Water Treatment Overview. Gabe Sasser December 2016

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1 Water Treatment Overview Gabe Sasser December 2016

2 Topics of Discussion Source Water Information Treatment Plants (History and Capacity) Water Quality Water Treatment Process Distribution System Conservation

3 Source Water Information

4 Charlotte Water Water Source is Catawba River Lake Norman (32,475 acres) Mountain Island Lake (2,788 acres)

5 Typical Raw Water Characteristics Raw Water Quality Turbidity 2-5 NTUS ph Alkalinity 16 mg/l Hardness 18 mg/l Color (apparent) 30 Natural Fluoride 0.18 mg/l Finished Water Leaving the Plant Turbidity NTU ph Alkalinity mg/l Hardness mg/l Chlorine mg/l Color < 5 Color Units Fluoride mg/l

6 Source Water Monitoring Phytoplankton & Chlorophyll Bromide analysis at intakes and throughout Mountain Island and Lake Norman Inorganic monitoring throughout Mountain Island Lake and Lake Norman Microbiological monitoring

7 Catawba River Pump Station Catawba River Pump Station can pump up to 350 million gallons per day from Mountain Island Lake to reservoir(s) at the Franklin WTP There are three major transmission lines that carry the water to the reservoirs at Franklin Intake at Blythe Landing supplies gravity fed water to Dukes water treatment plant in Huntersville

8 Catawba River Pump Station

9 Catawba River Pump Station Raw Main Diameters 54 Inches 60 Inches 120 Inches

10 Source Water Pumped from CRPS to one of two 250 million gallon reservoir at the Franklin Plant Site for storage This allow for pre sedimentation to occur Helps reduce turbidity which enhances filter run times This is approximately a 5 day supply

11 Hydrilla Control Invasive aquatic weed in Mountain Island and Lake Norman USDA Federal Noxious Weed list Clog intakes, reduce dissolved oxygen Underwater kudzu that colonizes at 10 feet or deeper Plant produces small potato like tubers in lake s hydrosoil that can lie dormant for 10 years or longer Lack of vegetative growth does not mean eradication has been achieved Reproduces by fragmentation and tubers Tendrils can grow to 25 feet on a single plant

12 Hydrilla Control 12 Sterile Grass Carp Utilize biological control to keep Hydrilla from spreading in Lake Norman and Mountain Island Lake Sterile grasscarp (~$150/acre) Cost comparison per acre vs. mechanical harvesting ($2400) or aquatic herbicide ($800) Cost Share Program Annual stocking is required to account for fish mortality

13 Water Treatment Plants

14 Charlotte Water Has Three Water Plants Three water treatment plants supply water to all areas of Mecklenburg county. Franklin (1959) Capacity (181 MGD) Averages (80 MGD) 8 clearwells - 48 MG clearwell storage Vest (1924) Capacity (36 MGD) Averages (17 MGD) 3 Clearwells - 12 MGD storage Dukes (1998) Capacity (25 MGD) Averages (15 MGD) 3 Clearwells - 27 MGD storage

15 Franklin WTP Built in 1959 Capacity: 181 million gallons per day 12 Plant Operators Upgrades and expansions every decade since it was built Originally had 2 filters and 6 million gallons of finished water storage 22 filters and 48 million gallons of treated water storage 500 million gallons of raw water storage

16 Franklin WTP

17 Vest Water Treatment Plant Built in 1924 Original size 8 MGD 1934 expanded to 16 MGD 1948 expanded to 24 MGD 1949 first plant in southeast to apply fluoride to a public water supply

18 Vest WTP

19 Lee Dukes Water Treatment Plant

20 Lee Dukes Water Treatment Plant Completed in 1998 Capacity: 25 million gallons per day Ultimate build out of 108 MGD 7 Operators

21 Dukes Raw Water Main Approximately 1.2 miles from Blythe Landing Intake to Dukes Plant. Water is conveyed through a 60 diameter raw water main.

22 Water Quality

23 Sample Analysis Water quality is analyzed at every stage of the treatment stage Raw Water Settled Water Filtered Water Finished Water Distribution Water

24 PROCESS CONTROL TESTING ph- This is a measurement of the intensity of the basic or acidic condition of a liquid. A target ph is maintained in the distribution system to eliminate corrosion issues; ph adjustment is accomplished with lime, prior to leaving the treatment facility. Alkalinity- The capacity of water to neutralize acids. Alkalinity helps us determine how much coagulant must be applied to the treatment process for effective solids removal and is measured at various stages of treatment. Turbidity- The presence of suspended matter in water that causes cloudiness. This includes silt, fine clays, organic/inorganic materials and is measured at the raw water source, after filtration and at point of entry into the distribution system.

25 PROCESS CONTROL TESTING Iron/Manganese- Natural compounds that affect the taste of the water and cause discoloration; measured in milligrams per liter or parts per million. Chlorine Analysis- Colorimetric analysis to ensure chlorine concentrations are at target levels throughout the water treatment process Fluoride- Analyzed to determined the natural background concentration of fluoride present in the water and the final concentration in the water as it leaves the plant

26 Primary Standards Primary Standards - Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) The highest level of a contaminant EPA allows in drinking water that does not pose a short-term or long-term health risk. Organic Chemicals (Synthetic and Volatile) Disinfection By Products Inorganic Chemicals Radionuclides Microorganisms Revised Total Coliform Rule Lead and Copper Proposed revision to Lead and Copper Rule expected in spring of 2017 final rule will be implemented in 2018 or 2019

27 Secondary Standards Secondary Standards These are non-enforceable guidelines regulating contaminants that may cause cosmetic effects or aesthetic effects in drinking water. Iron Manganese Color Aluminum Sulfate 0.3 mg/l 0.05 mg/l <15 color units 0.05 mg/l 250 mg/l

28 Water Quality Water supplied by Charlotte Water is regularly tested and achieves all water quality requirements set forth by federal (EPA) and state (NCDEQ) authorities.

29 Water Treatment Process

30 Water Treatment Process All three of our water treatment facilities utilize a conventional treatment approach of coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, disinfection and filtration.

31 Lake Reservoir Carbon Chlorine Aluminum Sulfate (Alum) Chlorine Fluoride Lime Storage Tank

32 Powdered Activated Carbon Addition of activated carbon (2-5mg/L) Reduces taste and odor Aids in coagulation and the settling process Reduces potential for DBP formation

33 Rapid Mix Aluminum sulfate (coagulant) is injected into rapid mix chamber A large mixer disperses the chemical through the water as it enters this chamber The addition of the aluminum sulfate lowers the ph to around

34 Coagulation Coagulation clumping together of fine particles caused by reaction of coagulant chemicals with particulate matter within raw water Aluminum Sulfate is utilized at all our facilities Coagulant carries a positive charge while suspended particulate matter in raw water carries a predominantly negative charge Charge neutralization causes particulate matter to clump together Aids in separating solids from water

35 Flocculation Occurs after coagulation Involves gentle mixing of water Causes collisions to occur between clumped particulate matter formed from coagulation Continues process of separating solids from water

36 Flocculation The mixing chambers consist of large mixers that help form clumps out of the debris in the water As the water moves through the process, the mixing intensity is lessened Detention time is approximately 30 minutes at design capacity

37 Sedimentation The water moves through this area slowly in order for the particles (floc) to settle out Mechanical raking system at bottom of basin that continuously removes sludge buildup.

38 Disinfection Chlorine is applied just prior to and just after filtration to disinfect water and establish a free chlorine residual. Process to kill or inactivate most microorganisms in water, including pathogenic bacteria.

39 Filtration Process that removes particulate matter from water being treated Passes water though anthracite coal and sand to remove particulate impurities Turbidity is reduced to <0.1 NTU

40 Filter Media Anthracite Coal Fine Sand Coarse Sand Small Gravel Large Gravel

41 Filter Media Filter Description: Anthracite Coal and Sand Anthracite Depth 24 inches Sand Depth 12 inches

42 Filtration Requirements In 2015 all 3 water plants achieved Area Wide Optimization Program standards for turbidity Water Treatment achieved filtered water turbidity of less than 0.1 NTU 95% of time NCDEQ Combined filter turbidity standard is less stringent requiring 0.3 NTU 95% of time

43 Post Filter Chemical Addition

44 Post Filter Chemical Addition Upon exiting the filter, additional chlorine is added to the effluent water to establish an optimal chlorine residual level Fluoride is also added for dental purposes

45 Post Filter Chemical Addition Hydrated Lime is applied as a corrosion inhibitor Increases ph, calcium and alkalinity of water Passivates interior surface of distribution mains

46 Clearwells Clearwells are onsite, treated water storage structures at our plants Franklin - 48 MG Vest - 12 MG Dukes - 27 MG

47 Franklin WTP

48 Distribution System

49 Three Major Pressure Zones Water pressure is mostly due to the elevation of storage tanks relative to the elevation of your home or business. In order to provide consistent water pressure, CLTWater has divided most of Mecklenburg County into three large water pressure zones. These zones allow CLTWater to provide water for fire emergencies and serve customers across large areas at various elevations.

50 Distribution System 279,609 active service connections 4,269 miles water mains 12 Tanks MG finished water storage space 2 Ground Storage (10 MG) 10 Elevated Storage (12.75 MG) 6 Booster Stations Starita, Sharon, Hoskins, Plaza, Idlewild, Sardis Highest volume pumped MGD (8/20/07)

51 Conservation

52 Drought Protocol The Catawba Drought Management Advisory Group (CW-DMAG) as of November 1 st, have placed the Catawba-River Basin in Stage 1 of the Low Inflow Protocol (LIP). This is the second tier of five drought stage categories and recommends voluntary conservation by water users across the basin.

53 Conservation Stage 0 Watch 1 Voluntary 2 Mandatory 3 Extreme Reduction Goal 3%-5% ( gal/month per typical user) 5%-10% ( gal/month) 10%-20% ( gal/month) Charlotte Water Activities -Communications -DMAG coordination -Internal conservation -Communications -DMAG coordination -Internal conservation -City-wide conservation -Communications -DMAG coordination -Internal conservation -City-wide conservation -Ordinance enforcement -Communications -DMAG coordination -Internal conservation -City-wide conservation -Ordinance enforcement Voluntary Actions Reductions: -Discretionary water uses Reductions: -Community and Business uses -Industries asked to implement conservation plans if not already doing so Mandatory Actions None Restrictions: -Discretionary water uses Restrictions: -Discretionary water uses -Community & Business uses 4 Emergency Maintain essential water uses & achieve lower drought response stage Communications -DMAG coordination -Internal conservation -City-wide conservation -Ordinance enforcement -Assist Emergency Management Restrictions: -Discretionary water uses -Community & Business uses -Water use limited to essential uses only

54 Stage 1 Drought Protocol Please conserve water use indoors and outdoors Only Irrigate Tuesday and Saturday (6pm -6am) Please refrain from outdoor water use during the day (6am -6pm) to reduce evaporation losses Try to limit landscape watering to no more than 1 inch of water per week including rain. Refrain from residential car washing Refrain from filling pools Refrain from residential pressure washing Please discontinue operation of fountains and other ornamental water features that do not sustain aquatic life

55 Up to Date Information Regarding Drought Status

56 Questions?

57 Contact Information Gabe Sasser Water Quality Program Administrator Charlotte Water (704)

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