# EFFICIENCY ANALYSIS OF FLAT PLATE COLLECTORS FOR BUILDING FAÇADE INTEGRATION

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2 Where, F R is the heat removal factor, (τα) is the transmittance-absorptance product, U l, is the total heat transfer coefficient, T f,i is the fluid inlet temperature and T a, is the ambient temperature. U l is found by summing the heat lost through the top, U t, the bottom, U b, and the edges, U e, of the collector. The top heat loss, U t, is temperature dependent, thus, an iterative process is required to obtain the solution. The heat removal factor, F R, is included to allow for the assumption that the plate of the collector is at the inlet fluid temperature, T f,i, rather than the actual mean plate temperature, T p,m. The inlet fluid temperature is used since the mean plate temperature is difficult to accurately quantify using experimental methods [5]. Rearranging Equations (1) and (2) gives the following: T f, i Ta i FR () FRU l (3) GT The instantaneous thermal efficiency, η i, can be plotted against the reduced temperature difference, ((Tf,i - Ta)/G), to determine the collectors performance. Since the top heat loss U t, is temperature dependent, the relationship is non-linear. The subsequent section of this paper will use this model to plot the efficiency curves of various FPCs. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The model was used to compare the effect of altering three of the primary components of a FPC, cover, absorber and insulation. A standard FPC, with defined parameters (Table 1.) is used as a benchmark. The values used are typical of a FPC [5]. Parameters that are altered as a result of façade integration (highlighted with a bold font) will be varied and the resulting efficiency curves can be compared. Cover Parameter Value W (distance between tubes) [m] 0.15 D (Tube diameter inside) [m] 0.01 δ (sheet thickness) [m] k a (absorber conductivity) [Wm -1 K -1 ] 385 h fi (convective heat transfer) [Wm -2 K -1 ] 300 ṁ (flow rate) [kg s -1 ] 0.03 C p (heat capacity) [Jkg -1 K -1 ] 4190 τ (cover transmittance) 0.94 G (solar irradiance) [Wm -2 ] 1000 α (absorber absorptance) 0.95 N (number of glass covers) 1 ε g (emittance of glass) 0.88 ε (emittance of plate) 0.95 h w (wind) [Wm -2 K -1 ] 10 β (tilt angle) 90 σ (Stefan boltzman constant) [Wm -2 K -4 ] E-08 L b (back insulation thickness) [m] 0.05 Table 1: Design Parameters and benchmark values of a flat plate collector 736 CISBAT September 9-11, Lausanne, Switzerland

3 One way of achieving architectural integration is by providing a range of colours. Either the absorber plate or the glass cover may be coated to provide a colour that will fit in with the aesthetic of the building. An ideal cover would have a maximum transmittance, τ, value. However, the introduction of colour to the glass cover of a FPC decreases the transmittance value. Work has been conducted on reducing the negative effect of colour on the efficiency of the collector by using thin film layers to produce a colour that is opaque to the human eye (large reflectance in the visible spectrum, R v ), but high transparency to solar energy (large solar transmittance). The idea was proposed by Schüler et al. [6] and then followed up by a number of simulation and experimental studies using different film deposition methods. The efficiency curves for two multilayered coloured coatings are displayed in Figure 1. Figure 1: Theoretical efficiency of FPCs with different cover colours (layer properties [7]). Depending on the number of layers, the refractive index of each layer and the thickness of each layer, a different colour with a different transmittance and visible reflectance would be achieved.. This study investigates how these property alterations affect the performance of a solar collector. Both the blue and yellow coloured thin films have a lower efficiency than that of clear glass, as expected. The thin films are made up of silicon and titanium oxide layers with different thicknesses to achieve these colours. In this case the yellow coloured collector outperforms the blue collector in terms of efficiency. The addition of these yellow and blue layers reduces the efficiency of this collector by 3% and 8% respectively. Absorber Instantaneous efficiency, η i Clear glass (τ = 0.94) Blue (τ = 0.84, Rv = 0.067) Yellow (τ = 0.9, Rv = 0.14) Reduced Temperature difference, (T f,i - T a )/G [m 2 K/W] An alternative approach is to change the colour of the absorber plate. The absorber plate of a solar thermal collector is typically coated with a dark coating that has a high absorptance, α. As with colour coating the cover of a FPC, a reduction in performance is also associated with colouring the absorber [8]. Tripanagnostopoulos et al. [9] used booster reflectors adjacent to the absorber to make up for this reduction in absorptance. To obtain a higher efficiency, spectrally selective coatings may also be applied [10], which have a absorptance, α, for wavelengths between 0.3 and 2.5 μm and a low emittance, ε, for wavelengths greater than 2.5 μm. CISBAT September 9-11, Lausanne, Switzerland 737

4 The properties of concern for this study are the absorptance, α, and the emittance ε. By adjusting the outlined parameters and applying the model, efficiency curves are produced for three spectrally selective coatings, one black [8] and two alternative colours [11], as well as one non-spectrally selective coating [9]; displayed in Figure 2. Instantaneous efficiency, η i Non selective black (α = 0.94; ε = 0.93) Black (α = 0.95; ε = 0.1) Blue (α = 0.86; ε = 0.08) Yellow (α = 0.81; ε = 0.06) Reduced Temperature difference, (T f,i - T a )/G [m 2 K/W] Figure 2. Theoretical efficiency of solar collectors with different absorber colours & spectral selectivity. The spectrally selective coatings outperform the non-spectrally selective coatings since the emissivity is reduced, reducing the radiative heat losses, particularly as the temperature of the collector increases. A blue and yellow colouring are used again, however, the blue out performs the yellow; this can be attributed to its darker colour and hence higher absorptance. At a low reduced temperature difference (0.01 m 2 K/W) the efficiency is reduced by 7% and 11% by changing to the referenced blue and yellow coating respectively; as the reduced temperature difference increases (0.14 m 2 K/W) the reduction in efficiency becomes 6% and 9% respectively. Insulation The back insulation thickness of a FPC ranges from approximately 0.04 to m [12], offering product U-values of between 0.75 W/m 2 K and 0.42 W/m 2 K (assuming an insulation conductivity of 0.03 W/mK [13] ). However, for facade integrated collectors, a thicker insulation layer is required to ensure the envelope abides by building regulation specified U- values. An insulation thickness of approximately 140 mm would be required to achieve a wall U- value of 0.21 W/m 2 K (this is the current standard for the UK and Ireland [14]). On the other hand, considering the high temperature reached by the absorber plate, the resultant radiating heat to the interior space can promote overheating if not appropriately insulated [15] [16]. A negligible increase in the internal temperature of less than 1K has been observed for a variety of wall systems with integrated collectors. The insulation applied to the back of the collectors is used to reduce the heat loss. Figure 3 shows how increasing the insulation at the back of the collector increases the performance, by reducing the heat loss. 738 CISBAT September 9-11, Lausanne, Switzerland

5 Instantaneous efficiency, η i Insulation thickenss = 5mm Insulation thickness = 40mm Insulation thickness = 140mm Reduced Temperature differnce, (T f,i - T a )/G [m 2 K/W] Figure 3. Theoretical efficiency of solar collectors with different back insulation thicknesses. The results show how an increase in efficiency of no more than 2% is gained by increasing the thickness of insulation by more than 40 mm (typical insulation thickness). The convergence suggests that after 40mm of insulation the majority of the heat is lost through the top of the collector. However, for a facade integrated collector the insulation is also reducing the heat lost from the building s interior, therefore, justifying the increased thickness. CONCLUSION The performance of façade integrated flat plate collectors have been evaluated with reference to colouring the absorber and the cover and changing the thickness of the insulation. The effect of integrating a collector into the facade of a building on the efficiency of the collector is, therefore, presented. It was found that for the colours compared in this study that colouring the glass cover will reduce the performance with the yellow cover considered in this paper having a 5% greater efficiency than that of the blue cover. On the other hand colouring the absorber plate yellow resulted in a lower efficiency than a blue coated absorber, by 2-4%. The effect the insulation s thickness had on the performance of the FPC, perceived for facade integration, was also addressed. The model showed that increasing the thickness past 40 mm resulted in no significant increases in the efficiency, however, if integrated into the facade of a building this would help reduce the unwanted heat losses or gains to the building. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Irish Research Council; Firebird Heating solutions; COST Action TU1205. REFERENCES [1] IEA, Transition to Sustainable Buildings - Strategies and Opportunities to 2050, [2] L. Pérez-Lombard, J. Ortiz, and C. Pout, A review on buildings energy consumption information, Energy Build., vol. 40, no. 3, pp , [3] R. O Hegarty, O. Kinnane, and S. McCormack, A Case for Facade Located Solar Thermal Collectors, in Proceedings of the International Conference on Solar Heating and Cooling for Buildings and Industry, Beijing, China, CISBAT September 9-11, Lausanne, Switzerland 739

6 [4] W. Weiss and F. Mauthner, Weiss, Werner and Franz Mauthner (2012), Solar Heat Worldwide Markets and Contributions to the Energy Supply 2010, Solar Heating and Cooling Programme, AEE INTEC, Gleisdorf, Austria., [5] J. A. Duffie and W. A. Beckman, Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes, 4th ed. Wiley, [6] A. Schüler, C. Roecker, J.-L. Scartezzini, J. Boudaden, I. R. Videnovic, R. S.-C. Ho, and P. Oelhafen, On the feasibility of colored glazed thermal solar collectors based on thin film interference filters, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells, vol. 84, no. 1 4, pp , Oct [7] A. Schüler, J. Boudaden, P. Oelhafen, E. De Chambrier, C. Roecker, and J.-L. Scartezzini, Thin film multilayer design types for colored glazed thermal solar collectors, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells, vol. 89, no. 2 3, pp , Nov [8] S. Kalogirou, Y. Tripanagnostopoulos, and M. Souliotis, Performance of solar systems employing collectors with colored absorber, Energy Build., vol. 37, no. 8, pp , Aug [9] Y. Tripanagnostopoulos, M. Souliotis, and T. Nousia, Solar collectors with colored absorbers, Sol. Energy, vol. 68, no. 4, pp , [10] Z. C. Orel and M. K. Gunde, Spectrally selective paint coatings: Preparation and characterization, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells, vol. 68, no. 3 4, pp , Jun [11] D. Zhu and S. Zhao, Chromaticity and optical properties of colored and black solar thermal absorbing coatings, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells, vol. 94, no. 10, pp , Oct [12] F. A. Peuser, K.-H. Remmers, and M. Schnauss, Solar Thermal Systems - Successful Planning and Construction. Earthscan, [13] BS ISO 10456, Building materials and products - hygrothermal properties - Tabulated design values and procedures for determining declared and design thermal values [14] TGD Part L, Conservation of Fuel and Energy - Dwellings, in Technical Guidance Document Part L, Dublin: Environment, Heritage and Local Government, [15] T. Matuska and B. Sourek, Façade solar collectors, Sol. Energy, vol. 80, no. 11, pp , Nov [16] T. Salem and M. Pierre, Experimental Study of Active Solar Thermal Collectors Integrated in Building Facade, in Solar World Congress, Beijing, China, CISBAT September 9-11, Lausanne, Switzerland

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