Resources( ), China has million hectare national cultivated land reserves resource. Based on area, type, light and heat condition of cultivated land reserves resource, biological nature of energy crop, requirement of environment condition, development status etc, considering factors such as protection of the ecological environment, dynamic equilibrium of cultivated land, water resources, urbanization, adaptability of and energy crop, and yield increasing, it will take development strategy step by step, and gets the potential of fuel ethanol development of using cultivated land reserves resource.
14 Area Cultivated land reserves resource (10 thousand hectare) Appropriate energy crops Ethanol production per unit area (tons per hectare) Development potential of using cultivated land reserve resource Northeast Region North China Region Loess Plateau Region Mongo Xinjiang Region Eastern Region Southern Region South west Region Sweet Sorghum Sweet Potato Sweet Sorghum Sweet Sorghum Sweet Potato Cassav a Cassa va Using proportion (%) Development Potential (10 thousand tons) Tota l Using proportion (%) Development Potential (10 thousand tons) P.S. Yield is conservative estimated considering it is cultivated land reserve resource.
15 (4) Agriculture Products Processing Waste Agricultural waste after harvest crop processing, including rice husk, corn cob, peanut shells, bagasse, cotton seed hulls and etc, mainly comes from grain processing plants, food processing plants, sugar mills and breweries. Agricultural waste has large quantity, and relatively concentrated producing area. Also, it could be easily collected and treated.
16 Rice husk is the largest by-product during rice processing, accounting for 20% of paddy weight. In 2008, China produced about million tons rice husk. Corn cob is corn ear stripping corn grain, accounting for 75%-85% of corn ear weight. In 2008, China produced about million tons corn cob. Bagasse is sucrose processing waste, and the ratio of bagasse to sucrose is 1:1. In 2008, China produced about million tons bagasse.
17 China has abundant agricultural biomass resource which could be used to produce bio-energy, in order to make up shortage of energy supply. In September 2009, President Hu Jintao announced that China will vigorously develop renewable energy, the proportion of non-fossil fuels in primary energy consumption could reach 15% by 2020 at UN Climate Change Summit. In March 2011, the National People s Congress approved China's 12th Five-Year Plan and the outline of the plan was released to the public, which clearly declared that clean energy such as biomass energy should be developed vigorously. This is the only way for China to adjust energy strategy, ensure energy security, protect the environment, cope with climate change and fulfill international commitments, which are related to the overall situation of political, economic and social development.
18 2. Achievements (1)Policy,Regulation and Incentives (2)Bio-energy Technologies (3)International Cooperation
19 (1)Policy, Regulation and Incentives Law in China has clear provisions on biomass energy development, such as: The Law on Agriculture The Law on Renewable Energy The Law on Energy Conservation
20 National Policies: Medium and Long-Term Development Plan for Renewable Energy in China, 2007 Agricultural Biomass Industry Development Plan, 2007 Suggestions on Promotion of Comprehensive Utilization of Crop Straws, 2008; Management Method on Subsidy of Utilization of Crop Straw, 2008
21 Local Policies: Hebei Provincial Management Regulation on New Energy Development and Utilization, 1997 Gansu Provincial Construction and Management Regulation on Rural Energy, 1998 Anhui Provincial Construction and Management Regulation on Rural Energy, 1998 Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Regional Construction and Management Regulation on Rural Energy, 2001 Zhejiang Provincial Promotion Method on Biogas Development and Utilization, 2005 Hunan Provincial Regulation on Rural Renewable energy, 2006 Shandong Provincial Regulation on Rural Renewable Energy, 2007 Heilongjiang Provincial Development and Utilization Regulation on Rural Renewable Energy, 2008 Hubei Provincial Regulation on Rural Renewable Energy, 2010 Sichuan Provincial Regulation on Rural Energy, 2010
22 Rules for the Implementation of the Law on Renewable Energy The relative management regulation on renewable energy generation: Trial Measures for the Administration of Price and Cost Allocation of Renewable Energy Power Interim Measures on Special Fund Management for Development of Renewable Energy Notice on Improving the Price Policy of Agroforestry Biomass Power Generation, 2010 benchmark electricity price 0.75 Yuan RMB/kwh
23 Green Energy Demonstration County 108 Counties was awarded the Green Energy Demonstration County by NDRC, MOF and MOA, Oct Million CNY in form of national subsidy Target Fields: Biogas, Gasification, Densified Biofuel, Rural energy service system Duration: 2011~2013
24 (2)R& D of Bio-energy Technologies (2.1) Biogas sector has developed fast. Till the end of 2011: million rural household biogas digesters installed in China thousand agricultural waste biogas projects constructed and established the biogas capacity of 17.1 billion m 3 per year.
25 Biogas Plants Raw materials Animal manure, crop straws and mixed agricultural wastes Intensive livestock manure is the main raw material Process technologies Animal manure: CSTR, USR, PFAR Crop straws: CSTR, MCT, CTP, STP Mixed materials: CSTR
26 Biogas Plants Biogas utilization farmers cooking power generation vehicle fuel 9000 m 3 /d vehicle fuel, Anyang, Henan Province 1MW, Mengniu, Innner Mongolia 2MW, Deqingyuan, Beijing 3MW, Minghe, Shandong Province
27 (2.2) Straw densified fuel technology is expanding Crop straw can be made into pellet and briquette fuels with high energy efficiency and low emission of pollutants by mechanical compaction. The density g/cm 3 Heat value 16000KJ/kg Convenient for storage and transportation.
28 The solid biofuel industry has established Currently, there are around 100 biopellet plants in agriculture area to produce 3 million tons of pellets and briquets, each plant with the annual production capacity of more than 10,000 tons. The standard system of biomass densified fuel is establishing, and 15 MOA. Biofuel for district heating Data from Chinese Academy of Agriculture Engineering
29 Producers using crop residue as feedstock can get subsidy if they meet the following requirements: Registered capital should above 10 million RMB Crop residues for energy use should meet the local straw utilization plan. The utilization of crop residues should be more than 10 thousand tons per year. Biopellets and biobriquets have been sold to steady clients. Pellet stove Green House vegetable green houses are heated by biopellets
30 (2.3) Biomass power generation technology is well-developed By the end of 2010, the installed capacity of biomass power generation is about 5.5 million kw.
31 (2.4) Non-grain ethanol begin to industry and achieve major technological breakthroughs Constrained by grain output, China no longer develop grainbased production of ethanol fuels in recent period. A bio-ethanol plant based on cassava fermentation was built in Guangxi in January 2008, with capacity of 200 thousand tons per year. By 15th April in the same year, ethanol gasoline for vehicles was available all over Guangxi. At present, annual capacity of biofuel ethanol production reached 1.62 million tons.
32 Cellulosic ethanol The first cellulosic ethanol industrialization pilot in China was established by Tianguan Group in 2007 with capacity of 3000 tons per year. Till now, the technology is still immature and the cost is higher. Market acceptance of cellulosic ethanol technology depends on technology breakthrough and cost decrease. 32
33 (3)International cooperation China has been strongly promoting multi-level and allround opening-up, and also actively promoting bilateral and multilateral technical cooperation. China MOA has conducted fruitful cooperation with UNDP, FAO, UNESCAP, GEF, WEC, ADB, WB, EU, ASEAN and a number of other international organizations, and the Netherlands, the US, Germany, the UK and other countries.
34 Key International Cooperation Projects China-Netherlands Cooperation Project of Promoting West China Comprehensive Development and Utilization of Rural Renewable Energies ( ) has been implemented in 14 villages of Gansu, Sichuan, Hubei and Hunan Provinces with 5.3 million Euros of Netherlands government Phase I of ADB Loan Project of Household Biogas ( ) has been implemented in Shanxi, Henan, Hubei and Jiangxi Provinces with USD million of ADB loan. Phase II of ADB Loan Project of Medium & Large Scaled Biogas Engineering is scheduled to start in 5 provinces in 2010 with USD 80 million of ADB loan. The World Bank Loan Project of China New Rural Eco-homestead has provided USD 100 million of loan to Guangxi, Yunnan, Anhui and Chongqing.
35 In recent years, people pay more attention on technology development and application of biomass energy. With the development of new technologies and methods, biomass energy industry has developed rapidly. 3. Outlook
36 Biogas fields: Current Problems: Current Problems and Trends: Biogas availability is decreasing household-scaled biogas: poor running or even deserted biogas plants: underutilized attributed to poor economic benefits Inferior equipment technology and low level of industrialization Utilization of biogas residues and slurries Policies and incentives need to be improved, and subsequent service abilities must be strengthened focus on construction and little attention to management Faulty market impacts on integrated benefits of biogas plants
37 Biogas fields: Development Prospects: Developing aims: economies of scale, industrialization, and commercialization Raw material will be diversified. Utilization of biogas products will be greater focused on efficient, high-value, and comprehensive ways. The operation and management model of biogas plants will be specialized.
38 Biomass thermal utilization fields: According to Mid and Long Term National Renewable Energy Development Plan, by 2020, 50 million tons of biopellets/briquets will be produced annually. R&D of biomass collection, storage, transportation system and high efficient biomass burner.
39 Biofuel ethanol fields: select and plant high yield, good quality and strong resistance energy crop in a large area; industrial-scale ethanol production equipment and technology using sweet sorghum; ethanol production technology with degradation of cellulose, research and development of low-cost and high efficient hydrolase.
40 China has resources and technical potentials for large-scale development of biomass energy, which is helpful to ensure energy security as well as sustainable social and economic development in the future. The development of biomass energy industry will provide more employment opportunities, improve rural production and living environment and promote rural economic development.
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