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1 Hoonete energiatõhusus ja Click kaalumistegurid to edit Master title style Eesti Jõujaamade ja Kaugkütteühingu seminar Jarek Kurnitski

2 Climate and Energy Framework Climate and Energy Framework 2030 [COM(2014)15&COM(2014)520] European Council 23-24/10/ % GHG reduction 27% Renewable Energy 27 [30%(?)] Energy Efficiency Climate and Energy Framework 2020 [COM(2010)639] 20% GHG reduction Roadmap 2050 [COM(2011)885] 80-95% GHG reduction 20% Renewable Energy 20% Energy Efficiency Energy

3 State of play: Energy Efficiency The energy efficiency of the EU economy is steadily increasing. Economic growth is being decoupled from energy consumption. Source: Energy Efficiency Communication 2014 COM(2014) 520 3

4 2016 Energy Efficiency Package EED Main objectives: Optimal level of energy savings target for 2030 (at least 27% target, having in mind 30% EU target). Set a framework for beyond 2020 that will ensure 2030 targets are met. Review of Articles 6 and 7. Also elements of Articles 9-11/Annex VII on metering and billing. EPBD Main objectives: General review in light of experience gained (Article 19). Additional measures needed for to ensure it is fit for the future. Tap untapped potentials: Existing buildings (renovation rate, reliable consumer information); Enforcement/compliance; Progress in smart technologies. Energy

5 Energiatõhususe metoodika Summaarsel energiakasutusel põhinev Eesti energiaarvutuse metoodika ja energiatõhususe miinimumnõuded alates 2007, liginullenergia jm täiendused 2012 dünaamiline simulatsioon, energiaarvutuse baasaasta, energiamärgis, energiatõhususe spetsialisti kutsestandard... Liginullenergiahooned kasutavad 3-4 korda vähem energiat võrreldes enamiku olemasolevate hoonetega

6 Energiatõhususarv ja energiamärgis Hoonete energiatõhusust mõõdetakse energiatõhususarvu ETA (arvutuslik) ja kaalutud energiakasutuse KEK (tarbimisandmetel) abil ETA ja KEK = summaarne kaalutud energiakasutus köetava pinna ruudu kohta ETA ja KEK-i arvutus meenutab energiakulude arvutust, aga ühikuna on kwh-i köetava pinna ruutmeetri kohta aastas Tarnitud energiate kogused korrutatakse läbi kaalumisteguritega, mis tulenevad mittetaastuvast primaarenergiast, ning tulemus jagatakse köetava pinnaga. Kui hoone kasutab elektrit ja kaugkütet: ETA elekter kwh/ a 2,0 kaugküte kwh/ a 2 köetav pind m 0,9 energiakandja kaalumistegur on gaasi puhul 1,0 (fossiilne kütus) ning puidu puhul 0,75 (taastuvkütus)

7 Energiakandjate kaalumistegurid Energiakandjate kaalumistegurid tegurid, millega võetakse arvesse tarnitud energia tootmiseks vajalik primaarenergia kasutus ja selle keskkonnamõju Võimaldavad energiatõhususe väljendamise ühe näitajaga -- energiatõhususarvuga Tarnitud energia Hoone summaarne energiakasutus Eksporditud energia Kinnistu piir = süsteemipiir Ühe energiakandja puhul: Tarnitud eksporditud energia = summaarne energiakasutus lokaalne taastuv ETA i tarnitud i - eksporditud i energiakan dja kaalumistegur köetav pind i

8 Energiamärgise skaala Energiamärgise skaala näitab kui palju võib energiakasutus kõikuda G klass vastab kõige kehvemas seisundis olevatele hoonetele, D klass on olulise rekonstrueerimise miinimumnõue, C klass uute hoonete miinimumnõue ja A klass liginullenergiahoonete nõue: F ja G klass vanemad olemasolevad hooned, E klass 10 a vanused Praegused uued hooned kasutavad ligikaudu poole vähem energiat Liginullenergiahooned kasutavad veel ca 40% vähem energiat, võrreldes enamiku olemasolevate hoonetega on erinevus 3-4 kordne

9 Nõuete areng 2008 summaarse energiakasutuse nõuded hakkasid kehtima 2013 a 20-40% rangemad nõuded sõltuvalt hoonetüübist ja kasutatud energiaallikatest, nn. kuluoptimaalsed energiatõhususe tasemed Kuluoptimaalseks tasemeks nimetatakse sellistele tehnilistele lahendustele vastavat energiatõhusust, mis tagab minimaalsed kogukulud (ehitusmaksumus, energia, hooldus jne.) nüüdisväärtuse meetodil 30 ja 20 aasta elutsükli jooksul vastavalt elamutes ja mitteelamutes Alates 2019 uued avalikud hooned ja alates 2021 kõiki uued hooned peavad olema liginullenergiahooned Tallinn University of Technology

10 National Plans Templates 2013 and 2014 Commission progress report EPBD Concerted Action Energy Efficiency Action Plans National Codes

11 JRC 2016 data: Energy performance expressed by Member States

12 NZEB development evaluation in Member States

13 Towards nearly zero energy buildings Indicator Denmark Energy frame 2010 Energy frame 2015 Energy frame 2020 Maximum of primary energy to Primary energy factors Residential buildings (houses, hotels, etc.) Non-residential buildings (offices, schools, institutions and other buildings) /A in kwh/m²a /A in kwh/m²a /A in kwh/m²a /A in kwh/m²a 20 kwh/m²a 25 kwh/m²a Electricity District heating Federation of European Heating, Ventilation and Air-conditioning Associations

14 Liginullenergiahooned Eestis Defineeritud ja nõuded toodud MTM määruses nr 55 ( , jõustus ) Energiatõhususe miinimumnõuded Liginullenergiahoonete ehitamine ei ole kohustuslik, kuid selleks, et nimetada hoonet liginullenergiahooneks tuleb täita määruse nr 55 nõue energiatõhususarvu piirväärtus Energiatõhususarvude piirväärtused ehitatavatele ja oluliselt rekonstrueeritavatele hoonetele Hoone kasutusotstarve Liginullenergia- Madalenergia- Miinimum- Oluline hoone hoone nõue rekonstrueerimine A B C D kwh/(m 2 a) kwh/(m 2 a) kwh/(m 2 a) kwh/(m 2 a) Väikeelamutes Korterelamutes Büroohoonetes, raamatukogudes ja teadushoonetes Ärihoonetes Avalikes hoonetes Kaubandushoonetes ja terminalides Haridushoonetes Koolieelsetes lasteasutustes Tervishoiuhoonetes

15 Uued uuringud Kuluoptimaalse energiatõhususe tasemed (MKM) uutes ja oluliselt rekonstrueeritavates hoonetes mis on 5 a jooksul muutunud? Liginullenergia eluhoonete tüüplahendused (KredEx) Töötab välja tüüplahendused elamutele: Näidisprojektide kujul (5 hoone joonised ja seletuskirjad) Juhendmaterjalide kujul (üksikelamud vs. rida ja korterelamud) Energiatõhususe arvutusmetoodika arendused määruste uuendamise sisendiks Tallinn University of Technology

16 NPV arvutus näitab liginullenergia investeeringu tasuvust Liginullenergia hoone ETA 100 kwh/(m 2 a) Kuluoptimaalsus +PV paneelid 15 kw Algne hoone ΔNPV, /m Soojavee kollektor ETA, kwh/(m 2 a)

17 Liginullenergiahoone mõiste Parima võimaliku ehituspraktika kohaselt energiatõhusus- ja taastuvenergiatehnoloogiate lahendustega tehniliselt mõistlikult ehitatud hoone Liginullenergia

18 Primary energy factors (PEF) in OAS ISO/FDIS :2016 To calculate primary energy indicator and renewable energy ratio RER, a full set of primary energy factors are defined in OAS: Total primary energy factor (f Ptot ); Non-renewable primary energy factor (f Pnren ); Renewable primary energy factor (f Pren ). By default, non-renewable factors are needed for the primary energy indicator calculation (Weighted overall energy balance: delivered minus exported) To calculate RER (optional), total primary energy factors are needed 18 Federation of European Heating, Ventilation and Air-conditioning Associations

19 Federation of European Heating, Ventilation and Air-conditioning Associations

20 Wider scope of weighting factors Recognized by OAS that there are more than one bases to calculate weighting factors The weighted energy performance can be calculated with any of the following types of weighting: primary energy, which can be non-renewable (EP nren ), renewable (EP ren ) and total (EP tot ), see 9.6.2; greenhouse gas emissions, see 9.6.3; additional weighting factors, see 9.6.4; costs, see Federation of European Heating, Ventilation and Air-conditioning Associations

21 Austria Belgium Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Ireland (dwellings) Ireland (non-res) Latvia Lithuania Malta Poland Portugal Spain Spain Sweden Slovakia Netherland UK CEN non-ren. def. Grid electricity PEF, - CA EPBD data Grid electricity PEF CEN non-renewable default PEF= Federation of European Heating, Ventilation and Air-conditioning Associations

22 District heating PEF, - CA EPBD data District heating PEF Available only in limited number of countries Federation of European Heating, Ventilation and Air-conditioning Associations

23 Austria Belgium Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland Germany Ireland Lithuania Malta Norway Netherlands Poland Portugal Spain Slovakia UK CEN nren def. Biomass PEF, - Biomass PEF CEN nren default PEF=0.2 means that in the case of biomass boiler there is no need to insulate the building Correct from energetic point of view Conflicts with biofuel cost Conflicts with resource availability MS have evidently combined these aspects as national PEFs are close to 1 with very few exceptions Rewarding principle can be seen only in EST and FI Federation of European Heating, Ventilation and Air-conditioning Associations

24 Kaugkütte kaalumistegurid Kaalumistegurite ettepanek, lähtudes kaugküttevõrkudes soojuse tootmiseks kasutatavatest kütustest ning tehnoloogiatest (täpsemalt Eduard Latõšovi ettekandes) : kehtiv kaugkütte kaalumistegur 0,90 jääb baaskaalumisteguriks; tõhusa kaugkütte puhul kaugkütte kaalumistegur 0,40; eriti tõhusa kaugkütte puhul kaugkütte kaalumistegur 0,15. Keskmine indikatiivne kaugküttesoojuse käibemaksuta hind lõpptarbijatele aruande koostamise hetkel: eeldatavalt eriti tõhusates kaugküttevõrkudes euro/mwh eeldatavalt tõhusatest kaugküttevõrkudes euro/mwh eeldatavalt mitte tõhusates kaugküttevõrkudes sõltuvalt kasutatavast põhikütusest kas euro/mwh (maagaas) või euro/mwh (kütteõlid).

25 Eriti tõhusad kaugküttevõrgud Eriti tõhusad kaugküttevõrgud, soojuse käibemaksuta piirhinnad lõpptarbijatele on alljärgnevad: Tallinna võrgupiirkond: 49,96 euro/mwh; Tartu võrgupiirkond: 53,35 euro/mwh; Pärnu võrgupiirkond: 53,29 euro/mwh; Kuressaare: 44,49 euro/mwh; Paide: 47,16 euro/mwh; Rakvere võrgupiirkond: 54,07 euro/mwh.

26 Kuluoptimaalsuse arvutus (ilma päikesepaneelideta) Kaugkütte maksumus /kwh Kaalumistegur 0.9 Kuluoptimaalne

27 Kaugkütte maksumus 0.03 /kwh Kaalumistegur 0.9 Muutuse mõju 4 ETA ühikut Kuluoptimaalne

28 Kaugkütte maksumus 0.03 /kwh Kaalumistegur 0.8 Kaalumisteguri muutuse mõju 5 ETA ühikut

29 Kaugkütte maksumus 0.03 /kwh Kaalumistegur 0.75 Kaalumisteguri muutuse mõju 7 ETA ühikut

30 Kaugkütte maksumus 0.03 /kwh Kaalumistegur 0.5 Tulemusena liginullenergiahoone ilma lokaalse taastuvata

31 Kokkuvõte Võimalik tõhusa kaugkütte kaalumistegur: 0,8 kuluoptimaalsuse mõjuga võrdne 0,75 ca 2 korda suurem mõju Kaheastmeline differentseerimine on piisav: tavalised ja tõhusad kaugküttevõrgud Kaugkütte kaalumistegurit ei saa vaadelda ainult kütuste sisendi aspektist, oluline arvestada kuluoptimaalsuse ja ressursitõhususe aspekte, millest tulenevalt nt taastuvkütuse kaalumistegur on Eesti metoodikas 0,75

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