LNG Plant Overview. Seminar with Supplier Association Murmanshelf Murmansk, 15 May 2012 Jostein Pettersen

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1 LNG Plant Overview Seminar with Supplier Association Murmanshelf Murmansk, 15 May 2012 Jostein Pettersen

2 Table of Content Part 1 : LNG plant overview (Jostein) Part 2 : Main equipment units (Jostein) Part 3 : LNG plant construction principles (Jens Roar) Part 4 : Arctic LNG plant construction (Jens Roar) 2 Classification: Internal

3 Outline Introduction Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Block diagram of LNG plant Main process stages Liquefaction process technologies Examples from Hammerfest LNG Plant Examples from other LNG plants

4 Why produce Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)? LNG is mainly produced for transportation purposes Gas market is far from the source of the natural gas: More economical to transport the gas as LNG instead of in a natural gas pipeline. LNG also offers greater flexibility than pipeline gas Cost per unit gas transported Ca 1500 km Ca 4000 km Transport distance 4

5 What is LNG? LNG is a cryogenic liquid A cryogenic liquid liquefies at a temperature below 73 C (-100 F) at atmospheric pressure. Common cryogenic liquids are; Nitrogen, Oxygen, Helium, Hydrogen and LNG LNG is natural gas that has been cooled and condensed to a liquid At atmospheric pressure LNG has a temperature of about 162ºC LNG contains about % methane LNG is colorless, odorless, non-corrosive and non-toxic Evaporated LNG can displace oxygen and cause human suffocation Flammability range, 5-15 vol % concentration in air Autoignition temperature, 540 C 5

6 LNG Density 1 m 3 LNG corresponds to ca 600 Sm 3 natural gas S = Standard state, 15 C, 1 atm Natural gas At temperatures above -110 ºC LNG vapour is lighter than air LNG LNG is lighter than water LNG Density: 450 kg/m 3 Water density: 1000 kg/m

7 Natural gas liquefaction plants Source: IHS Cera Status January

8 LNG Value Chain Power Generation Electricity Transmission End User Gas Production Pipeline LNG Plant LNG Shipping LNG Receiving Terminal Gas Distribution Gas Marketing End User % % % % Typical cost Distribution in the LNG value Chain (numbers are confirmed by different sources) 8

9 LNG plant block diagram Fuel gas CH 4 /N 2 End flash HHC Extraction Power and Heat 9

10 Gas conditioning (pre-treatment) Acid Gas (CO 2 and H 2 S) removal Acid gas causes corrosion, reduces heating value, and may freeze and create solids in cryogenic process Typical requirements for LNG: Max 50 ppmv CO 2, Max 4 ppmv H 2 S (ppmv - parts per million by volume) Dehydration (water removal) Water will freeze in cryogenic process Typical requirement: Max 1 ppmw (weight) H 2 O Mercury removal Mercury can cause corrosion problems, especially in aluminium heat exchangers Requirement: Max 0.01 g/nm

11 MDEA (Amine) process for acid gas removal

12 Typical amine sour gas removal process Amine wash P=2 bara T=44 o C P=1.5 bara T=20 o C P=65 bara T=45 o C 5.0 % CO2 MEG wash P=1.5 bara T=115 o C Source : DOW chemicals

13 Water removal by adsorption Source: UOP

14 Cascade Liquefaction Process (Licensor: ConocoPhillips) 14

15 Propane-precooled Mixed Refrigerant Process (C3MR) (Licensor: Air Products and Chemicals Inc.) Propane condenser Centrifugal compressor Expander Compressor suction drum Kettle heat exchanger 15

16 (Sakhalin)

17 Mixed Fluid Cascade Process (Linde) (Hammerfest LNG plant) NG SW SW Pre-cooling Column Liquefaction SW HHC fraction SW SW Sub-cooling LNG 17

18 LPG extraction (Example based on C3MR process, Source: Air Products) Upstream Integrated Why LPG extraction?:i) LNG heating value adjustment, ii) remove components that may freeze out in liquefaction process, iii) generate valuable LPG product, iv) produce refrigerant make-up (C1, C2, C3) Upstream LPG extraction usually based on expander process. Can provide deep extraction of C3 and C2. Feedgas need to be recompressed before liquefaction. Liquefaction pressure can be high. Integrated process usually based on scrub column i.e. feed gas pressure need to be sub critical. Scrub column reflux temperature determines degree of extraction. Pressure restricted by p crit

19 Above-ground full-containment LNG tank design Pre-stressed concrete outer walls constructed by slipforming, sheathed internally with a gastight layer of nickel-alloyed steel. Inner tank in nickel-alloyed steel, separated from the outer walls by a layer of perlite - a variety of volcanic obsidian highly suitable for insulation Extra layer of steel and insulation at the transition between outer wall and tank bottom to protect it against strong local stresses should the inner tank begin to leak. Heating cables under the tanks will ensure that the ground remains above 0 C in order to prevent frost heaving. 19

20 Loading of LNG Carrier

21 Spherical tank cargo containment systems (Moss Rosenberg )

22

23 LNGC Membrane cargo containment system (GT No. 96, MK I and MK III, and CS1) 23

24 Mark III (Technigaz) Membrane system 24

25 Inside membrane tank

26 Hammerfest LNG Plant Melkøya

27 Slug catcher Inlet facilities SNØHVIT LNG Simplified overview Carbon dioxide Pretreatment MEG recovery LNG production Precooling cycle Liquefaction cycle Subcooling cycle Snøhvit Production wells Production wells Fractionation Plem CO 2 Injection well Condensate production CDU LPG production Storage and loading: LNG, LPG, condensate Production wells Albatross Seabed CO 2 Injection well Production well Reservoir Prepared by Petrolink as

28 Hammerfest LNG onshore plant

29 Area 1 Area 2 Area 3 LAYOUT - HAMMERFEST LNG PLANT HP flare Subsea road tunnel Grid substation LP flare Camp area Administration building / control room Sea water outlet /sea water inlet Holding basin / waste water treatment Utility substation MDEA storage / fuel gas Compressed air and inert gas facilities Landfall Offshore utility substation MEG process area MEG substation MEG storage tank area Hot oil and chemical storage tanks Pig receiver Condensate storage tank LNG storage tanks Product jetty LPG storage tank Storage & loading substation N 2 cold box NG Cold box Process substation Electrical power generation Compression area, barge Process area, barge Construction jetty Slug catcher

30 HAMMERFEST LNG Process barge Natural gas Cold Box Nitrogen Removal Cold Box Process substation Process area Compressor area Electric power generation

31 Jetty Atlantic LNG - Trinidad Jetty Compressors Source: Air cooled condensers Cold boxes (Heat exchangers) 31

32 Darwin LNG (Australia) Source:

33 Yemen LNG Sources:

34 Oman LNG Source:

35 Sakhalin LNG Source:

36 LNG Plant Overview Jostein Pettersen Advisor LNG Technology Tel:

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