SOLAR ENGINEERING OF THERMAL PROCESSES

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1 SOLAR ENGINEERING OF THERMAL PROCESSES Second Edition JOHN A. DUFFIE Emeritus Professor of Chemical Engineering WILLIAM A. BECKMAN Professor of Mechanical Engineering Solar Energy Laboratory University of Wisconsin-Madison A Wiley-Interscience Publication JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. New York Chichester Brisbane Toronto Singapore

2 CONTENTS PART I - FUNDAMENTALS 1 Introduction, 1 1. SOLAR RADIATION The Sun, The Solar Constant, Spectral Distribution of Extraterrestrial Radiation, Variation of Extraterrestrial Radiation, Definitions, Direction of Beam Radiation, Angles for Tracking Surfaces, Ratio of Beam Radiation on Tilted Surface to that on Horizontal Surface, Shading, Extraterrestrial Radiation on a Horizontal Surface, Summary, 44 References, AVAILABLE SOLAR RADIATION Definitions, Pyrheliometers and Pyrheliometric Scales, Pyranometers, Measurements of Duration of Sunshine, Solar Radiation Data, Atmospheric Attenuation of Solar Radiation, Estimation of Average Solar Radiation, Estimation of Clear Sky Radiation, Distribution of Clear and Cloudy Days and Hours, Beam and Diffuse Components of Hourly Radiation, Beam and Diffuse Components of Daily Radiation, Beam and Diffuse Components of Monthly Radiation, Estimation of Hourly Radiation from Daily Data, 87 XV

3 2.14 Radiation on Sloped Surfaces, Radiation on Sloped Surfaces - Isotropic Sky, Radiation on Sloped Surfaces - Anisotropic Sky, Radiation Augmentation, Beam Radiation on Moving Surfaces, Average Radiation on Sloped Surfaces - Isotropic Sky, Average Radiation on Sloped Surfaces - The K-T Method, Effects of Receiving Surface Orientation, Utilizability, Generalized Utilizability, Daily Utilizability, Summary, 141 References, 141 SELECTED HEAT TRANSFER TOPICS The Electromagnetic Spectrum, Photon Radiation, The Blackbody - a Perfect Absorber and Emitter, Planck's Law and Wien's Displacement Law, Stefan-Boltzmann Equation, Radiation Tables, Radiation Intensity and Flux, Infrared Radiation Exchange Between Gray Surfaces, Sky Radiation, Radiation Heat Transfer Coefficient, Natural Convection Between Flat Parallel Plates, Convection Suppression, Vee-Corrugated Enclosures, Heat Transfer Relations for Internal Flow, Wind Convection Coefficients, Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop in Packed Beds, Effectiveness - NTU Calculations for Heat Exchangers, 178 References, 181 RADIATION CHARACTERISTICS OF OPAQUE MATERIALS Absorptance and Emittance, Kirchoffs Law, Reflectance of Surfaces, Relationships Among Absorptance, Emittance, and Reflectance, Broadband Emittance and Absorptance, Calculation of Emittance and Absorptance, Measurement of Surface Radiation Properties, Selective Surfaces, 199

4 Contents xvii 4.9 Mechanisms of Selectivity, Optimum Properties, Angular Dependence of Solar Absorptance, Absorptance of Cavity Receivers, Specularly Reflecting Surfaces, 211 References, RADIATION TRANSMISSION THROUGH GLAZING; ABSORBED RADIATION Reflection of Radiation, Absorption by Glazing, Optical Properties of Cover Systems, Transmittance for Diffuse Radiation, Transmittance-Absorptance Product, Angular Dependence of (та), Spectral Dependence of Transmittance, Effects of Surface Layers on Transmittance, Absorbed Solar Radiation, Monthly Average Absorbed Radiation, Absorptance of Rooms, Summary, 248 References, FLAT-PLATE COLLECTORS Description of Flat-Plate Collectors, Basic Flat-Plate Energy Balance Equation, Temperature Distributions in Flat-Plate Collectors, Collector Overall Heat Loss Coefficient, Temperature Distribution Between Tubes and the Collector Efficiency Factor, Temperature Distribution in Flow Direction, Collector Heat Removal Factor and Flow Factor, Critical Radiation Level, Mean Fluid and Plate Temperature, Effective Transmittance-Absorptance Product, Effects of Dust and Shading, Heat Capacity Effects in Flat-Plate Collectors, Liquid Heater Plate Geometries, Air Heaters, Measurements of Collector Performance, Collector Characterizations, Collector Tests: Efficiency, Incidence Angle Modifier, and Time Constant, Test Data, 312

5 xviii Contents 6.19 Thermal Test Data Conversion, Flow Rate Corrections to F R (m) n and F R U L, Flow Distribution in Collectors, In Situ Collector Performance, Practical Considerations for Flat Plate Collectors, Summary, 326 References, CONCENTRATING COLLECTORS Collector Configurations, Concentration Ratio, Thermal Performance of Concentrating Collectors, Optical Performance of Concentrating Collectors, Cylindrical Absorber Arrays, Optical Characteristics of Nonimaging Collectors, Orientation and Absorbed Energy for CPC Collectors, Performance of CPC Collectors, Linear Imaging Concentrators - Geometry, Images Formed by Perfect Linear Concentrators, Images from Imperfect Linear Concentrators, Ray-Trace Methods for Evaluating Concentrators, Incidence Angle Modifiers and Energy Balances, Paraboloidal Concentrators, Central Receiver Collectors, Practical Considerations, 378 References, ENERGY STORAGE Process Loads and Solar Collector Outputs, Energy Storage in Solar Process Systems, Water Storage, Stratification in Storage Tanks, Packed Bed Storage, Storage Walls, Seasonal Storage, Phase Change Energy Storage, Chemical Energy Storage, 410 References, SOLAR PROCESS LOADS Examples of Hourly Loads, Hot Water Loads, Space Heating Loads; Degree Days; Balance Temperature, 417

6 Contents xix 9.4 Building Loss Coefficients, Building Energy Storage Capacity, Cooling Loads, Swimming Pool Heating Loads, 423 References, SYSTEM THERMAL CALCULATIONS Component Models, Collector Heat Exchanger Factor, Duct and Pipe Loss Factors, Controls, Collector Arrays; Series Connections, Performance of Partially Shaded Collectors, Series Arrays with Sections with Different Orientation, Use of Modified Collector Equations, System Models, Solar Fraction, Summary, 451 References, SOLAR PROCESS ECONOMICS Costs of Solar Process Systems, Design Variables, Economic Figures of Merit, Discounting and Inflation, Present Worth Factor, Life Cycle Savings Method, Evaluation of Other Economic Indicators, The P X,P Z Method, Uncertainties in Economic Analyses, Summary, 483 References, 484 PART II - APPLICATIONS Introduction, SOLAR WATER HEATING - ACTIVE AND PASSIVE Water Heating Systems, Freezing and Boiling, Auxiliary Energy, 494

7 XX Contents 12.4 Forced-Circulation Systems, Low-Flow Pumped Systems, Natural Circulation Systems, Integral Collector Storage Systems, Retrofit Water Heaters, Water Heating in Space Heating and Cooling Systems, Testing of Solar Water Heaters, Economics of Solar Water Heating, Swimming Pool Heating, Summary, 512 References, BUILDING HEATING - ACTIVE Historical Notes, Solar Heating Systems, CSU House III Flat-Plate Liquid System, CSU House II Air System, A Heating System Parametric Study, Solar Energy-Heat Pump Systems, Phase Change Storage Systems, Seasonal Energy Storage Systems, Solar and Off-Peak Electric Systems, Solar Heating Economics, Architectural Considerations, 549 References, BUILDING HEATING: PASSIVE AND HYBRID METHODS Concepts of Passive Heating, Comfort Criteria and Heating Loads, Movable Insulation and Controls, Shading: Overhangs and Wingwalls, Direct-Gain Systems, Collector-Storage Walls and Roofs, Sunspaces, Active Collection-Passive Storage Hybrid Systems, Other Hybrid Systems, Passive Applications, Heat Distribution in Passive Buildings, Costs and Economics of Passive Heating, 584 References, 586

8 Contents xxi 15. COOLING Solar Absorption Cooling, Theory of Absorption Cooling, Combined Solar Heating and Cooling, A Simulation Study of Solar Air Conditioning, Operating Experience with Solar Cooling, Applications of Solar Absorption Air Conditioning, Solar Desiccant Cooling, Ventilation and Recirculation Desiccant Cycles, Solar-Mechanical Cooling, Solar-Related Air Conditioning, Passive Cooling, 616 References, INDUSTRIAL PROCESS HEAT Integration with Industrial Processes, Mechanical Design Considerations, Economics of Industrial Process Heat, Open Circuit Air Heating Applications, Recirculating Air System Applications, Once-Through Industrial Water Heating, Recirculating Industrial Water Heating, Shallow Pond Water Heaters, Summary, 636 References, SOLAR THERMAL POWER SYSTEMS Thermal Conversion Systems, The Gila Bend Pumping System, The Luz Systems, Central Receiver Systems, Solar One Power Plant, 646 References, SOLAR PONDS; EVAPORATIVE PROCESSES Salt-Gradient Solar Ponds, Pond Theory, Applications of Ponds, Solar Distillation, Evaporation, Direct Solar Drying, Summary, 665 References, 665

9 PART III - THERMAL DESIGN METHODS Introduction, SIMULATIONS IN SOLAR PROCESS DESIGN Simulation Programs, The Utility of Simulations, Information from Simulations, TRNSYS, a Thermal Process Simulation Program, Simulations and Experiments, Meteorological Data, Limitations of Simulations, 683 References, DESIGN OF ACTIVE SYSTEMS BY/-CHART Review of Design Methods, The/-Chart Method, The/Chart for Liquid Systems, The/Chart for Air Systems, Service Water Heating Systems, /Chart Results, Parallel Solar Energy-Heat Pump Systems, Summary, 710 References, DESIGN OF ACTIVE SYSTEMS BY UTILIZABILITY METHODS Hourly Utilizability, Daily Utilizability, The ф, /Chart Method, Summary, 731 References, DESIGN OF PASSIVE AND HYBRID HEATING SYSTEMS Approaches to Passive Design, The Solar-Load Ratio Method, The Unutilizability Design Method: Direct-Gain, The Unutilizability Design Method: Collector-Storage Walls, Hybrid Systems: Active Collection with Passive Storage, Other Hybrid Systems, 766 References, 767

10 Contents xxiii 23. DESIGN OF PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS Photovoltaic Converters, PV Generator Characteristics and Models, Cell Temperature, Load Characteristics and Direct-Coupled Systems, Controls; Maximum Power Point Trackers, Applications, Design Procedures, High-Flux PV Generators, Summary, 793 References, 793 APPENDICES A. Problems, 795 B. Nomenclature, 824 C. International System of Units, 828 D. Monthly R h as Function of ф and(0 - ß), 830 E. Properties of Materials, 835 F. Present Worth Factors, 840 G. Meteorological Data, 843 H. Solar Position Diagrams, 882 I Average Shading Factors for Overhangs, 888 Author Index 905 Subject Index 913

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