Mikko Hupa Åbo Akademi Turku, Finland

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Mikko Hupa Åbo Akademi Turku, Finland"

Transcription

1 Åbo Akademi Chemical Engineering Department Course The Forest based Biorefinery Chemical and Engineering Challenges and Opportunities May 3-7, 2010 Thermal conversion of biomass Mikko Hupa Åbo Akademi Turku, Finland

2 Thermal conversion of biomass -Outline 1. Introduction 2. Combustion and biomass fuel properties p 3. Gasification to produce combustible gas 4. Gasification to produce synthesis gas 5. Pyrolysis to produce bio-oil 6. Black liquor: recovery boiler or gasifier? 7. Summary

3 Use of Wood in Finland (VTT 2000)

4 Use of Wood in Finland (VTT 2000)

5 Kraft Pulp Mill pulping chemicals paper pulp stemwood chipping chips pulping round wood debarking black liquor forest harvesting bark pulping chemicals com- bustion heat & power emissions ash

6 Kraft Pulp Mill & Biorefinery pulping chemicals paper pulp stemwood chipping chips pulping forest round wood harvesting debarking bark extraction P knots extraction extraction P P black liquor separation P P residues heat & power recycling pulping chemicals com- bustion ---- gasifica- tion emissions synthesis gas ash biofuels (l) () synthesis P

7 Conversion Routes for Cellulosic Biomasses Heat & Power SynGas (CO 2 +H 2 ) Combustion Fischer-Tropsch Methanol Heat & Power Alkanes Methanol, DME Water-Gas Shift Hydrogen Cellulosic Biomass Pyrolysis etc. Bio-oilsoils Dehydroxygenation Zeolite Upgrading Liquid Fuels Fermentation Ethanol Aqueous Sugars Dehydration Aq.-Phase Processing Aromatic Hydrocarbons Liq. Alkanes or H 2 Lignin Lignin Upgrading Etherified Gasoline

8 Conversion Routes for Cellulosic Biomasses Heat & Power SynGas (CO 2 +H 2 ) Combustion Fischer-Tropsch Methanol Heat & Power Alkanes Methanol, DME Water-Gas Shift Hydrogen Cellulosic Biomass Pyrolysis etc. Bio-oilsoils Dehydroxygenation Zeolite Upgrading Liquid Fuels Fermentation Ethanol Aqueous Sugars Dehydration Aq.-Phase Processing Aromatic Hydrocarbons Liq. Alkanes or H 2 Lignin Lignin Upgrading Etherified Gasoline

9 Thermal conversion of biomass -Outline 1. Introduction 2. Combustion and biomass fuel properties p 3. Gasification to produce combustible gas 4. Gasification to produce synthesis gas 5. Pyrolysis to produce bio-oil 6. Black liquor: recovery boiler or gasifier? 7. Summary

10 Conversion Routes for Cellulosic Biomasses Heat & Power SynGas (CO 2 +H 2 ) Combustion Fischer-Tropsch Methanol Heat & Power Alkanes Methanol, DME Water-Gas Shift Hydrogen Cellulosic Biomass Pyrolysis etc. Bio-oilsoils Dehydroxygenation Zeolite Upgrading Liquid Fuels Fermentation Ethanol Aqueous Sugars Dehydration Aq.-Phase Processing Aromatic Hydrocarbons Liq. Alkanes or H 2 Lignin Lignin Upgrading Etherified Gasoline

11 N 2 Vent. O 2 CO 2 pump pump SO 2 CO/CO 2 Filter NO Vent. Single Particle Burning System (Source: Åbo Akademi)

12 Single Particle Burning of Wood 92.6 mg 800 ºC 21 % O 2 (air)

13 Fuel Particle Burning Stages H 2 O CO, CO 2, H 2 O Combustion of a solid fuel Solid fuel Air Drying O 2 CO, CO 2 C x H y O 2 Pyrolysis/ devolatilisation and gas combustion Char combustion Ah Ash

14 4 % Single Particle Burning On-line CO2 Analysis CO 2 fo ormation 3% 2 % 1 % 0 % time (seconds)

15 Single Particle Burning Volatile Carbon vs. Char Carbon pm) Volatile carbon CO 2 (p Char carbon time

16 Bubbling Fluidized Bed Boiler (Metso Power) E.ON UK Steven s Croft Power Station Lockerbie UK Steam 126 MW th 48 kg/s 137 bar 537 C Fuels Wood chips, sawdust, bark, recycled wood Start-up 2007

17 Bubbling Fuidzed Bed Boiler (Metso Power) Secondary superheater Tertiary superheater Primary superheater Fuel silos Economizers Furnace Air preheaters Fluidized bed Hydro Beam floor

18 Bubbling Fluidized Bed Furnace Boiler furnace Load burners Fluidized bed Hydro Beam Floor Overfire air Fuel feeding Primary air Removal of coarse material

19 Use of Wood in Finland (VTT 2000)

20

21

22 Five Spruce Tissues Wood Bark Twigs Needles Shoots

23 Ash Elements in Spruce Tissues Ash Elements in Spruce Tissues (J. Werkelin 2005)

24 Fouling and Corrosion due to Unsuitable Fuel Mixture

25 Summary 1: Biomass Combustion for Heat & Power Dominating biomass-to-energy technology Finland strong with FBC technology Research on demanding feedstocks: moisture, heating value, ash, emissions Research on improved power production controlling superheater corrosion

26 Thermal conversion of biomass -Outline 1. Introduction 2. Combustion and biomass fuel properties p 3. Gasification to produce combustible gas 4. Gasification to produce synthesis gas 5. Pyrolysis to produce bio-oil 6. Black liquor: recovery boiler or gasifier? 7. Summary

27 Conversion Routes for Cellulosic Biomasses Heat & Power SynGas (CO 2 +H 2 ) Combustion Fischer-Tropsch Methanol Heat & Power Alkanes Methanol, DME Water-Gas Shift Hydrogen Cellulosic Biomass Pyrolysis etc. Bio-oilsoils Dehydroxygenation Zeolite Upgrading Liquid Fuels Fermentation Ethanol Aqueous Sugars Dehydration Aq.-Phase Processing Aromatic Hydrocarbons Liq. Alkanes or H 2 Lignin Lignin Upgrading Etherified Gasoline

28 What Happens in a Gasifier? Moisture Volatiles, tars H 2, CO Drying Pyrolysis Char gasification Droplet Solids Char Ash CO 2, H 2 O

29 What Happens in a Gasifier? Product gas / Syn Gas Moisture Volatiles, tars H 2, CO Drying Pyrolysis Char gasification Droplet Solids Char Ash CO 2, H 2 O

30 CFB Gasifier REACTOR UNIFLOW CYCLONE Foster Wheeler 850 C GASIFICATION AIR FAN FUEL FEED 900 C RETURN LEG AIR PREHEATER COOLING WATER HOT LOW CALORIFIC GAS ( C) BOTTOM ASH COOLING SCREW BOTTOM ASH

31 BIOMASS GASIFICATION - COAL BOILER - LAHTI PROJECT 350 MW 540 C/170 bar Biomass 300 GWh/a -15 % fuel input CO 2 Reduction - 10 % Processing 50 MW Pulverized coal flames Power * 600 GWh/a District Heat * 1000 GWh/a Gasifier Gas flame Bottom Coal 1050 GWh/a -50 % Natural Gas 650 GWh/a -35 % ash Fly ash Foster Wheeler

32 Summary 2: Biomass Gasification & Combustion of the Gas for Heat & Power Simple process de facto partial oxidation of the fuel into a combustible gas mixture (air ratio %) Used instead of direct combustion in special applications: lime kilns, co-firing i with coal Challenges to achieve complete conversion of the biomass fuel

33 Thermal conversion of biomass -Outline 1. Introduction 2. Combustion and biomass fuel properties p 3. Gasification to produce combustible gas 4. Gasification to produce synthesis gas 5. Pyrolysis to produce bio-oil 6. Black liquor: recovery boiler or gasifier? 7. Summary

34 Conversion Routes for Cellulosic Biomasses Heat & Power SynGas (CO 2 +H 2 ) Combustion Fischer-Tropsch Methanol Heat & Power Alkanes Methanol, DME Water-Gas Shift Hydrogen Cellulosic Biomass Pyrolysis etc. Bio-oilsoils Dehydroxygenation Zeolite Upgrading Liquid Fuels Fermentation Ethanol Aqueous Sugars Dehydration Aq.-Phase Processing Aromatic Hydrocarbons Liq. Alkanes or H 2 Lignin Lignin Upgrading Etherified Gasoline

35 Biodiesel Production in Pulp Mill Paper & pulp p Process steam & power power plant Pulp and paper mill Energy to drying Gasification and gas treatment fuel gas + steam Wood, straw energy crops, peat, RDF Biomass handling and drying bark, forest residues, other biomass steam & oxygen synthesis -gas FT-synthesis & upgrading WoodDiesel

36 Pressurized Gasifier for Syngas Production (VTT)

37 Stora Enso Neste BTL Gasification Projet UCG Long term demonstration Commercial scale R&D programme in atmospheric conditions MWth pressurized => unit in operation

38 Biomass Gasifier for Biodiesel Demo by Stora Enso Neste in Varkaus,,Finland

39 Summary 3: Biomass Gasification for Synthesis gas and Liquid Biofuels Under development no plants in operation (applied for coal in South-Africa) Demanding technology: Pressurized, oxygen blown gasifier Advanced syngas cleaning Various options for synthesis: FT Diesel, Methanol, DME Very hot topic political pressure

40 Thermal conversion of biomass -Outline 1. Introduction 2. Combustion and biomass fuel properties p 3. Gasification to produce combustible gas 4. Gasification to produce synthesis gas 5. Pyrolysis to produce bio-oil 6. Black liquor: recovery boiler or gasifier? 7. Summary

41 Conversion Routes for Cellulosic Biomasses Heat & Power SynGas (CO 2 +H 2 ) Combustion Fischer-Tropsch Methanol Heat & Power Alkanes Methanol, DME Water-Gas Shift Hydrogen Cellulosic Biomass Pyrolysis etc. Bio-oilsoils Dehydroxygenation Zeolite Upgrading Liquid Fuels Fermentation Ethanol Aqueous Sugars Dehydration Aq.-Phase Processing Aromatic Hydrocarbons Liq. Alkanes or H 2 Lignin Lignin Upgrading Etherified Gasoline

42 Thermal conversion of biomass -Outline 1. Introduction 2. Combustion and biomass fuel properties p 3. Gasification to produce combustible gas 4. Gasification to produce synthesis gas 5. Pyrolysis to produce bio-oil 6. Black liquor: recovery boiler or gasifier? 7. Summary

43 85 m 15 m Tomlinson kattila, 1937 Wisaforest, 2005

44 Fray Bentos, Uruguay (Andritz)

45 Hainan Jinhai, Kiina (Metso 2007)

46 Kraft Pulp Mill Black liquor 15% solids Steam turbine Steam (power) Process steam Pulp Chips Digester Na 2 CO 3 Na 2 SO 4 CaCO 3 White liquor NaOH Na 2 S Black liquor concentration Lime kiln Causticizing i i CaO Black Liquor 75% solids Flue gas Recovery boiler Na 2 CO 3 Na 2 SO 4 Na Smelt 2 CO 3 Na 2 S Green liquor Na 2 CO 3 Na 2 S Dissolving tank Water

47 The Pulp Mill as a Biorefinery for Production of Transportation ti Fuels Chips Hemicellulose Digester Hemicellulose extraction Fermentation Ethanol Pulp Black liquor White liquor Gasification Syngas cleaning Syngas conversion Synthesis gas Hydrocarbons Methanol

48 Black Liquor Gasification for Syngas (Chemrec) Oxygen Black liquor Gasifier Gas cooler Fuel gas S-rich gas Synthesis of: - Methanol - DME - FT Hydrocarbons Quench Water Green liquor Condensate Absorber / Stripper

49 Summary 5: Biorefinery & Energy 1. Biomass molecules can be extracted as valuable chemicals (fractionation) 2. Biomass can be converted thermally to heat and/or power - combustion (commericial) - gasification for combustion on (commercial) 3. Residues may also be used for production of liquid biofuels: - pyrolysis for bio-oil (under development) - gasification for synthesis (under development) 4. Need for intense ns research: The devil is in the (chemical) details

Biomass Gasification IEA Task 33 Country Report - Finland Piteå, Sweden

Biomass Gasification IEA Task 33 Country Report - Finland Piteå, Sweden Biomass Gasification IEA Task 33 Country Report - Finland ESA KURKELA 18.10.2011 Piteå, Sweden 2 OIL COAL BIOMASS WASTE/SRF GASIFICATION 800-1400 o C A I R S T E A M G A S C L E A N I N G SYNGAS (CO +

More information

Three-dimensional modelling of steam-oxygen gasification in a circulating fluidized bed

Three-dimensional modelling of steam-oxygen gasification in a circulating fluidized bed Lappeenranta University of Technology From the SelectedWorks of Kari Myöhänen June, 2012 Three-dimensional modelling of steam-oxygen gasification in a circulating fluidized bed Kari Myöhänen, Lappeenranta

More information

Pyrolysis and Gasification

Pyrolysis and Gasification Pyrolysis and Gasification of Biomass Tony Bridgwater Bioenergy Research Group Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK Biomass, conversion and products Starch & sugars Residues Biological conversion Ethanol;

More information

Biomass Gasification IEA Task 33 Country Report - Finland. Ilkka Hiltunen & Esa Kurkela Vienna, Austria

Biomass Gasification IEA Task 33 Country Report - Finland. Ilkka Hiltunen & Esa Kurkela Vienna, Austria Biomass Gasification IEA Task 33 Country Report - Finland Ilkka Hiltunen & Esa Kurkela 16.11.2012 Vienna, Austria 2 Characteristics of the energy sector in Finland Versatile structure of energy production

More information

Fluidized Bed Combustion of Biomass and Waste-derived Fuels Current Status and Challenges

Fluidized Bed Combustion of Biomass and Waste-derived Fuels Current Status and Challenges Waste-To-Energy Research and Technology Council, WTERT 2005 Fall Meeting at Columbia University New York City, October 20-21, 2005 Fluidized Bed Combustion of Biomass and Waste-derived Fuels Current Status

More information

Combustion Processes in the Forest Products Industry

Combustion Processes in the Forest Products Industry Combustion Processes in the Forest Products Industry An informal presentation by Kenneth M. Nichols, Weyerhaeuser Company Presented to Students and Faculty of the University of Washington at the ME 523

More information

Smart CHP from Biomass and Waste

Smart CHP from Biomass and Waste Smart CHP from Biomass and Waste It Cost Money to Throw Energy Away Gasification Technology Conference William (Bill) Partanen, P.E October 13-16, 2013 Colorado Springs, CO. SRF and RDF and recycled wood

More information

Introduction to Kraft process - Black liquor and The black liquor recovery boiler

Introduction to Kraft process - Black liquor and The black liquor recovery boiler Introduction to Kraft process - Black liquor and The black liquor recovery boiler Black liquor Kraft chemical pulping Fibers Fibers Lignin etc. + Pulping chemicals (Na 2 S, NaOH) Wood 155 C 900 kpa (Honghi

More information

Synthesis Gas Production from Biomass

Synthesis Gas Production from Biomass Gasification Technologies Conference 2011, October 9-12 San Francisco CA Andras Horvath, Kari Salo, Jim Patel www.andritz.com ANDRITZ Company Profile Business Groups Electromechanical equipment for hydropower

More information

Conversion of Biomass Particles

Conversion of Biomass Particles Conversion of Biomass Particles Prof.dr.ir. Gerrit Brem Energy Technology (CTW) 4th of March 2015, Enschede Contents of the lecture Conversion of Biomass Particles Introduction on Sustainable Energy Energy

More information

BFB (bubbling fluidized bed) Power Plants (CHP) Fuel: RDF or Biomass CHP

BFB (bubbling fluidized bed) Power Plants (CHP) Fuel: RDF or Biomass CHP BFB (bubbling fluidized bed) Power Plants (CHP) Fuel: RDF or Biomass CHP BFB power plant project (CHP) BFB plant is a ready-made, functional power plant. The project is handled from design through to commissioning

More information

Efficient Integration of Biofuel and Chemical Production Processes with Pulp Mills and Energy Production

Efficient Integration of Biofuel and Chemical Production Processes with Pulp Mills and Energy Production Efficient Integration of Biofuel and Chemical Production Processes with Pulp Mills and Energy Production Kristian Melin*, Markku Hurme and Kari Parviainen Aalto University School of Chemical Technology

More information

INTEGRATED HEAT, ELECTRICITY AND BIO-OIL PRODUCTION. IEA Biomass Task 34 Meeting in Chicago Jani Lehto, Metso Pekka Jokela, UPM

INTEGRATED HEAT, ELECTRICITY AND BIO-OIL PRODUCTION. IEA Biomass Task 34 Meeting in Chicago Jani Lehto, Metso Pekka Jokela, UPM INTEGRATED HEAT, ELECTRICITY AND BIO-OIL PRODUCTION IEA Biomass Task 34 Meeting in Chicago 15-09-2009 Jani Lehto, Metso Pekka Jokela, UPM Contents Metso Metso and UPM Bio-oil Development Project Joint

More information

Tappi International Bioenergy and Biochemicals Conference

Tappi International Bioenergy and Biochemicals Conference Advanced Clean Technology for Biomass Conversion to Bioenergy, Fuels, and Chemicals Tappi International Bioenergy and Biochemicals Conference Memphis TN Agenda TRI Overview TRI Thermochemical Platform

More information

Gasification of SRF. Matti Nieminen. IEA Bioenergy Workshop on Production and utilisation options for Solid Recovered Fuels Dublin, 20th October 2011

Gasification of SRF. Matti Nieminen. IEA Bioenergy Workshop on Production and utilisation options for Solid Recovered Fuels Dublin, 20th October 2011 Waste to Energy Gasification of SRF Matti Nieminen VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland IEA Bioenergy Workshop on Production and utilisation options for Solid Recovered Fuels Dublin, 20th October 2011

More information

Biofuels and Biorefineries

Biofuels and Biorefineries Biofuels and Biorefineries Stella Bezergianni, Angelos Lappas, and Iacovos Vasalos Laboratory of Environmental Fuels and Hydrocarbons (LEFH) (www.cperi.certh.gr) Center of Research & Technology Hellas

More information

Renewable Chemicals from the Forest Biorefinery

Renewable Chemicals from the Forest Biorefinery 11 th Annual Congress on Industrial Biotechnology May 12 15, 2014 Philadelphia, PA Renewable Chemicals from the Forest Biorefinery François Zasieczny, Mariya Marinova, Tom Browne, Michel Perrier The Forest

More information

We accept the challenge!

We accept the challenge! Synthesis Gas Generation for Transportation Fuel Production Gasification Technologies Conference 2014, October 26-29 Washington, DC Andras I. Horvath / ANDRITZ Oy, Niels R. Udengaard /Haldor Topsoe Inc.

More information

Biosyngas from forest product industry by-products and residues

Biosyngas from forest product industry by-products and residues Biosyngas from forest product industry by-products and residues 1 Presentation at the VETAANI Conference 9 April 2014 Prof Rikard Gebart Luleå University of Technology Feedstock use in the forest product

More information

Co-firing of biomass. Lecture on 10 th October Matti Nieminen VTT Technical research centre of Finland Ltd

Co-firing of biomass. Lecture on 10 th October Matti Nieminen VTT Technical research centre of Finland Ltd Co-firing of biomass Lecture on 10 th October 2017 Matti Nieminen VTT Technical research centre of Finland Ltd 2 Content Why biomass co-firing? What is co-firing? Co-firing Biomass fuel characteristics

More information

ABE 482 Environmental Engineering in Biosystems. September 29 Lecture 11

ABE 482 Environmental Engineering in Biosystems. September 29 Lecture 11 ABE 482 Environmental Engineering in Biosystems September 29 Lecture 11 Today Gasification & Pyrolysis Waste disposal balance Solid Waste Systems Solid Waste Air Limited air No air Combustion Gasification

More information

Fast pyrolysis demonstration - Increasing efficiency with integration to CHP. October 27, IEA Bioenergy 2015 Joakim Autio, Valmet Technologies

Fast pyrolysis demonstration - Increasing efficiency with integration to CHP. October 27, IEA Bioenergy 2015 Joakim Autio, Valmet Technologies Fast pyrolysis demonstration - Increasing efficiency with integration to CHP October 27, Joakim Autio, Valmet Technologies How to enable global economic growth without risking the world s sustainable future?

More information

DEVELOPMENTS IN HARNESSING OF BIO-MASS POWER

DEVELOPMENTS IN HARNESSING OF BIO-MASS POWER DEVELOPMENTS IN HARNESSING OF BIO-MASS POWER Biomass is a source of renewable energy which is biological material derived from living or recently living organisms such as wood, waste and alcohol fuels.

More information

Valmet in circular economy

Valmet in circular economy Valmet in circular economy Contents Valmet s position in circular economy How Valmet applies circular economy Enabling circular economy for customers Driving circular economy in own operations Some new

More information

Biofuels Research Opportunities in Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass

Biofuels Research Opportunities in Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass University of Massachusetts Amherst ScholarWorks@UMass Amherst Conference on Cellulosic Biofuels September 2008 Biofuels Research Opportunities in Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass Douglas Elliott PNL,

More information

Drying, devolatilization & char oxidation of solid fuel

Drying, devolatilization & char oxidation of solid fuel Drying, devolatilization & char oxidation of solid fuel Oskar Karlström Dr. Sc. Åbo Akademi 2017: Chemistry in Combustion Processes Solid fuel combustion Solid fuel combustion fuel In pulverized fuel combustion,

More information

Outline. Comparative Fast Pyrolysis of Agricultural Residues for Use in Biorefineries. ECI Bioenergy-II:

Outline. Comparative Fast Pyrolysis of Agricultural Residues for Use in Biorefineries. ECI Bioenergy-II: Comparative Fast Pyrolysis of Agricultural Residues for Use in Biorefineries Institute for Wood Technology and Wood Biology, amburg e ECI Bioenergy-II: Fuels and Chemicals from Renewable Resources Rio

More information

Thermochemical Technology Overview

Thermochemical Technology Overview Thermochemical Technology Overview Presented by Dr. Richard L. Bain, Principal Research Supervisor richard_bain@nrel.gov Biorefinery Analysis National Bioenergy Center Energy 2007 New Orleans, LA August

More information

Finnish Country Highlights Biomass Gasification in IEA Task 33 meeting May 2015, Ponferrada, Spain Ilkka Hannula

Finnish Country Highlights Biomass Gasification in IEA Task 33 meeting May 2015, Ponferrada, Spain Ilkka Hannula Finnish Country Highlights Biomass Gasification in 2015 IEA Task 33 meeting May 2015, Ponferrada, Spain Ilkka Hannula 2 PAST LARGE PROJECTS: Biomass and waste gasification for boilers and kilns Model:

More information

Green Fuel Nordic The Smart Way. Utilising RTP TM technology to produce sustainable 2 nd generation bio-oil from local feedstocks

Green Fuel Nordic The Smart Way. Utilising RTP TM technology to produce sustainable 2 nd generation bio-oil from local feedstocks Green Fuel Nordic The Smart Way Utilising RTP TM technology to produce sustainable 2 nd generation bio-oil from local feedstocks Abstract Transitioning to a low-carbon economy is one of the major global

More information

Commercial scale gasification to replace fossil fuel in power generation Vaskiluodon Voima140 MW CFB Gasification Project

Commercial scale gasification to replace fossil fuel in power generation Vaskiluodon Voima140 MW CFB Gasification Project Commercial scale gasification to replace fossil fuel in power generation Vaskiluodon Voima140 MW CFB Gasification Project IEA Bioenergy 27-29 October Berlin, Germany Juhani Isaksson Valmet Technologies

More information

Nitrogen oxide chemistry in combustion processes. Based on material originally by Prof. Mikko Hupa

Nitrogen oxide chemistry in combustion processes. Based on material originally by Prof. Mikko Hupa Nitrogen oxide chemistry in combustion processes Based on material originally by Prof. Mikko Hupa Background - NOx Nitrogen oxides, NO X = NO + NO 2 In combustion flue gases >95% NO and

More information

Transportation fuels from biomass via gasification route

Transportation fuels from biomass via gasification route Transportation fuels from biomass via gasification route From R&D to demonstration and flag ship plant www.vtt.fi/sites/btl2030/en www.comsynproject.eu BTL2030 project Esa Kurkela VTT Technical Research

More information

Paper Mill Repowering with Gasification

Paper Mill Repowering with Gasification Frontline Gasifier Benson, MN Paper Mill Repowering with Gasification Jerod Smeenk 2011 TAPPI IBBC Conference March 14, 2011 1 Repowering Options Looking Inside the Box Kiln replace fossil fuel with liquid

More information

Scale-up Method for High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification in Pressurised Entrained Flow Gasifiers

Scale-up Method for High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification in Pressurised Entrained Flow Gasifiers Scale-up Method for High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification in Pressurised Entrained Flow Gasifiers Magnus Marklund, Rikard Gebart, Ragnar Tegman, Chemrec AB 1 BLG DRIVING FORCE Wood chips Pulp White

More information

Introduction: Thermal treatment

Introduction: Thermal treatment Thermal Treatment 2 Introduction: Thermal treatment Technologies using high temperatures to treat waste (or RDF) Commonly involves thermal combustion (oxidation) Reduces waste to ash (MSW c. 30% of input)

More information

Finnish Country Summary Biomass Gasification in IEA Task 33 meeting, Göteborg Nov2013 Ilkka Hannula

Finnish Country Summary Biomass Gasification in IEA Task 33 meeting, Göteborg Nov2013 Ilkka Hannula Finnish Country Summary Biomass Gasification in 2013 IEA Task 33 meeting, Göteborg Nov2013 Ilkka Hannula 2 3 RECENT PROJECTS: Biomass and waste gasification for boilers and kilns 4 5 RECENT PROJECTS: Biomass

More information

LARGE-SCALE PRODUCTION OF FISCHER-TROPSCH DIESEL FROM BIOMASS

LARGE-SCALE PRODUCTION OF FISCHER-TROPSCH DIESEL FROM BIOMASS ECN-RX--04-119 LARGE-SCALE PRODUCTION OF FISCHER-TROPSCH DIESEL FROM BIOMASS Optimal gasification and gas cleaning systems H. Boerrigter A. van der Drift Presented at Congress on Synthetic Biofuels - Technologies,

More information

Research priorities for large scale heating and industrial processes

Research priorities for large scale heating and industrial processes Biomass Technology Panel Second Annual Conference of the European Technology Platform on Renewable Heating and Cooling 5-6 May 2011, Budapest, Hungary Research priorities for large scale heating and industrial

More information

Possible Role of a Biorefinery s Syngas Platform in a Biobased Economy Assessment in IEA Bioenergy Task 42 Biorefining

Possible Role of a Biorefinery s Syngas Platform in a Biobased Economy Assessment in IEA Bioenergy Task 42 Biorefining Possible Role of a Biorefinery s Syngas Platform in a Biobased Economy Assessment in IEA Bioenergy Task 42 Biorefining G. Jungmeier 1, R. Van Ree 2, E. de Jong 3, H. Jørgensen 4, P. Walsh 4, M. Wellisch

More information

Biomass Pyrolysis. Tony Bridgwater Bioenergy Research Group Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK

Biomass Pyrolysis. Tony Bridgwater Bioenergy Research Group Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK Biomass Pyrolysis Tony Bridgwater Bioenergy Research Group Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK Aston University Bioenergy Research Group IEA Bioenergy, York, 12 October 2010 2 What is pyrolysis? Biomass

More information

Biomass Combustion Technology

Biomass Combustion Technology Lecture-6 Biomass Combustion Technology Combustion Biomass combustion is a complex process that consists of consecutive heterogeneous and homogeneous reactions. The main process steps are drying, devolatilization,

More information

Finnish Country Highlights Biomass Gasification in IEA Task 33 meeting, KIT Nov2014 Ilkka Hannula

Finnish Country Highlights Biomass Gasification in IEA Task 33 meeting, KIT Nov2014 Ilkka Hannula Finnish Country Highlights Biomass Gasification in 2014 IEA Task 33 meeting, KIT Nov2014 Ilkka Hannula 04/11/2014 RECENT PROJECTS: Biomass and waste gasification for boilers and kilns 2 Model: Volter 30

More information

Biomass and Biofuels. Biomass

Biomass and Biofuels. Biomass and Biofuels Prof. Tony Bridgwater BioEnergy Research Group Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET AV Bridgwater 2008 Energy crops Agricultural and forestry wastes Industrial & consumer wastes 2 Why convert

More information

REPLACEMENT OF FOSSIL FUEL WITH BIOMASS IN PULP MILL LIME KILNS

REPLACEMENT OF FOSSIL FUEL WITH BIOMASS IN PULP MILL LIME KILNS REPLACEMENT OF FOSSIL FUEL WITH BIOMASS IN PULP MILL LIME KILNS Authors: Jean Taillon 1, Andras Horvath 2, Antti Oksman 3 1, 2, 3 ANDRITZ Oy, Finland ABSTRACT The lime kiln is responsible for most of the

More information

2nd generation biofuels Güssing demo plant

2nd generation biofuels Güssing demo plant 2nd generation biofuels Güssing demo plant Dr. Reinhard Rauch Institute for Chemical Vienna, University of Technology Content IEA Bioenergy Task33 Thermal Gasification of Biomass Overview about research

More information

Brasil EU Workshop Gasification of bagasse to syngas and advanced liquid fuel production. December 8 th 2015 São Paulo, Brasil Martin van t Hoff

Brasil EU Workshop Gasification of bagasse to syngas and advanced liquid fuel production. December 8 th 2015 São Paulo, Brasil Martin van t Hoff Brasil EU Workshop Gasification of bagasse to syngas and advanced liquid fuel production December 8 th 2015 São Paulo, Brasil Martin van t Hoff ECN & Royal Dahlman A 15 year relationship in R&D, Engineering

More information

DEVELOPMENT OF BIOMASS ENERGY SYSTEMS IN ECUADOR

DEVELOPMENT OF BIOMASS ENERGY SYSTEMS IN ECUADOR DEVELOPMENT OF BIOMASS ENERGY SYSTEMS IN ECUADOR Prepared by Salman Zafar BioEnergy Consult (Aligarh, INDIA) and Carlos Serrano Decker TECAM Ltd. (Guayaquil, ECUADOR) May 2009 What is Biomass? Any material

More information

Valmet Online Learning

Valmet Online Learning Course English Chinese Russian Swedish Portuguese Spanish Finnish Hungarian Upcoming languages Learning Continuous cooking x x x x x 17 3-4 Superbatch cooking x x 3 About 2 White liquor plant x x x 26

More information

Energy-Crop Gasification

Energy-Crop Gasification Energy-Crop Gasification R. Mark Bricka Mississippi State University Mississippi State, MS Biomass may be obtained from many sources. Already mentioned at this conference are switchgrass, corn stover,

More information

Valorisation of Synthesis Gas from Biomass - the Piteå DME pilot. Esben Lauge Sørensen, May 2009

Valorisation of Synthesis Gas from Biomass - the Piteå DME pilot. Esben Lauge Sørensen, May 2009 Valorisation of Synthesis Gas from Biomass - the Piteå DME pilot Esben Lauge Sørensen, May 2009 Contents Presentation of Haldor Topsøe A/S Presentation of Chemrec AB The BioDME Project Lay-out of DME pilot

More information

»New Products made of Synthesis Gas derived from Biomass«

»New Products made of Synthesis Gas derived from Biomass« Fraunhofer UMSICHT»New Products made of Synthesis Gas derived from Biomass«3-6 May 2010 Presentation at Freiberg Conference on IGCC & XtL Technologies, Dresden Dipl.-Ing. Kai Girod Folie 1 Outline 1. Introduction

More information

RENEW Renewable Fuels for Advanced Powertrains IP Prospects

RENEW Renewable Fuels for Advanced Powertrains IP Prospects RENEW Renewable Fuels for Advanced Powertrains IP-502705 The Chemrec BLGMF Process (Black Liquor Gasification to Motor Fuels) Status, Progress and Future Prospects Ingvar Landälv, VP Technology, Chemrec

More information

Clean Energy. from. Renewables Biomass & Waste

Clean Energy. from. Renewables Biomass & Waste Clean Energy from Renewables Biomass & Waste Agenda 1 Valmet brief introduction 2 EfW world overview 3 Fluidized bed combustion for EfW 4 Waste gasification 5 Summary 2 2 Radhakrishnan Contact information

More information

Biomass to Energy Conversions -Thermochemical Processes-

Biomass to Energy Conversions -Thermochemical Processes- King Saud University Sustainable Energy Technologies Center (SET) BIOMASS GROUP Biomass to Energy Conversions -Thermochemical Processes- by Dr. Salim Mokraoui PhD Chemical Eng. MS. Mechanical Eng. E-mail:

More information

Impact of Inorganics in the Industrial Processing of Biomass

Impact of Inorganics in the Industrial Processing of Biomass Impact of Inorganics in the Industrial Processing of Biomass Nikolai DeMartini Johan Gadolin Process Chemistry Centre Åbo Akademi University Turku, Finland Bagasse & Pine 3000 2500 Leached Acid soluble

More information

Module 8: Introduction to Process Integration Tier III

Module 8: Introduction to Process Integration Tier III Program for North American Mobility In Higher Education Program for North American Mobility in Higher Education (NAMP) Introducing Process Integration for Environmental Control in Engineering Curricula

More information

Update on Biomass Gasification in New Zealand

Update on Biomass Gasification in New Zealand Update on Biomass Gasification in New Zealand IEA Bioenergy Task 33 Meeting, Sweden November 2013 Shusheng Pang Department of Chemical and Process Engineering University of Canterbury Christchurch, New

More information

INTEGRATION OF LIGNIN REMOVAL INTO A KRAFT PULP MILL AND USE OF LIGNIN AS A BIOFUEL

INTEGRATION OF LIGNIN REMOVAL INTO A KRAFT PULP MILL AND USE OF LIGNIN AS A BIOFUEL CELLULOSE CHEMISTRY AND TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION OF LIGNIN REMOVAL INTO A KRAFT PULP MILL AND USE OF LIGNIN AS A BIOFUEL PER TOMANI, PETER AXEGÅRD, NIKLAS BERGLIN, ANDERS LOVELL and DANIEL NORDGREN INNVENTIA

More information

Task 33 Gasification: Biomassevergasung, ein Grundprozess für Bioraffinerien Praktische Entwicklungserfahrungen

Task 33 Gasification: Biomassevergasung, ein Grundprozess für Bioraffinerien Praktische Entwicklungserfahrungen Task 33 Gasification: Biomassevergasung, ein Grundprozess für Bioraffinerien Praktische Entwicklungserfahrungen Highlights der Bioenergieforschung 2. Dezember 2010, Wien Dr. Reinhard Rauch Vienna, University

More information

Sulfur speciation and partitioning during thermochemical conversion of cellulosic biomass to biofuel

Sulfur speciation and partitioning during thermochemical conversion of cellulosic biomass to biofuel Sulfur speciation and partitioning during thermochemical conversion of cellulosic biomass to biofuel Singfoong Cheah Daniel Carpenter Calvin Feik Shealyn Malone National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden,

More information

from the Pulp Industry Efficient Green Fuel Production.. CHEMREC Energy to Succeed

from the Pulp Industry Efficient Green Fuel Production.. CHEMREC Energy to Succeed Efficient Green Fuel Production.. from the Pulp Industry Gasification Technologies Conference October 9-12 2011, San Francisco Ingvar Landälv, Chief Technology Officer, Chemrec AB 1 Some History & Technology

More information

ECN Research and Development in bioenergy

ECN Research and Development in bioenergy ECN Research and Development in bioenergy June 2014, Environmental Day, Sao Paulo Tatjana Komissarova, Corporate business developer www.ecn.nl BRAZIL Brazil is nowadays the largest and BEST bioethanol

More information

Biomass Energy Alternatives

Biomass Energy Alternatives Biomass Energy Alternatives The production and application of pyrolysis oils in the forest products industry Presented by: Colin McKerracher DynaMotive Energy Systems 2006 Forum on Energy: Immediate Solutions,

More information

Co-Utilization of Coal and Biomass - Experience in Europe

Co-Utilization of Coal and Biomass - Experience in Europe Co-Utilization of Coal and Biomass - Experience in Europe Dr.-Ing. Klaus R.G. Hein Prof. em. University Stuttgart, Germany Conference on Clean Coal and Carbon Capture and Storage Technologies Tiruchirappalli

More information

Cacia Pulp mill Portugal

Cacia Pulp mill Portugal THE ANALYSIS REPORT OF PLANT NO. 15 Cofiring of biomass - evaluation of fuel procurement and handling in selected existing plants and exchange of information (COFIRING) - Part 2 Cacia Pulp mill Portugal

More information

The Enerjetik RJ2 Gasifier. Do we finally have the right gasifying system for the Ceramic Industry?

The Enerjetik RJ2 Gasifier. Do we finally have the right gasifying system for the Ceramic Industry? The Enerjetik RJ2 Gasifier Do we finally have the right gasifying system for the Ceramic Industry? National Brick Research Center & ACerS Structural Clay Division Meeting May 13-14, 2013 Christophe Aubertot

More information

Fuel Analysis and Burning Characteristics

Fuel Analysis and Burning Characteristics Fuel Analysis and Burning Characteristics Fuel Analysis and Burning Characteristics - Terms and Concepts Particle burning stages: drying - devolatilization char Proximate & ultimate analysis Heating value

More information

Jet-NOx model Understanding nitrogen chemistry in biomassfired

Jet-NOx model Understanding nitrogen chemistry in biomassfired Jet-NOx model Understanding nitrogen chemistry in biomassfired boilers Markus Engblom a, Emil Vainio a, Anders Brink a, Mikko Hupa a, Erkki Välimäki b, Ville-Pekka Heikkilä b a) Åbo Akademi University,

More information

Carbon To X. Processes

Carbon To X. Processes World CTX Carbon To X Processes Processes and Commercial Operations World CTX: let s Optimize the Use of Carbon Resource Carbon To X Processes Carbon To X technologies are operated in more than 50 plants

More information

Biomass for Energy and Fuel

Biomass for Energy and Fuel Biomass for Energy and Fuel Reference: Donald L. Klass, Biomass for Renewable Energy, Fuels and Chemicals, Academic Press, 1998. http://www.energy.kth.se/compedu/webcompedu/media/lectu re_notes/s1b11c2.pdf

More information

Efficient and Clean Utilization of Biomass Gasification Technology

Efficient and Clean Utilization of Biomass Gasification Technology Efficient and Clean Utilization of Biomass Gasification Technology Prof. Xiuli Yin Lab. of Biomass Thermo-Chemical Conversion (BTCL), Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion (GIEC), Chinese Academy of

More information

OUTOTEC ENERGY SOLUTIONS BENEFITS

OUTOTEC ENERGY SOLUTIONS BENEFITS OUTOTEC ENERGY SOLUTIONS Outotec energy solutions encompass technologies and services for both renewable and conventional energy production. Our flexible technologies can use a wide variety of different

More information

Niklas Berglin, Innventia

Niklas Berglin, Innventia New 2G process for ethanol from wood Niklas Berglin, Innventia 1 2 3 Energy density is a key issue for biofuels Chips 0.8 Wood pellets 3 Torrefied wood & Lignin powder 5 Ethanol 6 Slash 0.4 Our focus 4

More information

Effect of Pressure and Heating Rates on Biomass Pyrolysis and Gasification

Effect of Pressure and Heating Rates on Biomass Pyrolysis and Gasification Effect of Pressure and Heating Rates on Biomass Pyrolysis and Gasification Pradeep K. Agrawal School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology June 15, 2012 Auburn University

More information

Production of Heating and Transportation Fuels via Fast Pyrolysis of biomass

Production of Heating and Transportation Fuels via Fast Pyrolysis of biomass Production of Heating and Transportation Fuels via Fast Pyrolysis of biomass Sanjeev K. Gajjela and Philip H. Steele Department of Forest Products College of Forest Resources Mississippi State University

More information

Thermal Conversion of Animal Manure to Biofuel. Outline. Biorefinery approaches

Thermal Conversion of Animal Manure to Biofuel. Outline. Biorefinery approaches Thermal Conversion of Animal Manure to Biofuel Samy Sadaka, Ph.D., P.E., P. Eng. Assistant Professor - Extension Engineer University of Arkansas Division of Agriculture - Cooperative Extension Service

More information

Niklas Berglin, Innventia

Niklas Berglin, Innventia Biofuels in lime kilns Niklas Berglin, Innventia 1 2 Survey Main objective Compiling and comparing mill experience from biofuels firing How? Collection of basic data through a questionnaire Interviews

More information

EVALUATION OF POTENTIAL IMPROVEMENTS TO BLG TECHNOLOGY P. McKeough, VTT Processes, Finland

EVALUATION OF POTENTIAL IMPROVEMENTS TO BLG TECHNOLOGY P. McKeough, VTT Processes, Finland EVALUATION OF POTENTIAL IMPROVEMENTS TO BLG TECHNOLOGY P. McKeough, VTT Processes, Finland AIM to evaluate ways of improving the competitiveness of black-liquor gasification (BLG) technology in combined-cycle

More information

High efficient multi-fuel CYMIC concept for biomass, rejects and coal for Hamburger Hungaria Katriina Jalkanen Valmet Technologies Oy

High efficient multi-fuel CYMIC concept for biomass, rejects and coal for Hamburger Hungaria Katriina Jalkanen Valmet Technologies Oy High efficient multi-fuel CYMIC concept for biomass, rejects and coal for Hamburger Hungaria 28.4.2016 Katriina Jalkanen Valmet Technologies Oy CYMIC Multi-Fuel Design Concept: general and case example

More information

BTL2030 Project presentation

BTL2030 Project presentation BTL2030 Project presentation VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd Espoo, August 2018 1 BTL2030-project Project title: Production of transport fuels from biomass by gasification-based concepts integrated

More information

EVALUATION OF POTENTIAL IMPROVEMENTS TO BLG TECHNOLOGY P. McKeough, VTT Processes, Finland

EVALUATION OF POTENTIAL IMPROVEMENTS TO BLG TECHNOLOGY P. McKeough, VTT Processes, Finland EVALUATION OF POTENTIAL IMPROVEMENTS TO BLG TECHNOLOGY P. McKeough, VTT Processes, Finland AIM to evaluate ways of improving the competitiveness of black-liquor gasification (BLG) technology in combined-cycle

More information

Gasification Research at OSU

Gasification Research at OSU Gasification Research at OSU Ajay Kumar, Assistant Professor Biobased Products and Energy Center (BioPEC), Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Oklahoma State University OK EPSCoR Annual State Conference

More information

BTL2030 Project presentation. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd Espoo, August 2018

BTL2030 Project presentation. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd Espoo, August 2018 BTL2030 Project presentation VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd Espoo, August 2018 BTL2030-project Project title: Production of transport fuels from biomass by gasification-based concepts integrated

More information

Indirect gasification

Indirect gasification Indirect gasification Workshop at IEA Bioenergy Task32 and Task33 Meeting, October 2010 Dr. Reinhard Rauch Institute of Chemical Engineering Content Technology Operational status Efficiencies Investment

More information

Biomass Technologies: Overview and Future Trends. Small Wood 2004

Biomass Technologies: Overview and Future Trends. Small Wood 2004 Biomass Technologies: verview and Future Trends Small Wood 2004 Sacramento, CA May 20, 2004 John Scahill Biomass Feedstocks Forest Wood Residues Agricultural Residues Energy Crops Thinning Residues Wood

More information

The world s largest biofuel CHP plant Alholmens Kraft, Pietarsaari

The world s largest biofuel CHP plant Alholmens Kraft, Pietarsaari OPET Finland ENERGIE The world s largest biofuel CHP plant Alholmens Kraft, Pietarsaari Project background Pietarsaari, founded in 1652, is located on the Swedish-speaking west coast of Finland. The total

More information

Advanced Gasification, Gas Cleaning and Product Gas utilization

Advanced Gasification, Gas Cleaning and Product Gas utilization Advanced Gasification, Gas Cleaning and Product Gas utilization Gasification and Energy from Waste and Biomass March 12 th, 2014 Presented by: Martin van t Hoff Presentation contents Royal Dahlman & ECN,

More information

Biomass combustion and boiler corrosion:

Biomass combustion and boiler corrosion: Biomass combustion and boiler corrosion: State of the art knowledge and solutions 12.4.2018 TUT energy seminar: bioenergy Sonja Enestam Contents Fuels and challenges Corrosion types in FB boilers Corrosion

More information

HYDROXIDE FORMATION AND CARBON SPECIES DISTRIBUTIONS DURING HIGH-TEMPERATURE KRAFT BLACK LIQUOR GASIFICATION

HYDROXIDE FORMATION AND CARBON SPECIES DISTRIBUTIONS DURING HIGH-TEMPERATURE KRAFT BLACK LIQUOR GASIFICATION HYDROXIDE FORMATION AND CARBON SPECIES DISTRIBUTIONS DURING HIGH-TEMPERATURE KRAFT BLACK LIQUOR GASIFICATION A Thesis Presented to The Academic Faculty By Michael Dance In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements

More information

Emissions from wood-fuelled equipment. Senior research scientist Heikki Oravainen Technical Research Centre of Finland

Emissions from wood-fuelled equipment. Senior research scientist Heikki Oravainen Technical Research Centre of Finland Emissions from wood-fuelled equipment Senior research scientist Heikki Oravainen Technical Research Centre of Finland VTT IN BRIEF 2007 9 Key Customer Sectors: Biotechnology, pharmaceutical and food industries

More information

8 th SGC International Seminar on Gasificaton October 15 th -16 th, 2014 Malmö, Sweden

8 th SGC International Seminar on Gasificaton October 15 th -16 th, 2014 Malmö, Sweden 8 th SGC International Seminar on Gasificaton October 15 th -16 th, 2014 Malmö, Sweden Commercial Experiences of Waste and Biofuel Gasification - Valmet CFB Gasification Juhani Isaksson, Valmet Power Valmet

More information

Biomass. The latter is not a new concept, homes and industries were, at one time, heated and powered by wood.

Biomass. The latter is not a new concept, homes and industries were, at one time, heated and powered by wood. Biomass Energy Content Biomass Conversion of Biomass in Energy Thermochemical Processes Extraction Processes Biological Processes Waste to Energy Mechanical Biological Treatment (MBT) Biofuels Biomass

More information

Valmet CFB gasifier IEA Task 33 Bioenergy Workshop on Waste Gasification

Valmet CFB gasifier IEA Task 33 Bioenergy Workshop on Waste Gasification Valmet CFB gasifier IEA Task 33 Bioenergy Workshop on Waste Gasification ECN, Petten,The Netherlands 08.05.2018 Overview 1 2 3 4 Valmet CFB gasifier What to do with coal? Fuel Replacement with Bio or RDF

More information

Liquor-to-Liquor Differences in Combustion and Gasification Processes: ÅAU Black Liquor Database

Liquor-to-Liquor Differences in Combustion and Gasification Processes: ÅAU Black Liquor Database Liquor-to-Liquor Differences in Combustion and Gasification Processes: ÅAU Black Liquor Database Mikael Forssén, Mikko Hupa PCG - Combustion and Materials Chemistry Åbo Akademi University Colloquium on

More information

Small Heating Systems. What it takes to burn well

Small Heating Systems. What it takes to burn well Small Heating Systems What it takes to burn well 1) The most common problem is getting more fuel started than you have air and heat to finish. 2) Even if you have enough air (no smoke) you are probably

More information

Methods for controlling chlorine induced superheater corrosion

Methods for controlling chlorine induced superheater corrosion Metso solutions for tackling the effects of corrosion and optimizing the fuel blend Methods for controlling chlorine induced superheater corrosion Juha Roppo, Metso Power Megatrends Targets CO 2 reduction

More information

Abstract. 1.0 Introduction

Abstract. 1.0 Introduction Overview of Potential Conversion Technologies for Forest Thinnings Brian L. Polagye and Philip C. Malte Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington Abstract The thinning of forests promotes

More information

RELIABLE AND EFFICIENT POWER GENERATION POWER BOILERS

RELIABLE AND EFFICIENT POWER GENERATION POWER BOILERS RELIABLE AND EFFICIENT POWER GENERATION POWER BOILERS TABLE OF CONTENTS FLUIDIZED BED TECHNOLOGY ANDRITZ is a leading supplier of plants based on Bubbling Fluidized Bed (BFB) and Circulating fluidized

More information

MULTI-WASTE TREATMENT AND VALORISATION BY THERMOCHEMICAL PROCESSES. Francisco Corona Encinas M Sc.

MULTI-WASTE TREATMENT AND VALORISATION BY THERMOCHEMICAL PROCESSES. Francisco Corona Encinas M Sc. MULTI-WASTE TREATMENT AND VALORISATION BY THERMOCHEMICAL PROCESSES Corona, F.; Hidalgo, D.; Díez-Rodríguez, D. and Urueña, A. Francisco Corona Encinas M Sc. PART 1: THERMOCHEMICAL PROCESSES Introduction.

More information