Gas Access To Europe

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1 Gas Access To Europe

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3 LNG is cool and hot Import- and throughput of LNG at Gate terminal Close to the port entrance on the Maasvlakte, right at the corner of the North Sea, an LNG import and throughput terminal has been operating since September 2011: Gate terminal. Gate (Gas Access To Europe) terminal is an eye-catching feature that adds a unique element to the Port of Rotterdam. Exclusively acting as an import and throughput terminal, Gate produces no waste substances. The ever growing demand for natural gas means that more and more of the product has to be imported from production areas inside and outside Europe. Against that background, the initiators of Gate, N.V. Nederlandse Gasunie (Gasunie) and Koninklijke Vopak N.V. (Vopak), started developing this massive terminal on the Maasvlakte, in The four main functions of an LNG terminal are receipt, (buffer) storage, regasification and supply. At the terminal, the freezing-cold LNG that is delivered at -160 C thereby reducing its volume by 600 times is regasified through gradual heating, and repressurised for controlled supply to the Dutch gas transport network. LNG Gate terminal consists of three storage tanks, two jetties and a process area where the LNG is the abbreviation for liquefied natural gas. Natural gas becomes liquid at 160ºC, product is regasified. Each of the tanks has a storage capacity of 180,000 m 3, and each is in which state its volume is reduced by approx. 600 times. In this form, LNG can be almost equivalent in size to the Feijenoord football stadium De Kuip. Initially, Gate terminal transported in large transport tanks (on ships) right down to small (fuel) tanks. LNG is not will have a transport capacity of 12 billion m 3, sufficient, effectively, to supply approximately pressurized, is odorless, nontoxic and not corrosive, it s just cold. LNG is only flammable 35% of the Netherlands with gas, for one year. The ambitions of the terminal, however, go if it evaporates in contact with an ignition source and the amount of gas in the air is beyond the Netherlands alone. Gate terminal is a cornerstone in the Netherlands ambition to between 5 and 15 percent. develop further as the gas supply roundabout for northwestern Europe. 4 5

4 Sustainable Safety Neither time nor money were spared in making Gate terminal a zero emission terminal. Gate extracts the heat required for the regasification process from the cooling water from the nearby E.ON power station. This process represents an additional saving for the environment as it compensates for the energy expended in heating the cooling water. The natural gas itself is the cleanest fossil fuel available, and as such represents a vital component in the more sustainable mix of sources of energy for the future. Even taking into account the additional energy required to liquefy the product, the consumption of natural gas from LNG generates approximately half less carbon emissions than the burning of coal. With ever growing interest in green energy, the demand for natural gas is expected to double over the next twenty years. At any LNG terminal, safety is of paramount importance in every stage of the process. The LNG industry enjoys an excellent reputation in this area. Throughout the world, procedures and equipment have been standardised. It goes without saying that safety also has top priority at Gate terminal, in terms of equipment, procedures and employees. The LNG carriers arriving at Gate terminal are moored in a separate channel. This waterway, the Kleine Beerkanaal, is not accessible to heavier/larger vessels. The small island inside the channel also forms a natural barrier between the supply route and Gate Terminal. In addition, the Port of Rotterdam Authority is staffed by highly-trained pilots and operates modern tugs with experienced crews. The pipelines that carry the LNG to the tanks are permanently cooled. When a carrier is safely moored, the vessel is first connected to the loading arms. Once everything has been checked, the arms are cooled and unloading can begin. Should anything unexpected happen, a wide range of security measures have been built in, including automatic shutdown systems on the pumps, self-closing valves, and arms that are pre-programmed to disconnect dry (without releasing any LNG) if they are in danger of becoming overextended. A series of checklists are first completed before any unloading is initiated. The operators at Gate terminal are experts in terminal transshipment operations. They undergo permanent safety training and education. Many of the staff were involved in the construction phase of the terminal so they fully understand all aspects of the terminal. 6 7

5 Why LNG? Over the past decade, natural gas has developed from a local to an international and intercontinental energy source. Local in this sense means: as far as the pipeline reaches. LNG is now accessible to customers across Western Europe from extraction areas that cannot be connected by pipeline. This has major advantages. With more suppliers, there is of course room for price negotiations, but there are strategic advantages too in the sense of reduced dependency on one or a small group of producers. The Netherlands as gas roundabout There is also a specifically Dutch interest. Gate terminal strengthens the position of the Netherlands as a gas roundabout for northwestern Europe. The Dutch pipeline network, installed following the discovery of gas in Slochteren, carries not only gas from Groningen, but also from Norway and Russia. The so-called Dutch gas roundabout links the northwestern European pipelines and storage areas, which creates the potential for the Netherlands to add gas from right across the world. Small-scale applications, too Gate terminal has an essential role to play in northwestern Europe both for the internationalisation of LNG and for the flexibilisation of the product. Against that background, at the initiative of Vopak and Gasunie, immediately adjacent to the large-scale Gate terminal, a small-scale terminal has been equipped for the storage and transhipment of smaller volumes of LNG, for example onto smaller seagoing and inland shipping vessels and trucks (the LNG Break Bulk project). These transport modalities will export LNG to smaller receiver terminals elsewhere in Europe. The small-scale terminal will also serve to bunker seagoing vessels, inland shipping vessels and supply fuel for trucks. In the wake of Asia and Latin America, Europe is now set to embrace LNG as a clean and cheap transport fuel. 8 9

6 LNG carriers The vessels that deliver the LNG are specially designed for this purpose, and meet the most stringent safety standards. For example, all have a standard twin-walled construction. A number of LNG carriers actually use the natural gas they are transporting as fuel, making them extra clean from an environmental point of view. Functions of the LNG terminal Unloading The liquefied gas is pumped from the ship to the storage tanks via a cooled unloading installation and a short pipeline. A vapour return system prevents overpressure or underpressure arising in any of the tanks, making the pumping procedure both efficient and safe. Storage LNG storage tanks consist of a metal inner tank and a concrete outer tank. Between the two is a layer of insulation that maintains the temperature in the inner tank at approx C. The insulation layer safeguards that practically no vapour or condensation occurs on the outside. All the pipeline connections are mounted on the top of the tank as a result of which the tank cannot empty itself in the event of a disaster. It s a proven construction. In the decades that this tank type has been in use, the construction has never failed. Regasification and transport Following regasification of the LNG, the natural gas leaves the terminal via an underground pipeline connected to the existing distribution network. The existing gas transport network in principle has sufficient capacity to handle this extra supply. Gas Transport Services (GTS), the independent pipeline operator and 100% subsidiary of Gasunie, constantly monitors and adjusts the required pipeline capacity when and where required. The addition of nitrogen does not take place at the terminal itself but at the Gasunie Control Station in Pernis. The characteristic odour of natural gas is only added when the gas leaves the main transport network and enters the regional transport network

7 Customers Long-term off-take contracts were signed with five major European energy suppliers namely Dong Energy, Econgas OMV International, RWE Supply & Trading, Eneco and E.ON Ruhrgas. These contracts guarantee sound continuity. Initiators Gasunie and Vopak are the initiators and partners in Gate terminal. Even on a worldwide scale, this partnership represents a unique combination of knowledge and experience. Vopak adds her extensive experience in managing independent terminals, the handling of tanker-delivered cargo and efficient stock control for a broad customer base. Gasunie is experts in LNG storage, the conversion of LNG into natural gas, gas quality control and safe, efficient connection to the domestic gas transport network. Gasunie has been operating a peak shaver installation for LNG storage and conversion of LNG into natural gas on the Maasvlakte, for the past thirty years. If faced with peak demand during winter periods with low temperatures, this installation ensures delivery reliability

8 Facts and figures Location: Northern part of the Maasvlakte in the port of Rotterdam Contract: Long-term 50-year lease Area: 35 hectares in total Operational: Since September 2011 Terminal Total maximum throughput capacity of LNG following regasification: 16 billion m 3 (bcm)/annum Starting capacity: 12 billion m 3 (bcm)/annum, spread over 3 tanks and 2 jetties Net capacity of tanks: 180,000 m 3 per tank, total capacity 540,000 m 3 Gross capacity of tanks: 200,000 m 3 per tank Dimensions of tank: 40 metres high on the outside and 55 metres high in the centre at the top of the dome roof. Diameter about 86 metres Tank type: Full containment: twin-walled with steel inner tank, thick thermal insulation and concrete outer tank Vessel discharge rate: 12,500 m 3 /hour LNG Vessels: All standard LNG carriers Expected number of ship movements: 180/annum based on throughput of 8-12 billion m3 (bcm) Employment Approx. 45 persons directly at the location. Contracts Clients: DONG Energy, RWE Supply & Trading, EconGas OMV International, Eneco en E.ON Ruhrgas. For more information about Gate terminal and LNG, visit our website at:

9 Gate terminal BV Maasvlakteweg LZ Rotterdam P.O. Box 77, 3230 AB Brielle The Netherlands T +31 (0) F +31 (0) E I

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