DEVELOPMENT OF BIOMASS ENERGY SYSTEMS IN ECUADOR

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1 DEVELOPMENT OF BIOMASS ENERGY SYSTEMS IN ECUADOR Prepared by Salman Zafar BioEnergy Consult (Aligarh, INDIA) and Carlos Serrano Decker TECAM Ltd. (Guayaquil, ECUADOR) May 2009

2 What is Biomass? Any material derived from plants that use sunlight to grow. Wood from forests, agricultural residues, and organic industrial, human and animal wastes etc.

3 Major Sources of Biomass in Ecuador Agricultural Residues Animal Manure Woody Biomass Bio-solids and Industrial Effluents Municipal Solid Wastes / Sewage Algae

4 Woody Biomass Forest and harvesting residues Municipal wood waste Wood processing residue Horticultural residue Short-rotation forestry

5 Agricultural Residues Straw (from crops like Wheat, Oat, Barley) Corn Stover Crop Residues (Leaves, Stalks etc.) Husk (from Rice and Coffee) Green Crop Residues (Soybean tops) Energy Crops

6 Animal Manure Livestock waste Dairy cattle waste Poultry litter

7 Municipal Solid Wastes Household waste Institutional waste Garbage Street sweeping Sewage sludge Food residuals from hotels, restaurants etc.

8 Bio-solids and Industrial Effluents Agro-industrial wastes Food processing wastes Slaughterhouse wastes Tannery effluent Sugar mill effluent Distillery effluent

9 Algal Biomass Marine algae Seaweed

10 A Glance at Biomass Conversion Technologies Power Generation Electricity Thermochemical Processes CHP Gasification Electricity, Heat Gas for Fuel BIOMASS Pyrolysis Heavy Oil Biochemical Processes Fermentation Anaerobic Digestion Ethanol Biogas

11 Major Energy Pathways Thermochemical Pathway o Combustion o Gasification o Pyrolysis Biochemical Pathway o Anaerobic digestion o Fermentation

12 Major Biomass Conversion Pathways Thermal Biological Excess air Partial air No Air Pretreatment AD Combustion Gasification Pyrolysis Fermentation Heat Fuel Gases (CO + H 2 ) Liquids Ethanol Biogas H 2

13 Comparison of Heating Value of Important Biomass and Conventional Energy Resources Type of Fuel Heating Value, MJ/kg Dry Wood 18 Dry Rice Husk 13 Coconut Fiber 17 Dry Cow Dung 14 Charcoal 24 Coal 27 Diesel 46 LPG 45

14 Residues Generation Potential of Agricultural Crops Crops Crop wastes Residues production Rice Straw, husk, bran 1.5t of straw and 0.2t of husk from 1t of rice Wheat Straw, husk, bran 2t of residues from 1t of wheat seed Maize Stalk, leaves 6t of waste from 1t of maize Sorghum Straw, bran 2.5t of residues from 1t of sorghum seed Barley Straw, bran 1.5t of straw from 1t of barley Millet Straw, bran 2t of residue from 1t of millet produced Coffee Pulp, husk 3.6t of waste from 1t of green coffee Coco Hull, fibre 0.9t of waste from 1t of coconut Palm oil Shell, fibre, fruit bunches 75%; waste from weight of fruit bunch

15 Pictorial Representation of Agricultural Residues-based Biomass Energy System

16 Sources and Types of Municipal Solid Wastes Sources Typical waste generators Types of solid waste Residential Single and multi-family dwellings Food wastes, paper, cardboard, plastics, textiles, glass, metals, ashes, special wastes (bulky items, consumer electronics, batteries, oil, tires) and household hazardous wastes Commercial Stores, hotels, restaurants, markets, office buildings Institutional Schools, government center, hospitals, prisons Municipal Street cleaning, landscaping, parks, beaches, recreational areas Paper, cardboard, plastics, wood, food wastes, glass, metals, special wastes, hazardous wastes Paper, cardboard, plastics, wood, food wastes, glass, metals, special wastes, hazardous wastes Street sweepings, landscape and tree trimmings, general wastes from parks, beaches, and other recreational areas

17 A Glance at Woody Biomass Resources

18 Wood-residues from Forestry-based Industries Process Type of Residue Percentage of Residue Logging Solid 40 Saw-milling Solid 38 Saw-milling Sawdust 12 Plywood Solid 45 Plywood Dust 5 Particle board Dust 10 Fibre board Dust 10 Chemical pulpwood Black liquor 2.27 m 3 /ton

19 Different Routes for Biomass Conversion into Energy Products and Services Resource Processes Biofuels Energy Services Agricultural residues Densification Combustion Gasification Pyrolysis Pellets Briquettes Bales Biodiesel Heat Electricity Transport Wood residues Densification Esterification Combustion Gasification Pyrolysis Pellets Briquettes Heat Electricity Transport Organic industrial wastes Digestion Hydrolysis Gasification Biogas Bioethanol Solvents Heat Electricity Transport Municipal wastes Digestion Combustion Gasification RDF Biogas Heat Electricity

20 Biomass Conversion Technologies and their Products Technologies Conversion Process Feedstock Products Combustion Gasification Thermochemical Woody biomass Agricultural residues Municipal solid waste Heat Process Steam Electricity Producer Gas Pyrolysis Bio-Oil Charcoal Anaerobic Digestion Bio-ethanol Production Biochemical Animal manure Agricultural residues Industrial effluents OFMSW Algae Sugar or starch crops Wood waste Pulp sludge Straw Biogas Bio-fertilizer Ethanol Biodiesel Production Chemical Waste vegetable oil Animal fat Energy crops Biodiesel

21 Overview of Biomass Conversion Technologies Conversion Option Typical Capacity Net Efficiency Status and Deployment Biogas production via anaerobic digestion Combined heat and power (CHP) Combustion for power generation Upto several MW e 10 15% (electrical) Widely applied MW e % (overall) Widely deployed > 100 MW e 20 40% (electrical) Well established Co-firing of biomass with coal MW e % (electrical) Widely deployed Gasification/CHP using gas engines Gasification using combined cycles for electricity Pyrolysis for production of bio-oil MW e 15 30% (electrical) 60 80% (overall) MW e 40 50% (electrical) tons per hour 60 80% for bio-oil and 85% for oil and char Deployment limited Demonstration phase at 5-10 MWe range Commercial technology available.

22 Biomass Energy Systems Fuel Specifications and Capacity Range Technology Type of fuel Particle size requirement Moisture content Average capacity requirement (wet basis) Stove / Furnace Solid wood, pressed logs, wood chips, Limited by stove size and 10 30% 15 kwt pellets opening Pile burners Wood residues, agricultural residues Limited by grate size and feed opening < 65% 4 to 110 MWe Pile burner fed with under-fire Sawdust, shavings, chips, non-stringy 6 38 mm 10 30% 4 to 110 MWe stoker bark, hog fuel Stoker grate boilers Sawdust, shavings, chips, end-cuts, nonstringy 6 50 mm 10 50% MWe bark, hog fuel Suspension boilers Sawdust, non-stringy bark, sander dust, 1-6 mm < 20% MWe (cyclonic and air-spreader) shavings, wood flour, sawdust Fluidized-bed combustor Low alkali content fuels, mostly wood residues or peat < 50 mm < 60% MWe Co-firing Sawdust, shavings, non-stringy bark, < 6 mm < 25% upto 1500 MWe (pulverized coal boilers) flour, sander dust Co-firing Sawdust, shavings, non-stringy bark, < 12 mm 10 50% MWe (cyclones) flour, sander dust Co-firing Sawdust, shavings, non-stringy bark, < 72 mm % - (stokers, fluidized bed) flour, hog fuel Counter-current fixed-bed updraft gasifiers Chipped wood, hog fuel, rice hull, dried sewage sludge mm < 20% 5 90 MWt + 12MWe Downdraft moving-bed updraft Wood chips, pellets, wood scrapes, nut < 50 mm < 15% kwe gasifier shells Circulating fluidized bed, dualvessel, Almost all wood and agricultural 6 50 mm 15 50% 5 10 MWe gasifier residues Fast pyrolysis Wide range of wood and agricultural residues 1 6 mm < 10% 2.5 MWe Anaerobic digester Animal manures, food processing residues, industrial wastewaters n.a. 65 to 99.9 % liquid depending on type of waste 10 kwe to several MWe

23 Biomass Combustion Simplest and most common technology for biomass utilization. Biomass fuel is burnt in excess of air to produce heat. Hot air, hot water and steam are the main products.

24 Schematic of a Heat Plant

25 Co-firing of Coal and Biomass at Zeran CHP Plant in Poland

26 Straw is co-fired with Coal in Denmark

27 CHP - Combined Heat and Power (or Cogeneration) Simultaneous production of heat and power with upto 90% efficiency

28 Technology Options for Biomass CHP

29 CHP Prime Movers

30 Layout of a Cogeneration (or CHP) Plant

31 Schematic of a fuel preparation plant to handle biomass wastes, municipal solid wastes and sludge.

32 Biomass Gasification The process takes place in limited air at C. Final fuel gas, termed as Producer Gas, consist of carbon monoxide, hydrogen and methane. Calorific value of producer gas is 4 6 MJ/Nm 3. Producer gas is utilized in turbines to generate power. A wide range of biomass resources can be subjected to gasification.

33 Schematic of Biomass Gasification Process Biomass Feedstock Clean Gases (CO 2, H 2, N 2 ) Gasification Reactor Syngas, CO, H 2, N 2, dust, tars Boiler + Steam Turbine (Rankine Steam Cycle) Air (O 2, N 2 ) Ash Syngas Cleaning Electricity Gas Engine

34 Types of Gasifiers (Design Basis: Fuel Properties, End-use, Scale and Cost) Updraft Downdraft Fluidized Bed o Bubbling o Circulating Flow Entrained Flow Staged (pyrolysis / steam reforming)

35 Biomass Gasification Plant

36 Biomass Gasifier at Vermont (USA) 200 tons of wood chips daily Forest thinnings; wood pallets Converted to gas at ~1850 ºF Combined cycle gas turbine 8MW power output

37 Biomass Pyrolysis Pyrolysis involves combustion in absence or restricted supply of air. The products are o A solid ( char or charcoal) o A liquid (bio-oil) o A mixture of gases (CO, H 2 and N 2 ) Ratio of products varies with biomass composition and operating conditions. Bio-oil has been tested for use in engines, boilers and turbines.

38 Schematic of MSW Gasification and Power Generation Plant

39 Schematic of Biomass Pyrolysis BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION via PYROLYSIS Biomass Catalytic Conversion to Hydrogen (Optional) Pyrolysis (550 0 C, no air) Heat Vapors Condensation Liquids Power Generation Combustion Char Gases (H 2, CO, CH 4, C 2 H 2, C 2 H 4)

40 Feedstock and Products in Biomass Pyrolysis Combustion Fuel PYROLYSIS Agricultural Residues Fuel for Engines and Turbines Fuel Upgrade Wood-based Residues Bio-Diesel Gasification to Syngas Short-rotation Crops

41 Schematic of Biomass Pyrolysis Plant

42 Products of Fast Pyrolysis Process

43 Anaerobic Digestion Microbial decomposition of biomass in closed tanks (known as anaerobic digesters). High energy value gas, called Biogas (a mixture of Methane and CO 2 ), is produced. Good-quality fertilizer is also produced in the form of digestate. The process finds wide application in animal feedlots, dairies, agricultural farms etc.

44 Feedstock for Anaerobic Digestion Plants

45 Composition of Biogas

46 Applications of Biogas

47 Schematic of an agricultural co-digestion biogas plant based on slurry, organic wastes and energy crops

48 Biogas-fired 1 MW Gas Engine at a Dairy Complex in Punjab, India

49 This Filling Station in Laholm (Sweden) supplies biogas via the natural gas grid to a growing number of light duty vehicles and lorries

50 Production of Ethanol from Biomass Biomass Handling Enzyme Production Ethanol Biomass Pretreatment Cellulose Hydrolysis Glucose Fermentation Ethanol Recovery Pentose Fermentation Lignin Utilization

51 Production of Ethanol from Cellulosic Biomass

52 A Lignocellulose Biomass-based Biorefinery in Sweden

53 Thank you! BioEnergy Consult Towards a Clean Energy Future

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