Green usage of fossil fuels with solid oxide fuel cell

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1 211 2nd International Conference on Environmental Science and Development IPCBEE vol.4 (211) (211) IACSIT Press, Singapore Green usage of fossil fuels with solid oxide fuel cell H.Kazemi Esfeh Faculty of chemical engineering Islamic Azad University, Mahshahr branch Mahshahr, Iran. T.M.Salehi Faculty of chemical engineering Islamic Azad University, Mahshahr branch Mahshahr, Iran. Abstract Using fuel cells as a source of electrical energy is an effective method for the preservation of environment. This method of electricity production is called Clean Power. One of the types of fuel cells is solid oxide fuel cell that while using fossil fuels as feed, it has no harmful effects on the environment. This paper tries to illustrate the operation mechanism of fuel cells, the constituent parts, the thermodynamics of fuel cell operation and finally the economic calculations. Keywords; fuel cell, electricity, environment I. INTRODUCTION Solid oxide fuel cell is one type of fuel cells in which a ceramic oxide as oxygen ion conductive membrane used in a relatively high temperature, i.e. about 8 to 1 o C. Using fuel cells to generate electricity has many advantages including lower pollution than conventional sources. Table 1 illustrates pollutants released by a cell vs. pollution of a conventional power plant with similar capacity during the year [1]. Production and development of solid oxide fuel cell could have more interests for Iran's than other countries. Iran has rich natural gas resources and their distribution networks spread in many areas of the country. Using solid oxide fuel cells, energy requirement for industries, towns and villages anywhere in the country can prepare as a semi-centralized or decentralized. Thus, in addition to important advantages such as reducing water consumption and optimization of fossil fuels, the cost of development and maintenance of electricity distribution networks in the country can be saved in the long term. II. MECHANISM OF FUEL CELL PERFORMANCE In this cell to produce electricity, fuel enters to the anode and air to the cathode, then oxidation-reduction reactions occurs between the fuel and oxygen passes through the electrolyte that only permeates oxygen ions. For establishing electric balance, electrons resulted from reduction halfreaction flow from the anode to the cathode and thus direct current electricity are produced and oxygen taking electrons from the external circuit is converted to the ion. This ions which penetrates in solid electrolyte and passes through that, is combined with fuel in anode. Return flow of electrons through the external circuit creating electricity, which is the main product of this reaction, and some of the reaction energy is released as heat. Depending on the fuel composition used, some vapor and carbon dioxide is produced [2].the solid oxide fuel cell reactions are shown in fig.1 [3]. III. FUEL CELL COMPONENTS A. Electrolyte Since the fuel cell electrolyte should be an oxygen ion membrane, its conductivity should be enough to allow the rapid oxidation-reduction reaction. Yttrium-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is one of the best commercial oxygen ion conductors in solid oxide fuel cells as electrolyte. Other material properties required are also mentioned. The only significant disadvantage of this material is its working temperature. The temperature in which the conductivity of oxygen ions in the yttrium-stabilized zirconia membrane reaches the necessary amount is about 8 to 1 C depending on its thickness. B. Anode Fuel electrode is anode and should maintain its chemical stability during reduction process. Yttrium-stabilized zirconia is one of the few stable oxygen ion conductors in the reduction process and therefore its composites with nickel or cobalt are used as anode. TABLE 1. CONTAMINATION PRODUCED BY A CONVENTIONAL POWER PLANT AND ONE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL Type of power plant kgs of emissions per 165 MWh power production SOX NOX CO Particles Organic compounds CO2 Fossil fuelled plant 12,74 18,85 12, ,84,2 SOFC system ,3 TABLE 2. FUEL CELL COMPONENTS AND MATERIAL 281

2 Component Name Substance constructive name Remark Anode YSZ composite with nickel or cobalt maintain its chemical stability during reduction process Cathode lanthanum and strontium double Mangenates (LSM) oxidation resistant Electrolyte zirconia stabilized with yttrium (YSZ) It is the membrane of oxygen ions and the conductivity rate is significant Interconnect Lanthanum strontium chromite (LSC), Scandia-Stabilized Zirconia (SSZ), Mixed oxide lanthanum - strontium - gallium - magnesium (LSGM), gadolinia -doped ceria (GDC), Mixed bismuth oxide - copper - vanadium (BiCuVOx), and bismuth oxide C. Cathode Air electrode is cathode and should be oxidation resistant. Metal Oxide electrical conductors are used as cathode. Lanthanum and strontium mangenate (LSM) are used as solid oxide fuel cell cathode. Since metals are usually oxidized at high temperatures, they are not used as cathode. D. Interconnect Interconnect is in contact to oxide atmosphere and on the other hand with reducing atmosphere (fuel). Lanthanum strontium chromite (LSC) is stable at cell working temperature in both atmospheres and is used as interconnect because of its electron conductivity. Some metals may seem the appropriate choice for Interconnect but most of them have low resistance to oxidation and incompatibility in coefficient of thermal expansion with other cell components Fuel cell components and material are shown in table 2. IV. SOFC THERMODYNAMICS A SOFC is an electrochemical device that converts chemical energy of the fuel and oxidant directly and reversibly into electrical energy. It is not an improved heat engine. It is fundamentally different. Fuel cell process can be fully described by thermodynamic principles; reactants (fuel and air) produce the total enthalpy n i H i and total enthalpy output of the system is n j H j. The enthalpy change will be H= n j H j - n i H i. Therefore, if the reversible work w FC is delivered back, the heat generated will be q FC. This is shown in fig. 2. From combination of first law of thermodynamics and the reaction entropy that must be compensated by transferring heat to the environment we calculate the reversible work. Reversible efficiency is equal to the Gibbs free energy divided by reaction enthalpy. A substance that is stable in both atmospheres at cell working temperature, the conductivity is electron-type Hydrogen is absorbed at the anode and ionized and electrons are released to provide useful work. Oxygen atoms come from the cathode are ionized by the electrons come from the anode. Protons react with peroxide ions and produce water. Anode: H 2 2H + + 2e Cathode: ½O 2 + 2e O 2 The net reaction is: 2H + + O 2 H 2 O Electrical and thermodynamic quantities are equal to reversible force calculated, thus, reversible voltage is calculated as follows I n. e.n A 2n H.F V n H. G G n.f n.f If we assume that gas phase behavior is ideal, we have an exact equation for Gibbs free energy; Thus Nernst voltage (VN) will be obtained [4]. G T, p H T T. S T,p Figure 1. Mechanism of fuel cell Figure 2. Fuel cell energy balance 282

3 TABLE 3. PERFORMANCE OF SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL Parameterr Nominal electrical power Electric efficiency AC voltage System lifetime Target system cost by 21 V. ECONOMICAL STUDY OF USING FUEL CELLL With all advantages of fuel cell, economical benefits are important for investors. Economy may be the most important factor which prevents the development of this system in Iran because price of electricity, is very cheap and fuel cell construction cost is very expensivee but new Iranian governmental laws about eliminating subsidy of electrical price opening new windoww to studying electrical fuel cell energy. Eliminating of electrical price subsidy reason to increase price and can change previous economical calculation. We try to study new calculation with new electrical price. The performance of solid oxide fuel cell used in this study are show in table 3 [5]. The fuel consumption of cell can be calculated with first following equation [6]. Fuel price in Iran at now is about 12 rials per cubic meter and maintenance cost of fuel cell estimating about 22 Rials per kwh [7]. Electrical price without subsidy in Iran at now is 773 rials per kwh. With above data and table 3 data we can calculate B.E..P (Break even point) specification as following form, results are shown in table 4. V G =P G / (η e *1.7) V G =25/ (.47*1.7) =49.7m 3 25(kw)*773(Rials/kw.hr) *h=25(kw)* 5(US.$/kw) )*142 1(Rials/US.$ )+12(Rials/m3.hr)*49.7(m3)*h+25(kw)*22 (Rials/kw.hr)*h 19325(Rials/hr)* *h= (Rials) (Rials/hr) )*h+55(rials/hr)*h h= =1657 hr. h=1657(hr)*(1day/24hr)*(1year/33day) =2.9 year Cost/sales * Sales = Costs 25 Value 25 kw 47% 42 V, 5 Hz 2 years US.$ 5/kw saless cost TABLE 4. PERFORMANCEE OF SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL Costs / sales Fixed cost Fuel cost Maintenance cost Electric sales *point: 1 US. $=1421 Rials For condition which costs no change in next years this calculation show us the working hours at B.E.P equal 1657 hours equivalent to 2.9 years, this is shown also in fig. 3. If we assume all costs and price increases 15% per year then working hours at B.E.P equal 1441 hours equivalent to 1.82 years, this is shown also in fig. 4. VI. Value (Rials) 5964(Rials/hr) 55(Rials/hr) 19325(Rials/hr) RESULT AND DISCUSSION The economical calculation show us that using solid oxide fuel celll can be more economic but studying on economic calculation in a given time cannot be true method for a long time investment because investment is a function of parameters which can be changed daily, hence, we must study all parameter which effect on solid oxide fuel cell capital investment. a) Electrical price: The important factor in economic study on fuel cell is electrical price. Fig..5 shows that how working time at B.E.P can be changed with electrical price. Electrical price without subsidy is 773 rials for which cause Appropriate condition for investment. b) Fixed capital investment: Fig.6 shows that working time at B.E.P changed linearly with fixed cost; however, this is positive point because we can expectation to cost fluctuations doesn t have large effect on economic condition. c) Fuel cost: Working time at B. E.P changes with fuel cost shown in fig.7. This relation changes exponentially and if fuel cost is more expensive, it can change economy condition. But this is important that iran has more gas reserve in the world and also iran has a widespread network of gas distribution in country, hence, we can expect thatt fuel cost does not change suddenly and in large amount. d) Maintenance cost: Major maintenance costs is related to switching stack, fig.8 shown that how working time at B.E.P can be changed with maintenance cost, hence, Working hours *1 3 Figure 3. Figure

4 for a good investment should be created and developed after sales service system. e) Electrical power: Fig.9 shown Working time at B.E.P changes with electrical power, this shows us that this investment can be more benefit for big consumer. f) Electrical efficiency: Electrical efficiency affecting on fuel consumption, increasing in electrical efficiency causes to decrease the fuel consumption and consequently decreasing pay back, hence, fuel cell production with highly electrical efficiency can cause increasing and development of system. Fig.1 shown that how working time at B.E.P can be changed with electrical efficiency. REFERENCES [1] A. Boudghene Stambouli, E. Traversa, Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs): a review of an environmentally clean and efficient source of energy, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 6, pp , April 22. [2] A.Fatahi, A.Maghsoodi poor, Solid oxide fuel cell and its importance for the country, First National Conference on hydrogen and fuel cell, January 28. [3] F.T.Hamzeh kolaei, R.Roshan del, Power generation using methane (renewable fuels) in solid oxide fuel cell power plant - Gas turbine, Conference on energy efficiency, June 21. [4] DoITPoMS, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, July 26. [5] E. Fontell, T. Kivisaari, N. Christiansen, J.B. Hansen, J. Pålsson, Conceptual study of a 25 kw planar SOFC system for CHP application Journal of Power Sources, Volume 131, Issues 1-2, Pages 49-56, May 24 [6] E.T.Ghadikolaee, J.Dolatabadi, Technical study on the economic application of fuel cell domestic CHP, Third Seminar on Iranian fuel cell, November 29. [7] M.Ameri, M.J.Heydari, Looking at electricity prices due to fuel cell power plants in Iran (present and future), Sixth National Conference on Energy, June hr hr Electricity price, 1 2 Rials Fixed cost, 1 3 US.$/KW Figure 5. Electrical price VS working time at B.E.P Figure 6. Fixed capital investment VS working time at B.E.P 284

5 hr Fuel cost, 1 2 Rials Figure 7. Fuel cost VS working time at B.E.P Figure 8. Maintenance VS working time at B.E.P hr Electrical power, 1 2 kw Figure 9. Electrical power VS working time at B.E.P Figure 1. Electrical efficiency VS working time at B.E.P 285

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